Difference between revisions of "Atlantis The Antediluvian World"

From Hyksos
Jump to: navigation, search
m (CORROBORATING CIRCUMSTANCES.)
 
(12 intermediate revisions by the same user not shown)
Line 1: Line 1:
 
<center>
 
<center>
[[File:Atlantis1.jpg|border|400px]]
+
[[File:Atlantis1.jpg|center|border|300px]]
 
</center>
 
</center>
 
----
 
----
Line 6: Line 6:
  
 
<center>
 
<center>
[[File:Atlantis2.jpg|border|400px]]
+
[[File:Atlantis2.jpg|center|border|300px]]
 
</center>
 
</center>
 
----
 
----
 
{{pagebreak}}
 
{{pagebreak}}
 
<center>
 
<center>
[[File:Atlantis3.jpg|border|400px]]
+
[[File:Atlantis3.jpg|center|border|300px]]
 
</center>
 
</center>
 
----
 
----
Line 43: Line 43:
  
 
<center>
 
<center>
NEW YORK:
+
[[New York]]:
 
HARPER & BROTHERS, FRANKLIN SQUARE.
 
HARPER & BROTHERS, FRANKLIN SQUARE.
 
1882.</center>
 
1882.</center>
Line 166: Line 166:
 
|-
 
|-
 
|III.
 
|III.
|[[AMERICA]]N EVIDENCES OF INTERCOURSE WITH [[EUROPE]] OR [[ATLANTIS]]
+
|[[American]] EVIDENCES OF INTERCOURSE WITH [[EUROPE]] OR [[ATLANTIS]]
 
|165
 
|165
 
|}  
 
|}  
Line 250: Line 250:
 
{| class="wikitable"
 
{| class="wikitable"
 
|I.
 
|I.
|THE CENTRAL [[AMERICA]]N AND [MEXICAN]] COLONIES
+
|THE [[Central America]]N AND [MEXICAN]] COLONIES
 
|348
 
|348
 
|-
 
|-
Line 407: Line 407:
 
|170
 
|170
 
|-
 
|-
|[[Negro]] Idols found in [[Central America]]
+
|[[[[negro]]]] Idols found in [[Central America]]
 
|174
 
|174
 
|-
 
|-
|[[Negro]]id Figure, [[Palenque]]
+
|[[[[negro]]]]id Figure, [[Palenque]]
 
|175
 
|175
 
|-
 
|-
|[[Negro]] Head, [[Vera Cruz]]
+
|[[[[negro]]]] Head, [[Vera Cruz]]
 
|175
 
|175
 
|-
 
|-
Line 464: Line 464:
 
|249
 
|249
 
|-
 
|-
|[[Irish Celt]]
+
|[[Irish [[Celt]]]]
 
|250
 
|250
 
|-
 
|-
|[[Danish Celt]]
+
|[[Danish [[Celt]]]]
 
|250
 
|250
 
|-
 
|-
Line 473: Line 473:
 
|251
 
|251
 
|-
 
|-
|Stone Celt, Mound in [[Tennessee]]
+
|Stone [[Celt]], Mound in [[Tennessee]]
 
|253
 
|253
 
|-
 
|-
Line 500: Line 500:
 
|258
 
|258
 
|-
 
|-
|Inscribed Celt
+
|Inscribed [[Celt]]
 
|258
 
|258
 
|-
 
|-
Line 570: Line 570:
 
|271
 
|271
 
|-
 
|-
|[[Chinook]] (Flat-head), after Catlin
+
|[[Chinook]] (Flat-head), after [[Catlin]]
 
|271
 
|271
 
|-
 
|-
Line 588: Line 588:
 
|274
 
|274
 
|-
 
|-
|Peruvian Inca Skull, from the Ancient Cemetery of Pachacamac
+
|Peruvian [[Inca]] Skull, from the Ancient Cemetery of Pachacamac
 
|275
 
|275
 
|-
 
|-
Line 624: Line 624:
 
|338
 
|338
 
|-
 
|-
|The great Mound, near Miamisburg, [[Ohio]]
+
|The great Mound, near [[Miamis]]burg, [[Ohio]]
 
|339
 
|339
 
|-
 
|-
Line 658: Line 658:
 
|381
 
|381
 
|-
 
|-
|Cyclopean Wall, [[[[Greece]]]]
+
|Cyclopean Wall, [[Greece]]
 
|397
 
|397
 
|-
 
|-
Line 691: Line 691:
 
|428
 
|428
 
|-
 
|-
|Baal, the [[Phoenician]] God
+
|[[Baal]], the [[Phoenician]] God
 
|428
 
|428
 
|-
 
|-
Line 697: Line 697:
 
|429
 
|429
 
|-
 
|-
|Dakota Idol
+
|[[Dakota]] Idol
 
|429
 
|429
 
|-
 
|-
Line 756: Line 756:
  
  
6. That the gods and goddesses of the ancient [[Greek]]s, the [[Phoenician]]s, the [[Hindoo]]s, and the [[[[Scandinavia]]n]]s were simply the kings, queens, and heroes of [[Atlantis]]; and the acts attributed to them in mythology are a confused recollection of real historical events.
+
6. That the gods and goddesses of the ancient [[Greek]]s, the [[Phoenician]]s, the [[Hindoo]]s, and the [[Scandinavian]]s were simply the kings, queens, and heroes of [[Atlantis]]; and the acts attributed to them in mythology are a confused recollection of real historical events.
  
 
7. That the mythology of [[Egypt]] and [[Peru]] represented the original religion of [[Atlantis]], which was sun-worship.
 
7. That the mythology of [[Egypt]] and [[Peru]] represented the original religion of [[Atlantis]], which was sun-worship.
Line 764: Line 764:
 
9. That the implements of the "[[Bronze Age]]" of [[Europe]] were derived from [[Atlantis]]. The [[Atlantean]]s were also the first manufacturers of iron.
 
9. That the implements of the "[[Bronze Age]]" of [[Europe]] were derived from [[Atlantis]]. The [[Atlantean]]s were also the first manufacturers of iron.
  
10. That the [[Phoenician alphabet]], parent of all the [[European]] alphabets, was derived from an [[Atlantis]] alphabet, which was also conveyed from [[Atlantis]] to the [[Mayas of Central America]].
+
10. That the [[Phoenician alphabet]], parent of all the [[European]] alphabets, was derived from an [[Atlantis]] alphabet, which was also conveyed from [[Atlantis]] to the [[[[Mayas]] of Central America]].
  
 
11. That [[Atlantis]] was the original seat of the [[Aryan]] or [[Indo-European]] family of nations, as well as of the [[Semitic]] peoples, and possibly also of the [[Turanian]] races.
 
11. That [[Atlantis]] was the original seat of the [[Aryan]] or [[Indo-European]] family of nations, as well as of the [[Semitic]] peoples, and possibly also of the [[Turanian]] races.
Line 797: Line 797:
  
 
''[[PLATO]]'S HISTORY OF [[ATLANTIS]].'' <p align="right">5</p>
 
''[[PLATO]]'S HISTORY OF [[ATLANTIS]].'' <p align="right">5</p>
 +
  
  
Line 979: Line 980:
 
----
 
----
 
{{pagebreak}}
 
{{pagebreak}}
 
 
  
 
22 <center>''ATLANTIS: THE ANTEDILUVIAN WORLD.''</center>
 
22 <center>''ATLANTIS: THE ANTEDILUVIAN WORLD.''</center>
 
  
  
Line 1,008: Line 1,006:
 
Neither is there any evidence on the face of this history that [[Plato]] sought to convey in it a moral or political lesson, in the guise of a fable, as did [[Bacon]] in the "[[New Atlantis]]," and More in the "[[Kingdom of Nowhere]]." There is no ideal republic delineated here. It is a straightforward, reasonable history of a people ruled over by their kings, living and progressing as other nations have lived and progressed since their day.
 
Neither is there any evidence on the face of this history that [[Plato]] sought to convey in it a moral or political lesson, in the guise of a fable, as did [[Bacon]] in the "[[New Atlantis]]," and More in the "[[Kingdom of Nowhere]]." There is no ideal republic delineated here. It is a straightforward, reasonable history of a people ruled over by their kings, living and progressing as other nations have lived and progressed since their day.
  
[[Plato]] says that in [[Atlantis]] there was "a great and wonderful empire," which "aggressed wantonly against the whole of [[Europe]] and [[Asia]]," thus testifying to the extent of its dominion. It not only subjugated [[Africa]] as far as [[Egypt]], and [[Europe]] as far as [[Italy]], but it ruled "as well over parts of the continent," to wit, "the opposite continent" of [[America]], "which surrounded the true ocean." Those parts of [[America]] over which it ruled were, as we will show hereafter, Central [[America]], [[Peru]], and the Valley of the [[Mississippi]], occupied by the "[[Mound Builders]]."
+
[[Plato]] says that in [[Atlantis]] there was "a great and wonderful empire," which "aggressed wantonly against the whole of [[Europe]] and [[Asia]]," thus testifying to the extent of its dominion. It not only subjugated [[Africa]] as far as [[Egypt]], and [[Europe]] as far as [[Italy]], but it ruled "as well over parts of the continent," to wit, "the opposite continent" of [[America]], "which surrounded the true ocean." Those parts of [[America]] over which it ruled were, as we will show hereafter, [[Central America]], [[Peru]], and the Valley of the [[Mississippi]], occupied by the "[[Mound Builders]]."
  
 
Moreover, he tells us that "this vast power was gathered into one;" that is to say, from [[Egypt]] to [[Peru]] it was one consolidated empire. We will see hereafter that the legends of
 
Moreover, he tells us that "this vast power was gathered into one;" that is to say, from [[Egypt]] to [[Peru]] it was one consolidated empire. We will see hereafter that the legends of
Line 1,032: Line 1,030:
  
  
("[[[[Prehistoric Nations]]]]," p. 148.) This worship "was carried to [[Spain]], and to Northern [[Africa]], but most abundantly to [[Italy]], to many of the islands, and to the regions around the [[AEgean Sea]]; also to [[Thrace]]." (Ibid., p. 155.)
+
("[[Prehistoric Nations]]," p. 148.) This worship "was carried to [[Spain]], and to [[Northern Africa]], but most abundantly to [[Italy]], to many of the islands, and to the regions around the [[AEgean Sea]]; also to [[Thrace]]." (''Ibid''., p. 155.)
  
[[Poseidon]], or [[Neptune]], is represented in [[Greek]] mythology as a sea-god; but he is figured as standing in a war-chariot drawn by [[Horse]]s. The association of the [[Horse]] (a land animal) with a sea-god is inexplicable, except with the light given by [[Plato]]. [[Poseidon]] was a sea-god because he ruled over a great land in the sea, and was the national god of a maritime people; he is associated with [[Horse]]s, because in [[Atlantis]] the [[Horse]] was first domesticated; and, as [[Plato]] shows, the [[Atlantean]]s had great race-courses for the development of speed in [[Horse]]s; and [[Poseidon]] is represented as standing in a war-chariot, because doubtless wheeled vehicles were first invented by the same people who tamed the [[Horse]]; and they transmitted these war-chariots to their descendants from [[Egypt]] to [[Britain]]. We know that [[Horse]]s were the favorite objects chosen for sacrifice to [[Poseidon]] by the nations of antiquity within the Historical Period; they were killed, and cast into the sea from high precipices. The religious [[Horse]]-feasts of the pagan [[[[Scandinavia]]n]]s were a survival of this [[Poseidon]]-worship, which once prevailed along all the coasts of [[Europe]]; they continued until the conversion of the people to Christianity, and were then suppressed by the Church with great difficulty.
+
[[Poseidon]], or [[Neptune]], is represented in [[Greek]] mythology as a sea-god; but he is figured as standing in a war-chariot drawn by [[Horse]]s. The association of the [[Horse]] (a land animal) with a sea-god is inexplicable, except with the light given by [[Plato]]. [[Poseidon]] was a sea-god because he ruled over a great land in the sea, and was the national god of a maritime people; he is associated with [[Horse]]s, because in [[Atlantis]] the [[Horse]] was first domesticated; and, as [[Plato]] shows, the [[Atlantean]]s had great race-courses for the development of speed in [[Horse]]s; and [[Poseidon]] is represented as standing in a war-chariot, because doubtless wheeled vehicles were first invented by the same people who tamed the [[Horse]]; and they transmitted these war-chariots to their descendants from [[Egypt]] to [[Britain]]. We know that [[Horse]]s were the favorite objects chosen for sacrifice to [[Poseidon]] by the nations of antiquity within the Historical Period; they were killed, and cast into the sea from high precipices. The religious [[Horse]]-feasts of the pagan [[Scandinavian]]s were a survival of this [[Poseidon]]-worship, which once prevailed along all the coasts of [[Europe]]; they continued until the conversion of the people to Christianity, and were then suppressed by the Church with great difficulty.
  
 
We find in [[Plato]]'s narrative the names of some of the [[Phoenician]] deities among the kings of [[Atlantis]]. Where did the [[Greek]], [[Plato]], get these names if the story is a fable?
 
We find in [[Plato]]'s narrative the names of some of the [[Phoenician]] deities among the kings of [[Atlantis]]. Where did the [[Greek]], [[Plato]], get these names if the story is a fable?
Line 1,056: Line 1,054:
 
The three-pronged sceptre or trident of [[Poseidon]] reappears constantly in ancient history. We find it in the hands of [[Hindoo gods]], and at the base of all the religious beliefs of antiquity.
 
The three-pronged sceptre or trident of [[Poseidon]] reappears constantly in ancient history. We find it in the hands of [[Hindoo gods]], and at the base of all the religious beliefs of antiquity.
  
"Among the numerals the ''sacred three'' has ever been considered the mark of perfection, and was therefore exclusively ascribed to the Supreme Deity, or to its earthly representative--a king, emperor, or any sovereign. For this reason triple emblems of various shapes are found on the belts, neckties, or any encircling fixture, as can be seen on the works of ancient art in [[Yucatan]], [[Guatemala]], [[Chiapas]], [[Mexico]], etc., whenever the object has reference to divine supremacy." ([[Dr. Arthur Schott]], "Smith. Rep.," 1869, p. 391.)
+
"Among the numerals the ''sacred three'' has ever been considered the mark of perfection, and was therefore exclusively ascribed to the Supreme Deity, or to its earthly representative--a king, emperor, or any sovereign. For this reason triple emblems of various shapes are found on the belts, neckties, or any encircling fixture, as can be seen on the works of ancient art in [[Yucatan]], [[Guatemala]], [[Chiapas]], [[Mexico]], etc., whenever the object has reference to divine supremacy." ([[Dr. [[Arthur Schott]]]], "Smith. Rep.," 1869, p. 391.)
  
 
We are reminded of the "tiara," and the "triple round of sovereignty."
 
We are reminded of the "tiara," and the "triple round of sovereignty."
Line 1,067: Line 1,065:
  
  
"In the number given by the Bible for the [[Antediluvian]] patriarchs we have the first instance of a striking agreement with the traditions of various nations. Ten are mentioned in the Book of [[Genesis]]. Other nations, to whatever epoch they carry back their ancestors, whether before or after the [[Deluge]], whether the mythical or historical character prevail, they are constant to this sacred number ten, which some have vainly attempted to connect with the speculations of later religious philosophers on the mystical value of numbers. In [[Chaldea]], [[Berosus]] enumerates ten [[Antediluvian]] kings whose fabulous reign extended to thousands of years. The legends of the [[Iranian]] race commence with the reign of ten Peisdadien ([[Poseidon]]?) kings, 'men of the ancient law, who lived on pure Homa (water of life)' (nectar?), 'and who preserved their sanctity.' In [[India]] we meet with the nine [[Brahmadikas]], who, with [[Brahma]], their founder, make ten, and who are called the Ten Petris, or Fathers. The [[Chinese]] count ten emperors, partakers of the divine nature, before the dawn of historical times. The [[Germans]] believed in the ten ancestors of [[Odin]], and the [[Arabs]] in the ten mythical kings of the [[Adites]]." ([[[[Lenormant]] and [[Chevallier]]]], "Anc. Hist. of the East," vol. i., p. 13.)
+
"In the number given by the Bible for the [[Antediluvian]] patriarchs we have the first instance of a striking agreement with the traditions of various nations. Ten are mentioned in the Book of [[Genesis]]. Other nations, to whatever epoch they carry back their ancestors, whether before or after the [[Deluge]], whether the mythical or historical character prevail, they are constant to this sacred number ten, which some have vainly attempted to connect with the speculations of later religious philosophers on the mystical value of numbers. In [[Chaldea]], [[Berosus]] enumerates ten [[Antediluvian]] kings whose fabulous reign extended to thousands of years. The legends of the [[Iranian]] race commence with the reign of ten Peisdadien ([[Poseidon]]?) kings, 'men of the ancient law, who lived on pure Homa (water of life)' (nectar?), 'and who preserved their sanctity.' In [[India]] we meet with the nine [[Brahmadikas]], who, with [[Brahma]], their founder, make ten, and who are called the Ten Petris, or Fathers. The [[Chinese]] count ten emperors, partakers of the divine nature, before the dawn of historical times. The [[Germans]] believed in the ten ancestors of [[Odin]], and the [[Arabs]] in the ten mythical kings of the [[Adites]]." ([[Lenormant]] and [[Chevallier]], "Anc. Hist. of the East," vol. i., p. 13.)
  
 
The story of [[Plato]] finds confirmation from other sources.
 
The story of [[Plato]] finds confirmation from other sources.
Line 1,165: Line 1,163:
 
[[Herodotus]] tells us that he learned from the [[Egyptians]] that [[Hercules]] was one of their most ancient deities, and that he was one of the twelve produced from the eight gods, 17,000 years before the reign of [[Amasis]].
 
[[Herodotus]] tells us that he learned from the [[Egyptians]] that [[Hercules]] was one of their most ancient deities, and that he was one of the twelve produced from the eight gods, 17,000 years before the reign of [[Amasis]].
  
In short, I fail to see why this story of [[Plato]], told as history, derived from the [[Egyptians]], a people who, it is known, preserved most ancient records, and who were able to trace their existence back to a vast antiquity, should have been contemptuously set aside as a fable by [[Greek]]s, Romans, and the modern world. It can only be because our predecessors, with their limited knowledge of the geological history of the world, did not believe it possible that any large part of the earth's surface could have been thus suddenly swallowed up by the sea.
+
In short, I fail to see why this story of [[Plato]], told as history, derived from the [[Egyptians]], a people who, it is known, preserved most ancient records, and who were able to trace their existence back to a vast antiquity, should have been contemptuously set aside as a fable by [[Greek]]s, [[Romans]], and the modern world. It can only be because our predecessors, with their limited knowledge of the geological history of the world, did not believe it possible that any large part of the earth's surface could have been thus suddenly swallowed up by the sea.
  
 
Let us then first address ourselves to that question.
 
Let us then first address ourselves to that question.
Line 1,182: Line 1,180:
 
=====''WAS SUCH A CATASTROPHE POSSIBLE?''=====
 
=====''WAS SUCH A CATASTROPHE POSSIBLE?''=====
  
[[File:Atlantis4.jpg|border|]]
+
[[File:Atlantis4.jpg|center]]
  
 
All that is needed to answer this question is to briefly refer to some of the facts revealed by the study of geology.
 
All that is needed to answer this question is to briefly refer to some of the facts revealed by the study of geology.
Line 1,195: Line 1,193:
  
  
where the oceans now roll, and whose mountains and plains were ground down by the action of volcanoes and earthquakes, and frost, ice, wind, and rain, and washed into the sea, to form the rocks upon which the nations now dwell; so that we have changed the conditions of land and water: that which is now continent was once sea, and that which is now sea was formerly continent. There can be no question that the [[Australian Archipelago]] is simply the mountain-tops of a drowned continent, which once reached from [[India]] to [[South America]]. Science has gone so far as to even give it a name; it is called "[[Lemuria]]," and here, it is claimed, the human race originated. An examination of the geological formation of our [[Atlantic States]] proves beyond a doubt, from the manner in which the sedimentary rocks, the sand, gravel, and mud--aggregating a thickness of 45,000 feet--are deposited, that they came from the north and east. "They represent the detritus of pre-existing lands, the washings of rain, rivers, coast-currents, and other agencies of erosion; and since the areas supplying the waste could scarcely have been of less extent than the new strata it formed, it is reasonably inferred that land masses of continental magnitude must have occupied the region now covered by the [[North Atlantic]] before [[America]] began to be, and onward at least through the [[Lemuria]] ages of [[America]]n history. The proof of this fact is that the great strata of rocks are thicker the nearer we approach their source in the east: the maximum thickness of the [[Lemuria]] rocks of the [[Appalachian]] formation is 25,000 to 35,000 feet in [[Pennsylvania]] and [[Virginia]], while their minimum thickness in [[Illinois]] and [[Missouri]] is from 3000 to 4000 feet; the rougher and grosser-textured rocks predominate in the east, while the farther west we go the finer the deposits were of which the rocks are composed; the finer materials were carried farther west by the water." ("New Amer. Cyclop.," art. Coal.)
+
where the oceans now roll, and whose mountains and plains were ground down by the action of volcanoes and earthquakes, and frost, ice, wind, and rain, and washed into the sea, to form the rocks upon which the nations now dwell; so that we have changed the conditions of land and water: that which is now continent was once sea, and that which is now sea was formerly continent. There can be no question that the [[Australian Archipelago]] is simply the mountain-tops of a drowned continent, which once reached from [[India]] to [[South America]]. Science has gone so far as to even give it a name; it is called "[[Lemuria]]," and here, it is claimed, the human race originated. An examination of the geological formation of our [[Atlantic States]] proves beyond a doubt, from the manner in which the sedimentary rocks, the sand, gravel, and mud--aggregating a thickness of 45,000 feet--are deposited, that they came from the north and east. "They represent the detritus of pre-existing lands, the washings of rain, rivers, coast-currents, and other agencies of erosion; and since the areas supplying the waste could scarcely have been of less extent than the new strata it formed, it is reasonably inferred that land masses of continental magnitude must have occupied the region now covered by the [[North Atlantic]] before [[America]] began to be, and onward at least through the [[Lemuria]] ages of [[American]] history. The proof of this fact is that the great strata of rocks are thicker the nearer we approach their source in the east: the maximum thickness of the [[Lemuria]] rocks of the [[Appalachian]] formation is 25,000 to 35,000 feet in [[Pennsylvania]] and [[Virginia]], while their minimum thickness in [[Illinois]] and [[Missouri]] is from 3000 to 4000 feet; the rougher and grosser-textured rocks predominate in the east, while the farther west we go the finer the deposits were of which the rocks are composed; the finer materials were carried farther west by the water." ("New Amer. Cyclop.," art. Coal.)
  
 
The history of the growth of the [[European]] Continent, as recounted by Professor [[Geikie]], gives an instructive illustration
 
The history of the growth of the [[European]] Continent, as recounted by Professor [[Geikie]], gives an instructive illustration
Line 1,204: Line 1,202:
  
  
[[File:Atlantis5.jpg|border|DESTRUCTION OF [[POMPEII]].|400px]]
+
[[File:Atlantis5.jpg|center|frame|DESTRUCTION OF [[POMPEII]]]]
  
 
of the relations of geology to geography. The earliest [[European]] land, he says, appears to have existed in the north and north-west, comprising [[Scandinavia]], [[Finland]], and the northwest of the [[British]] area, and to have extended thence through [[boreal]] and [[arctic]] latitudes into [[North America]]. Of the height and mass of this primeval land some idea may be formed by considering the enormous bulk of the material derived from its disintegration. In the [[Silurian]] formations of the [[British Islands]] alone there is a mass of rock, worn from the land, which would form a mountain-chain extending from [[Marseilles]] to the [[North Cape]] (1800 miles), with a mean breadth of over thirty-three miles, and an average height of 16,000 feet.
 
of the relations of geology to geography. The earliest [[European]] land, he says, appears to have existed in the north and north-west, comprising [[Scandinavia]], [[Finland]], and the northwest of the [[British]] area, and to have extended thence through [[boreal]] and [[arctic]] latitudes into [[North America]]. Of the height and mass of this primeval land some idea may be formed by considering the enormous bulk of the material derived from its disintegration. In the [[Silurian]] formations of the [[British Islands]] alone there is a mass of rock, worn from the land, which would form a mountain-chain extending from [[Marseilles]] to the [[North Cape]] (1800 miles), with a mean breadth of over thirty-three miles, and an average height of 16,000 feet.
Line 1,222: Line 1,220:
 
"We are in the midst of great changes, and are scarcely conscious of it. We have seen worlds in flames, and have felt a comet strike the earth. We have seen the whole coast of [[South America]] lifted up bodily ten or fifteen feet and let down again in an hour. We have seen the [[Andes]] sink 220 feet in seventy years.... Vast transpositions have taken place in the coast-line of [[China]]. The ancient capital, located, in all probability, in an accessible position near the centre of the empire, has now become nearly surrounded by water, and its site is on the peninsula of [[Corea]].... There was a time when the rocky barriers of the [[Thracian Bosphorus]] gave way and the [[Black Sea]] subsided. It had covered a vast area in the north and east. Now this area became drained, and was known as the ancient [[Lectonia]]: it is now the prairie region of Russia, and the granary of [[Europe]]."
 
"We are in the midst of great changes, and are scarcely conscious of it. We have seen worlds in flames, and have felt a comet strike the earth. We have seen the whole coast of [[South America]] lifted up bodily ten or fifteen feet and let down again in an hour. We have seen the [[Andes]] sink 220 feet in seventy years.... Vast transpositions have taken place in the coast-line of [[China]]. The ancient capital, located, in all probability, in an accessible position near the centre of the empire, has now become nearly surrounded by water, and its site is on the peninsula of [[Corea]].... There was a time when the rocky barriers of the [[Thracian Bosphorus]] gave way and the [[Black Sea]] subsided. It had covered a vast area in the north and east. Now this area became drained, and was known as the ancient [[Lectonia]]: it is now the prairie region of Russia, and the granary of [[Europe]]."
  
There is ample geological evidence that at one time the entire area of [[Great [[Britain]]]] was ''submerged to the depth of at least seventeen hundred feet''. Over the face of the submerged land was strewn thick beds of sand, gravel, and clay, termed by geologists "the [[Northern Drift]]." The [[British Islands]] rose again from the sea, bearing these water-deposits on their bosom. What is now [[Sicily]] once lay deep beneath the sea: It subsequently rose 3000 feet above the sea-level. The [[Desert of Sahara]] was once under water, and its now burning sands are a deposit of the sea.
+
There is ample geological evidence that at one time the entire area of [[Great Britain]] was ''submerged to the depth of at least seventeen hundred feet''. Over the face of the submerged land was strewn thick beds of sand, gravel, and clay, termed by geologists "the [[Northern Drift]]." The [[British Islands]] rose again from the sea, bearing these water-deposits on their bosom. What is now [[Sicily]] once lay deep beneath the sea: It subsequently rose 3000 feet above the sea-level. The [[Desert of Sahara]] was once under water, and its now burning sands are a deposit of the sea.
  
 
Geologically speaking, the submergence of [[Atlantis]], within the historical period, was simply the last of a number of vast changes, by which the continent which once occupied the greater part of the [[Atlantic]] had gradually sunk under the ocean, while the new lands were rising on both sides of it.
 
Geologically speaking, the submergence of [[Atlantis]], within the historical period, was simply the last of a number of vast changes, by which the continent which once occupied the greater part of the [[Atlantic]] had gradually sunk under the ocean, while the new lands were rising on both sides of it.
Line 1,254: Line 1,252:
 
''WAS SUCH A CATASTROPHE POSSIBLE?'' <p align="right">37</p>
 
''WAS SUCH A CATASTROPHE POSSIBLE?'' <p align="right">37</p>
  
[[File:Atlantis6.jpg|border|[[CALABRIAN]] PEASANTS INGULFED BY CREVASSES (1783).|400px]]
+
[[File:Atlantis6.jpg|center|frame|[[CALABRIAN]] PEASANTS INGULFED BY CREVASSES (1783).]]
 
              
 
              
The [[Gulf of Santorin]], in the [[[[Grecian]] Archipelago]], has been for two thousand years a scene of active volcanic operations. [[Pliny]] informs us that in the year 186 B.C. the island of "[[Old Kaimeni]]," or the Sacred Isle, was lifted up from the sea; and in A.D. 19 the island of "[[Thia]]" (the Divine) made its appearance. In A.D. 1573 another island was created, called "the small sunburnt island." In 1848 a volcanic convulsion of three months' duration created a great shoal; an earthquake destroyed many houses in [[Thera]], and the sulphur and hydrogen issuing from the sea killed 50 persons and 1000 domestic animals. A recent examination of these islands shows that the whole mass of [[Santorin]] ''has sunk, since its projection from the sea, over 1200 feet.
+
The [[Gulf of Santorin]], in the [[Grecian]] Archipelago]], has been for two thousand years a scene of active volcanic operations. [[Pliny]] informs us that in the year 186 B.C. the island of "[[Old Kaimeni]]," or the Sacred Isle, was lifted up from the sea; and in A.D. 19 the island of "[[Thia]]" (the Divine) made its appearance. In A.D. 1573 another island was created, called "the small sunburnt island." In 1848 a volcanic convulsion of three months' duration created a great shoal; an earthquake destroyed many houses in [[Thera]], and the sulphur and hydrogen issuing from the sea killed 50 persons and 1000 domestic animals. A recent examination of these islands shows that the whole mass of [[Santorin]] ''has sunk, since its projection from the sea, over 1200 feet.
 
----
 
----
 
{{pagebreak}}
 
{{pagebreak}}
Line 1,275: Line 1,273:
 
''WAS SUCH A CATASTROPHE POSSIBLE?'' <p align="right">39</p>
 
''WAS SUCH A CATASTROPHE POSSIBLE?'' <p align="right">39</p>
  
[[File:Atlantis7.jpg|border|[[FORT OF SINDEE]], ON THE EASTERN BRANCH OF THE [[INDUS]], BEFORE IT WAS SUBMERGED BY THE EARTHQUAKE OF 1819.|400px]]
+
[[File:Atlantis7.jpg|center|frame|[[FORT OF SINDEE]], ON THE EASTERN BRANCH OF THE [[INDUS]], BEFORE IT WAS SUBMERGED BY THE EARTHQUAKE OF 1819.]]
  
[[File:Atlantis8.jpg|border|VIEW OF THE [[FORT OF SINDREE]] FROM THE WEST IN MARCH, 1839.|400px]]
+
[[File:Atlantis8.jpg|center|frame|VIEW OF THE [[FORT OF SINDREE]] FROM THE WEST IN MARCH, 1839.]]
  
''permanently eighteen feet deep in places where there was land before."'' The area covered by the convulsion was 1000 English miles in circumference. ''"In the [[island of Amboyna]], in the same month and year, the ground opened, threw out water,''
+
''permanently eighteen feet deep in places where there was land before."'' The area covered by the convulsion was 1000 [[English]] miles in circumference. ''"In the [[island of Amboyna]], in the same month and year, the ground opened, threw out water,''
 
----
 
----
 
{{pagebreak}}
 
{{pagebreak}}
Line 1,288: Line 1,286:
 
''and then closed again." ([[Raffles]]'s "[[History of Java]]," vol. i., p. 25.)
 
''and then closed again." ([[Raffles]]'s "[[History of Java]]," vol. i., p. 25.)
  
But it is at that point of the [[European]] coast nearest to the site of [[Atlantis]] at [[Lisbon]] that the most tremendous earthquake of modern times has occurred. On the 1st of November, 1775, a sound of thunder was heard underground, and immediately afterward a violent shock threw down the greater part of the city. ''In six minutes 60,000 persons perished.'' A great concourse of people had collected for safety upon a new quay, built entirely of marble; but suddenly it sunk down with all the people on it, and not one of the dead bodies ever floated to the surface. A great number of small b[[Oats]] and vessels anchored near it, and, full of people, were swallowed up as in a whirlpool. No fragments of these wrecks ever rose again to the surface; the water where the quay went down is now 600 feet deep. The area covered by this earthquake was very great. [[Humboldt]] says that a portion of ''the earth's surface, four times as great as the size of [[Europe]], was simultaneously shaken.'' It extended from the [[Baltic]] to the [[[[West Indies]]]], and from [[Canada]] to [[Algiers]]. At eight leagues from [[Morocco]] the ground opened and swallowed a village of 10,000 inhabitants, and closed again over them.
+
But it is at that point of the [[European]] coast nearest to the site of [[Atlantis]] at [[Lisbon]] that the most tremendous earthquake of modern times has occurred. On the 1st of November, 1775, a sound of thunder was heard underground, and immediately afterward a violent shock threw down the greater part of the city. ''In six minutes 60,000 persons perished.'' A great concourse of people had collected for safety upon a new quay, built entirely of marble; but suddenly it sunk down with all the people on it, and not one of the dead bodies ever floated to the surface. A great number of small boats and vessels anchored near it, and, full of people, were swallowed up as in a whirlpool. No fragments of these wrecks ever rose again to the surface; the water where the quay went down is now 600 feet deep. The area covered by this earthquake was very great. [[Humboldt]] says that a portion of ''the earth's surface, four times as great as the size of [[Europe]], was simultaneously shaken.'' It extended from the [[Baltic]] to the [[West Indies]], and from [[Canada]] to [[Algiers]]. At eight leagues from [[Morocco]] the ground opened and swallowed a village of 10,000 inhabitants, and closed again over them.
  
 
It is very probable that the centre of the convulsion was in the bed of the [[Atlantic]], at or near the buried island of [[Atlantis]], and that it was a successor of the great earth throe which, thousands of years before, had brought destruction upon that land.
 
It is very probable that the centre of the convulsion was in the bed of the [[Atlantic]], at or near the buried island of [[Atlantis]], and that it was a successor of the great earth throe which, thousands of years before, had brought destruction upon that land.
Line 1,296: Line 1,294:
 
{{pagebreak}}
 
{{pagebreak}}
  
[[File:Atlantis9.jpg|border| [[ERUPTION OF VESUVIUS]] IN 1737.|400px]]<br>
+
[[File:Atlantis9.jpg|center|frame|[[ERUPTION OF VESUVIUS]] IN 1737.]]
 +
 
 
41
 
41
 
----
 
----
Line 1,314: Line 1,313:
 
The [[Azore Islands]] are undoubtedly the peaks of the mountains of [[Atlantis]]. They are even yet the centre of great volcanic activity. They have suffered severely from eruptions and earthquakes. In 1808 a volcano rose suddenly in [[San Jorge]] to the height of 3500 feet, and burnt for six days, desolating the entire island. In 1811 a volcano rose from the sea, near [[San Miguel]], creating an island 300 feet high, which was named [[Sambrina]], but which soon sunk beneath the sea. Similar volcanic eruptions occurred in the [[Azores]] in 1691 and 1720.
 
The [[Azore Islands]] are undoubtedly the peaks of the mountains of [[Atlantis]]. They are even yet the centre of great volcanic activity. They have suffered severely from eruptions and earthquakes. In 1808 a volcano rose suddenly in [[San Jorge]] to the height of 3500 feet, and burnt for six days, desolating the entire island. In 1811 a volcano rose from the sea, near [[San Miguel]], creating an island 300 feet high, which was named [[Sambrina]], but which soon sunk beneath the sea. Similar volcanic eruptions occurred in the [[Azores]] in 1691 and 1720.
  
Along a great line, a mighty fracture in the surface of the globe, stretching north and south through the [[Atlantic]], we find a continuous series of active or extinct volcanoes. In [[Iceland]] we have [[Oerafa]], [[Hecla]], and [[Rauda Kamba]]; another in [[Pico]], in the [[Azores]]; the peak of [[Teneriffe]]; [[Fogo]], in one of the [[Cape de Verde Islands]]: while of extinct volcanoes we have several in [[Iceland]], and two in [[Madeira]]; while [[Fernando de Noronha]], the island of [[Ascension]], [[St. Helena]], and [[Tristan d'Acunha]] are all of
+
Along a great line, a mighty fracture in the surface of the globe, stretching north and south through the [[Atlantic]], we find a continuous series of active or extinct volcanoes. In [[Iceland]] we have [[Oerafa]], [[Hecla]], and [[Rauda Kamba]]; another in [[Pico]], in the [[Azores]]; the peak of [[Teneriffe]]; [[Fogo]], in one of the [[Cape de Verde Islands]]: while of extinct volcanoes we have several in [[Iceland]], and two in [[Madeira]]; while [[Fernando de Noronha]], the island of [[Ascension]], [[St. Helena]], and [[Tristan d'Acunha]] are all of volcanic origin. ("[[Cosmos]]," vol. v., p. 331.)
volcanic origin. ("[[Cosmos]]," vol. v., p. 331.)
+
  
 
The following singular passage we quote entire from [[Lyell]]'s "[[Principles of Geology]]," p. 436:
 
The following singular passage we quote entire from [[Lyell]]'s "[[Principles of Geology]]," p. 436:
Line 1,340: Line 1,338:
  
 
46 <center>''ATLANTIS: THE ANTEDILUVIAN WORLD.''</center>
 
46 <center>''ATLANTIS: THE ANTEDILUVIAN WORLD.''</center>
 
 
 
 
 
 
  
 
====CHAPTER. V.====
 
====CHAPTER. V.====
Line 1,359: Line 1,351:
 
47
 
47
  
[[File:Atlantis10.jpg|border|MAP OF [[ATLANTIS]], WITH ITS ISLANDS AND CONNECTING RIDGES, FROM DEEP-SEA SOUNDINGS|400px]]
+
[[File:Atlantis10.jpg|center|frame|MAP OF [[ATLANTIS]], WITH ITS ISLANDS AND CONNECTING RIDGES, FROM DEEP-SEA SOUNDINGS|400px]]
 
----
 
----
 
{{pagebreak}}
 
{{pagebreak}}
Line 1,373: Line 1,365:
 
Evidence that this elevation was once dry land is found in the fact that "the inequalities, the mountains and valleys of its surface, could never have been produced in accordance with any laws for the deposition of sediment, nor by submarine elevation; but, on the contrary, must have been carved by agencies ''acting above the water level.''" ([[Scientific American]], July 28th, 1877.)
 
Evidence that this elevation was once dry land is found in the fact that "the inequalities, the mountains and valleys of its surface, could never have been produced in accordance with any laws for the deposition of sediment, nor by submarine elevation; but, on the contrary, must have been carved by agencies ''acting above the water level.''" ([[Scientific American]], July 28th, 1877.)
  
Mr. [[J. Starke Gardner]], the eminent English geologist, is of the opinion that in the [[Eocene Period]] a great extension of land existed to the west of [[Cornwall]]. Referring to the location of the "[[Dolphin]]" and "[[Challenger" ridges]], he asserts that "a great tract of land formerly existed where the sea now is, and that [[Cornwall]], the [[Scilly]] and ]]Channel]] Islands, [[Ireland]] and [[Brittany]], are the remains of its highest summits." ([[Popular Science Review]], July, 1878.)
+
Mr. [[J. Starke Gardner]], the eminent [[English]] geologist, is of the opinion that in the [[Eocene Period]] a great extension of land existed to the west of [[Cornwall]]. Referring to the location of the "[[Dolphin]]" and "[[Challenger" ridges]], he asserts that "a great tract of land formerly existed where the sea now is, and that [[Cornwall]], the [[Scilly]] and ]]Channel]] Islands, [[Ireland]] and [[Brittany]], are the remains of its highest summits." ([[Popular Science Review]], July, 1878.)
  
 
Here, then, we have the backbone of the ancient continent which once occupied the whole of the [[Atlantic Ocean]], and from whose washings [[Europe]] and [[America]] were constructed; the deepest parts of the ocean, 3500 fathoms deep, represent those portions which sunk first, to wit, the plains to the east and west of the central mountain range; some of the loftiest peaks of this range--the [[Azores]], [[St. Paul]]'s, [[Ascension]], [[Tristan d'Acunba]]--are still above the ocean level; while the great body of [[Atlantis]] lies a few hundred fathoms beneath the sea. In these "connecting ridges" we see the pathway which once extended between the New World and the Old, and by means of which the plants and animals of one continent travelled to the other; and by the same avenues black men found their
 
Here, then, we have the backbone of the ancient continent which once occupied the whole of the [[Atlantic Ocean]], and from whose washings [[Europe]] and [[America]] were constructed; the deepest parts of the ocean, 3500 fathoms deep, represent those portions which sunk first, to wit, the plains to the east and west of the central mountain range; some of the loftiest peaks of this range--the [[Azores]], [[St. Paul]]'s, [[Ascension]], [[Tristan d'Acunba]]--are still above the ocean level; while the great body of [[Atlantis]] lies a few hundred fathoms beneath the sea. In these "connecting ridges" we see the pathway which once extended between the New World and the Old, and by means of which the plants and animals of one continent travelled to the other; and by the same avenues black men found their
Line 1,391: Line 1,383:
 
The officers of the ''[[Challenger]]'' found the entire ridge of [[Atlantis]] covered with volcanic deposits; these are the subsided mud which, as [[Plato]] tells us, rendered the sea impassable after the destruction of the island.
 
The officers of the ''[[Challenger]]'' found the entire ridge of [[Atlantis]] covered with volcanic deposits; these are the subsided mud which, as [[Plato]] tells us, rendered the sea impassable after the destruction of the island.
  
It does not follow that, at the time [[Atlantis]] was finally ingulfed, the ridges connecting it with [[America]] and [[Africa]] rose above the water-level; these may have gradually subsided into the sea, or have gone down in cataclysms such as are described in the Central [[America]]n books. The [[Atlantis]] of [[Plato]] may have been confined to the "[[Dolphin]] Ridge" of our map.
+
It does not follow that, at the time [[Atlantis]] was finally ingulfed, the ridges connecting it with [[America]] and [[Africa]] rose above the water-level; these may have gradually subsided into the sea, or have gone down in cataclysms such as are described in the [[Central America]]n books. The [[Atlantis]] of [[Plato]] may have been confined to the "[[Dolphin]] Ridge" of our map.
 
----
 
----
 
{{pagebreak}}
 
{{pagebreak}}
  
[[File:Atlantis11.jpg|border|ANCIENT ISLANDS BETWEEN [[ATLANTIS]] AND THE MEDITERRANEAN, FROM DEEP-SEA
+
[[File:Atlantis11.jpg|center|frame|ANCIENT ISLANDS BETWEEN [[ATLANTIS]] AND THE MEDITERRANEAN, FROM DEEP-SEA SOUNDINGS]]
SOUNDINGS|400px]]
+
 
51
 
51
 
----
 
----
Line 1,421: Line 1,412:
  
 
54 <center>''ATLANTIS: THE ANTEDILUVIAN WORLD.''</center>
 
54 <center>''ATLANTIS: THE ANTEDILUVIAN WORLD.''</center>
 
 
  
  
Line 1,442: Line 1,431:
  
  
The fossil remains of the [[Camel]] are found in [[India]], [[Africa]], [[South America]], and in [[Kansas]]. The existing [[Alpacas]] and [[Llamas]] of [[South America]] are but varieties of the [[Camel]] family.
+
The fossil remains of the [[Camel]] are found in [[India]], [[Africa]], [[South America]], and in [[Kansas]]. The existing [[Alpacas]] and [[L[[Lamas]]]] of [[South America]] are but varieties of the [[Camel]] family.
  
The cave bear, whose remains are found associated with the bones of the [[Mammoth]] and the bones and works of man in the caves of [[Europe]], was identical with the [[Grizzly bear]] of our [[Rocky Mountains]]. The [[musk-ox]], whose relics are found in the same deposits, now roams the wilds of [[Arctic America]]. The [[Glutton]] of [[Northern Europe]], in the [[Stone Age]], is identical with the [[Wolverine]] of the [[United States]]. According to [[Rutimeyer]], the ancient [[Bison]] (''Bos priscus'') of [[Europe]] was identical with the existing [[American buffalo]]. "Every stage between the ancient cave [[Bison]] and the [[European]] [[Aurochs]] can be traced." The [[Norway elk]], now nearly extinct, is identical with the [[American moose]]. The [[Cervus Americanus]] found in [[Kentucky]] was as large as the [[Irish elk]], which it greatly resembled. The [[Lagomys]], or [[Tailless hare]], of the [[European]] caves, is now found in the colder regions of [[North America]]. The [[Reindeer]], which once occupied [[Europe]] as far down as [[France]], was the same as the [[reindeer]] of [[America]]. Remains of the [[Cave Lion of Europe]] (''Felix speloae''), a larger beast than the largest of the existing species, have been found at [[Natchez, Mississippi]]. The [[European cave wolf]] was identical with the [[America]]n wolf.
+
The cave bear, whose remains are found associated with the bones of the [[Mammoth]] and the bones and works of man in the caves of [[Europe]], was identical with the [[Grizzly bear]] of our [[Rocky Mountains]]. The [[musk-ox]], whose relics are found in the same deposits, now roams the wilds of [[Arctic America]]. The [[Glutton]] of [[Northern Europe]], in the [[Stone Age]], is identical with the [[Wolverine]] of the [[United States]]. According to [[Rutimeyer]], the ancient [[Bison]] (''Bos priscus'') of [[Europe]] was identical with the existing [[American buffalo]]. "Every stage between the ancient cave [[Bison]] and the [[European]] [[Aurochs]] can be traced." The [[Norway elk]], now nearly extinct, is identical with the [[American moose]]. The [[Cervus Americanus]] found in [[Kentucky]] was as large as the [[Irish elk]], which it greatly resembled. The [[Lagomys]], or [[Tailless hare]], of the [[European]] caves, is now found in the colder regions of [[North America]]. The [[Reindeer]], which once occupied [[Europe]] as far down as [[France]], was the same as the [[reindeer]] of [[America]]. Remains of the [[Cave Lion of Europe]] (''Felix speloae''), a larger beast than the largest of the existing species, have been found at [[Natchez, Mississippi]]. The [[European cave wolf]] was identical with the [[American]] wolf.
  
 
Cattle were domesticated among the people of [[Switzerland]] during the earliest part of the Stone Period ([[Darwin]]'s "[[Animals Under Domestication]]," vol. i., p. 103), that is to say, before the [[Bronze Age]] and the [[Iron Age]]. Even at that remote period they had already, by long-continued selection, been developed out of wild forms akin to the [[American buffalo]]. [[M. Gervais]] ("Hist. [[Nat. des Mammifores]]," vol. xi., p. 191) concludes that the wild race from which our domestic sheep was derived is now extinct. The remains of domestic sheep are found in the debris of the [[Swiss lake]]-dwellings during the [[Stone Age]]. The domestic [[Horse]], [[Ass]], [[Lion]], and goat also date back to a like great antiquity. We have historical records 7000 years old,
 
Cattle were domesticated among the people of [[Switzerland]] during the earliest part of the Stone Period ([[Darwin]]'s "[[Animals Under Domestication]]," vol. i., p. 103), that is to say, before the [[Bronze Age]] and the [[Iron Age]]. Even at that remote period they had already, by long-continued selection, been developed out of wild forms akin to the [[American buffalo]]. [[M. Gervais]] ("Hist. [[Nat. des Mammifores]]," vol. xi., p. 191) concludes that the wild race from which our domestic sheep was derived is now extinct. The remains of domestic sheep are found in the debris of the [[Swiss lake]]-dwellings during the [[Stone Age]]. The domestic [[Horse]], [[Ass]], [[Lion]], and goat also date back to a like great antiquity. We have historical records 7000 years old,
Line 1,457: Line 1,446:
 
And when we turn from the fauna to the flora, we find the same state of things.
 
And when we turn from the fauna to the flora, we find the same state of things.
  
An examination of the fossil beds of [[Switzerland]] of the [[Miocene Age]] reveals the remains of more than eight hundred different species of flower-bearing plants, besides [[Mosses]], [[Ferns]], etc. The total number of fossil plants catalogued from those beds, [[Cryptogamous]] as well as [[Phaenogamous]], is upward of three thousand. ''The majority of these species have migrated to [[America]]''. There were others that passed into [[Asia]], [[Africa]], and even to [[Australia]]. The [[America]]n types are, however, in the largest proportion. The analogues of the flora of the [[Miocene Age]] of [[Europe]] now grow in the forests of [[Virginia]], North and [[South Carolina]], and [[Florida]]; they include such familiar examples as [[Magnolias]], [[[[Tulip-trees]]]], [[Evergreen oaks]], [[Maples]], [[Plane-trees]], [[Robinas]], [[Sequoias]], etc. It would seem to be impossible that these trees could have migrated from [[Switzerland]] to [[America]] unless there was unbroken land communication between the two continents.
+
An examination of the fossil beds of [[Switzerland]] of the [[Miocene Age]] reveals the remains of more than eight hundred different species of flower-bearing plants, besides [[Mosses]], [[Ferns]], etc. The total number of fossil plants catalogued from those beds, [[Cryptogamous]] as well as [[Phaenogamous]], is upward of three thousand. ''The majority of these species have migrated to [[America]]''. There were others that passed into [[Asia]], [[Africa]], and even to [[Australia]]. The [[American]] types are, however, in the largest proportion. The analogues of the flora of the [[Miocene Age]] of [[Europe]] now grow in the forests of [[Virginia]], North and [[South Carolina]], and [[Florida]]; they include such familiar examples as [[Magnolias]], [[Tulip-trees]], [[Evergreen oaks]], [[Maples]], [[Plane-trees]], [[Robinas]], [[Sequoias]], etc. It would seem to be impossible that these trees could have migrated from [[Switzerland]] to [[America]] unless there was unbroken land communication between the two continents.
  
 
It is a still more remarkable fact that a comparison of the flora of the Old World and New goes to show that not only was there communication by land, over which the plants of one continent could extend to another, but that man must have existed, and have helped this transmigration, in the case of certain plants that were incapable of making the journey unaided.
 
It is a still more remarkable fact that a comparison of the flora of the Old World and New goes to show that not only was there communication by land, over which the plants of one continent could extend to another, but that man must have existed, and have helped this transmigration, in the case of certain plants that were incapable of making the journey unaided.
Line 1,468: Line 1,457:
  
  
the [[Bamboo]], the [[Guava]], the [[Mango]]-fruit, and especially the [[Banana]]. He denies that the [[America]]n origin of [[Tobacco]], [[Maize]], and the [[Cocoa-nut]] is proved. He refers to the ''[[Paritium tiliaceum]]'', a malvaceous plant, hardly noticed by [[Europeans]], but very highly prized by the natives of the tropics, and cultivated everywhere in the East and West [[Indies]]; it supplies to the natives of these regions so far apart their ropes and cordage. It is always seedless in a cultivated state. It existed in [[America]] before the arrival of [[Columbus]].
+
the [[Bamboo]], the [[Guava]], the [[Mango]]-fruit, and especially the [[Banana]]. He denies that the [[American]] origin of [[Tobacco]], [[Maize]], and the [[Cocoa-nut]] is proved. He refers to the ''[[Paritium tiliaceum]]'', a malvaceous plant, hardly noticed by [[Europeans]], but very highly prized by the natives of the tropics, and cultivated everywhere in the East and West [[Indies]]; it supplies to the natives of these regions so far apart their ropes and cordage. It is always seedless in a cultivated state. It existed in [[America]] before the arrival of [[Columbus]].
  
 
But Professor [[Kuntze]] pays especial attention to the [[Banana]], or [[Plantain]]. The banana is seedless. It is found throughout tropical [[Asia]] and [[Africa]]. Professor [[Kuntze]] asks, "In what way was this plant, which cannot stand a voyage through the temperate zone, carried to [[America]]?" And yet it was generally cultivated in [[America]] before 1492. Says Professor [[Kuntze]], "It must be remembered that the [[Plantain]] is a tree-like, herbaceous plant, possessing no easily transportable bulbs, like the [[Potato]] or the [[Dahlia]], nor propagable by cuttings, like the willow or the poplar. It has only a perennial root, which, once planted, needs hardly any care, and yet produces the most abundant crop of any known tropical plant." He then proceeds to discuss how it could have passed from [[Asia]] to [[America]]. He admits that the roots must have been transported from one country to the other by ''civilized man''. He argues that it could not have crossed the Pacific from [[Asia]] to [[America]], because the Pacific is nearly thrice or four times as wide as the [[Atlantic]]. The only way he can account for the plantain reaching [[America]] is to suppose that it was carried there when the North Pole had a tropical climate! Is there any proof that civilized man existed at the North Pole when it possessed the climate of [[Africa]]?
 
But Professor [[Kuntze]] pays especial attention to the [[Banana]], or [[Plantain]]. The banana is seedless. It is found throughout tropical [[Asia]] and [[Africa]]. Professor [[Kuntze]] asks, "In what way was this plant, which cannot stand a voyage through the temperate zone, carried to [[America]]?" And yet it was generally cultivated in [[America]] before 1492. Says Professor [[Kuntze]], "It must be remembered that the [[Plantain]] is a tree-like, herbaceous plant, possessing no easily transportable bulbs, like the [[Potato]] or the [[Dahlia]], nor propagable by cuttings, like the willow or the poplar. It has only a perennial root, which, once planted, needs hardly any care, and yet produces the most abundant crop of any known tropical plant." He then proceeds to discuss how it could have passed from [[Asia]] to [[America]]. He admits that the roots must have been transported from one country to the other by ''civilized man''. He argues that it could not have crossed the Pacific from [[Asia]] to [[America]], because the Pacific is nearly thrice or four times as wide as the [[Atlantic]]. The only way he can account for the plantain reaching [[America]] is to suppose that it was carried there when the North Pole had a tropical climate! Is there any proof that civilized man existed at the North Pole when it possessed the climate of [[Africa]]?
Line 1,506: Line 1,495:
  
  
that the [[Cotton]]-plant has been found growing wild in many parts of [[America]], but never in the Old World. This would seem to indicate that the plant was a native of [[America]]; and this is confirmed by the superiority of [[America]]n [[Cotton]], and the further fact that the plants taken from [[America]] to [[India]] constantly degenerate, while those taken from [[India]] to [[America]] as constantly improve.
+
that the [[Cotton]]-plant has been found growing wild in many parts of [[America]], but never in the Old World. This would seem to indicate that the plant was a native of [[America]]; and this is confirmed by the superiority of [[American]] [[Cotton]], and the further fact that the plants taken from [[America]] to [[India]] constantly degenerate, while those taken from [[India]] to [[America]] as constantly improve.
  
There is a question whether the potato, [[Maize]], and [[Tobacco]] were not cultivated in [[China]] ages before [[Columbus]] discovered [[America]]. A recent traveller says, "The interior of [[China]], along the course of the [[Yang-tse-Kiang]], is a land full of wonders. In one place piscicultural nurseries line the banks for nearly fifty miles. All sorts of inventions, the [[Cotton]]-gin included, claimed by [[Europeans]] and [[America]]ns, are to be found there forty centuries old. Plants, yielding drugs of great value, without number, the familiar [[Tobacco]] and potato, [[Maize]], white and yellow corn, and other plants ''believed to be indigenous to [[America]], have been cultivated there from time immemorial.''"
+
There is a question whether the potato, [[Maize]], and [[Tobacco]] were not cultivated in [[China]] ages before [[Columbus]] discovered [[America]]. A recent traveller says, "The interior of [[China]], along the course of the [[Yang-tse-Kiang]], is a land full of wonders. In one place piscicultural nurseries line the banks for nearly fifty miles. All sorts of inventions, the [[Cotton]]-gin included, claimed by [[Europeans]] and [[American]]s, are to be found there forty centuries old. Plants, yielding drugs of great value, without number, the familiar [[Tobacco]] and potato, [[Maize]], white and yellow corn, and other plants ''believed to be indigenous to [[America]], have been cultivated there from time immemorial.''"
  
[[File:Atlantis12.jpg|border|ANCIENT CARVING—STRATFORD-ON-AVON, ENGLAND.]]
+
[[File:Atlantis12.jpg|center|frame|ANCIENT CARVING—STRATFORD-ON-AVON, ENGLAND.]]
  
[[Bonafous]] ("[[Histoire Naturelle du Mais]]," Paris, 1826) attributes a [[European]] or [[Asiatic]] origin to [[Maize]]. The word ''[[Maize]]'', ([[Indian corn]]) is derived from ''mahiz'' or ''mahis'', the name of the plant in the language of the [[Island of Hayti]]. And yet, strange to say, in the [[Lettish]] and [[Livonian]] languages, in the north of [[Europe]], ''mayse'' signifies bread; in [[Irish]], ''maise'' is food, and in the Old High [[German]], ''maz'' is meat. May not likewise the [[Spanish]]
+
[[Bonafous]] ("[[Histoire Naturelle du Mais]]," [[Paris]], 1826) attributes a [[European]] or [[Asiatic]] origin to [[Maize]]. The word ''[[Maize]]'', ([[Indian corn]]) is derived from ''mahiz'' or ''mahis'', the name of the plant in the language of the [[Island of Hayti]]. And yet, strange to say, in the [[Lettish]] and [[Livonian]] languages, in the north of [[Europe]], ''mayse'' signifies bread; in [[Irish]], ''maise'' is food, and in the Old High [[German]], ''maz'' is meat. May not likewise the [[Spanish]]
 
----
 
----
 
{{pagebreak}}
 
{{pagebreak}}
Line 1,534: Line 1,523:
 
reliable evidence that none of the Ceralia--[[Wheat]], [[Rye]], [[Barley]], and [[Oats]]--exist or have existed truly wild in their present state." In the [[Stone Age]] of [[Europe]] five varieties of [[Wheat]] and three of [[Barley]] were cultivated. ([[Darwin]], "[[Animals and Plants]]," vol. i., p. 382.) He says that it may be inferred, from the presence in
 
reliable evidence that none of the Ceralia--[[Wheat]], [[Rye]], [[Barley]], and [[Oats]]--exist or have existed truly wild in their present state." In the [[Stone Age]] of [[Europe]] five varieties of [[Wheat]] and three of [[Barley]] were cultivated. ([[Darwin]], "[[Animals and Plants]]," vol. i., p. 382.) He says that it may be inferred, from the presence in
  
[[File:Atlantis13.jpg|border|CEREALS OF TUE AGE OF STONE IN EUEOPE.]]
+
[[File:Atlantis13.jpg|center|frame|CEREALS OF TUE AGE OF STONE IN EUEOPE.]]
  
 
the lake habitations of [[Switzerland]] of a variety of [[Wheat]] known as the [[Egyptian Wheat]], and from the nature of the weeds that grew among their crops, "that the lake inhabitants either still kept up commercial intercourse with some southern people, or had originally proceeded as colonists from the south." I should argue that they were colonists from the land where [[Wheat]] and
 
the lake habitations of [[Switzerland]] of a variety of [[Wheat]] known as the [[Egyptian Wheat]], and from the nature of the weeds that grew among their crops, "that the lake inhabitants either still kept up commercial intercourse with some southern people, or had originally proceeded as colonists from the south." I should argue that they were colonists from the land where [[Wheat]] and
Line 1,543: Line 1,532:
  
  
[[Barley]] were first domesticated, to wit, [[Atlantis]]. And when the [[Bronze Age]] came, we find [[Oats]] and [[Rye]] making their appearance with the weapons of bronze, together with a peculiar kind of pea. [[Darwin]] concludes (Ibid., vol. i., p. 385) that [[Wheat]], [[Barley]], [[Rye]], and [[Oats]] were either descended from ten or fifteen distinct species, "most of which are now unknown or extinct," or from four or eight species closely resembling our present forms, or so "widely different as to escape identification;" in which latter case, he says, "man must have cultivated the cereals at an enormously remote period," and at that time practised "some degree of selection."
+
[[Barley]] were first domesticated, to wit, [[Atlantis]]. And when the [[Bronze Age]] came, we find [[Oats]] and [[Rye]] making their appearance with the weapons of bronze, together with a peculiar kind of pea. [[Darwin]] concludes (''Ibid''., vol. i., p. 385) that [[Wheat]], [[Barley]], [[Rye]], and [[Oats]] were either descended from ten or fifteen distinct species, "most of which are now unknown or extinct," or from four or eight species closely resembling our present forms, or so "widely different as to escape identification;" in which latter case, he says, "man must have cultivated the cereals at an enormously remote period," and at that time practised "some degree of selection."
  
[[Rawlinson]] ("[[Ancient Monarchies]]," vol. i., p. 578) expresses the opinion that the ancient [[Assyrians]] possessed the [[Pineapple]]. "The representation on the monuments is so exact that I can scarcely doubt the [[Pineapple]] being intended." (See [[Layard]'s "[[[[Nineveh]] and [[Babylon]]]]," p. 338.) The [[Pineapple]] ([[Bromelia ananassa]]) is supposed to be of [[America]]n origin, and unknown to [[Europe]] before the time of [[Columbus]]; and yet, apart from the revelations of the [[Assyria]]n monuments, there has been some dispute upon this point. ("Amer. Cyclop.," vol. xiii., p. 528.)
+
[[Rawlinson]] ("[[Ancient Monarchies]]," vol. i., p. 578) expresses the opinion that the ancient [[Assyrians]] possessed the [[Pineapple]]. "The representation on the monuments is so exact that I can scarcely doubt the [[Pineapple]] being intended." (See [[Layard]]'s "[[Nineveh and Babylon]]," p. 338.) The [[Pineapple]] ([[Bromelia ananassa]]) is supposed to be of [[American]] origin, and unknown to [[Europe]] before the time of [[Columbus]]; and yet, apart from the revelations of the [[Assyria]]n monuments, there has been some dispute upon this point. ("Amer. Cyclop.," vol. xiii., p. 528.)
  
 
It is not even certain that the use of [[Tobacco]] was not known
 
It is not even certain that the use of [[Tobacco]] was not known
  
[[File:Atlantis14.jpg|border|ANCIENT [[IRISH PIPES]]
+
[[File:Atlantis14.jpg|center|frame|ANCIENT [[IRISH PIPES]]]]
 
----
 
----
 
{{pagebreak}}
 
{{pagebreak}}
Line 1,559: Line 1,548:
 
Compare these pipes from the ancient mounds of [[Ireland]] with the accompanying picture of an [[Indian pipe]] of the [[Stone Age]] of [[New Jersey]]. ("Smithsonian Rep.," 1875, p. 342.)
 
Compare these pipes from the ancient mounds of [[Ireland]] with the accompanying picture of an [[Indian pipe]] of the [[Stone Age]] of [[New Jersey]]. ("Smithsonian Rep.," 1875, p. 342.)
  
[[File:Atlantis15.jpg|border|ANCIENT INDIAN PIPE, [[NEW JERSEY]]]]
+
[[File:Atlantis15.jpg|center|frame|ANCIENT INDIAN PIPE, [[NEW JERSEY]]]]
  
 
Recent [[Portuguese]] travellers have found the most remote tribes of savage [[negroes]] in [[Africa]], holding no commercial intercourse with [[Europeans]], using strangely shaped pipes, in which they smoked a plant of the country. Investigations in [[America]] lead to the conclusion that [[Tobacco]] was first burnt as an incense to the gods, the priest alone using the pipe; and from this beginning the extraordinary practice spread to the people, and thence over all the world. It may have crossed the [[Atlantic]] in a remote age, and have subsequently disappeared with the failure of retrograding colonists to raise the [[Tobacco plant]].
 
Recent [[Portuguese]] travellers have found the most remote tribes of savage [[negroes]] in [[Africa]], holding no commercial intercourse with [[Europeans]], using strangely shaped pipes, in which they smoked a plant of the country. Investigations in [[America]] lead to the conclusion that [[Tobacco]] was first burnt as an incense to the gods, the priest alone using the pipe; and from this beginning the extraordinary practice spread to the people, and thence over all the world. It may have crossed the [[Atlantic]] in a remote age, and have subsequently disappeared with the failure of retrograding colonists to raise the [[Tobacco plant]].
Line 1,602: Line 1,591:
 
ancestors of three races--[[Aryan]], or [[Indo-European]], [[Semitic]], or [[Syro-Arabian]], [[Chamitic]], or [[Cushite]]--that is to say, on ''the three great civilized races of the ancient world'', those which constitute the higher humanity--before the ancestors of those races had as yet separated, and in the part of [[Asia]] they together inhabited."
 
ancestors of three races--[[Aryan]], or [[Indo-European]], [[Semitic]], or [[Syro-Arabian]], [[Chamitic]], or [[Cushite]]--that is to say, on ''the three great civilized races of the ancient world'', those which constitute the higher humanity--before the ancestors of those races had as yet separated, and in the part of [[Asia]] they together inhabited."
  
Such profound scholars and sincere Christians as [[M. Schoebel]] (Paris, 1858), and [[M. Omalius d'Halloy]] (Bruxelles, 1866), deny the universality of the [[Deluge]], and claim that "it extended only to the principal centre of humanity, to those who remained near its primitive cradle, without reaching the scattered tribes who had already spread themselves far away in almost desert regions. It is certain that the Bible narrative commences by relating facts common to the whole human species, confining itself subsequently to the annals of the race peculiarly chosen by the designs of Providence." ([[Lenormant]] and [[Chevallier]], "Anc. Hist. of the East," p. 44.) This theory is supported by that eminent authority on anthropology, [[M. de Quatrefages]], as well as by Cuvier; the Rev. R. p. Bellynck, S.J., admits that it has nothing expressly opposed to orthodoxy.
+
Such profound scholars and sincere Christians as [[M. Schoebel]] ([[Paris]], 1858), and [[M. Omalius d'Halloy]] (Bruxelles, 1866), deny the universality of the [[Deluge]], and claim that "it extended only to the principal centre of humanity, to those who remained near its primitive cradle, without reaching the scattered tribes who had already spread themselves far away in almost desert regions. It is certain that the Bible narrative commences by relating facts common to the whole human species, confining itself subsequently to the annals of the race peculiarly chosen by the designs of Providence." ([[Lenormant]] and [[Chevallier]], "Anc. Hist. of the East," p. 44.) This theory is supported by that eminent authority on anthropology, [[M. de Quatrefages]], as well as by Cuvier; the Rev. R. p. Bellynck, S.J., admits that it has nothing expressly opposed to orthodoxy.
  
 
[[Plato]] identifies "the great [[Deluge]] of all" with the destruction of [[Atlantis]]. The priest of [[Sais]] told [[Solon]] that before "the great [[Deluge]] of all" [[Athens]] possessed a noble race, who performed many noble deeds, the last and greatest of which was resisting the attempts of [[Atlantis]] to subjugate them; and after this came the destruction of [[Atlantis]], and the same great convulsion which overwhelmed that island destroyed a number of the [[Greek]]s. So that the [[Egyptians]], who possessed the memory of many partial deluges, regarded this as "the great [[Deluge]] of all."
 
[[Plato]] identifies "the great [[Deluge]] of all" with the destruction of [[Atlantis]]. The priest of [[Sais]] told [[Solon]] that before "the great [[Deluge]] of all" [[Athens]] possessed a noble race, who performed many noble deeds, the last and greatest of which was resisting the attempts of [[Atlantis]] to subjugate them; and after this came the destruction of [[Atlantis]], and the same great convulsion which overwhelmed that island destroyed a number of the [[Greek]]s. So that the [[Egyptians]], who possessed the memory of many partial deluges, regarded this as "the great [[Deluge]] of all."
Line 1,703: Line 1,692:
 
We will see hereafter that the [[Hebrews]] and their Flood legend are closely connected with the [[Phoenician]]s, whose connection with [[Atlantis]] is established in many ways.
 
We will see hereafter that the [[Hebrews]] and their Flood legend are closely connected with the [[Phoenician]]s, whose connection with [[Atlantis]] is established in many ways.
  
It is now conceded by scholars that the genealogical table given in the Bible (Gen., chap. x.) is not intended to include the true negro races, or the [[Chinese]], the [[Japanese]], the [[Finns]] or [[Lapps]], the [[Australian]]s, or the [[America]]n red men. It refers altogether to the [[Mediterranean]] races, the [[Aryan]]s, the [[Cushites]], the [[Phoenician]]s, the [[Hebrews]], and the [[Egyptians]]. "The sons of [[Ham]]" were not true [[negroes]], but the dark-brown races. (See [[Winchell]]'s "[[Preadamites]]," chap. vii.)
+
It is now conceded by scholars that the genealogical table given in the Bible (Gen., chap. x.) is not intended to include the true [[negro]] races, or the [[Chinese]], the [[Japanese]], the [[Finns]] or [[Lapps]], the [[Australian]]s, or the [[American]] red men. It refers altogether to the [[Mediterranean]] races, the [[Aryan]]s, the [[Cushites]], the [[Phoenician]]s, the [[Hebrews]], and the [[Egyptians]]. "The sons of [[Ham]]" were not true [[negroes]], but the dark-brown races. (See [[Winchell]]'s "[[Preadamites]]," chap. vii.)
  
If these races (the [[Chinese]], [[Australian]]s, [[America]]ns, etc.) are not descended from [[Noah]] they could not have been included in the [[Deluge]]. If neither [[China]], [[Japan]], [[America]], [[Northern Europe]], nor [[Australia]] were depopulated by the [[Deluge]], the [[Deluge]] could not have been universal. But as it is alleged that it did destroy a country, and drowned all the people thereof except [[Noah]] and his family, the country so destroyed could not have been [[Europe]], [[Asia]], [[Africa]], [[America]], or [[Australia]], for there has been no universal destruction of the people of those regions; or, if there had been, how can we account for the existence to-day of people on all of those continents whose descent [[Genesis]] does not trace back to [[Noah]], and, in fact, about whom the writer of [[Genesis]] seems to have known nothing?
+
If these races (the [[Chinese]], [[Australian]]s, [[American]]s, etc.) are not descended from [[Noah]] they could not have been included in the [[Deluge]]. If neither [[China]], [[Japan]], [[America]], [[Northern Europe]], nor [[Australia]] were depopulated by the [[Deluge]], the [[Deluge]] could not have been universal. But as it is alleged that it did destroy a country, and drowned all the people thereof except [[Noah]] and his family, the country so destroyed could not have been [[Europe]], [[Asia]], [[Africa]], [[America]], or [[Australia]], for there has been no universal destruction of the people of those regions; or, if there had been, how can we account for the existence to-day of people on all of those continents whose descent [[Genesis]] does not trace back to [[Noah]], and, in fact, about whom the writer of [[Genesis]] seems to have known nothing?
  
 
We are thus driven to one of two alternative conclusions: either the [[Deluge]] record of the Bible is altogether fabulous, or it relates to some land other than [[Europe]], [[Asia]], [[Africa]],
 
We are thus driven to one of two alternative conclusions: either the [[Deluge]] record of the Bible is altogether fabulous, or it relates to some land other than [[Europe]], [[Asia]], [[Africa]],
Line 1,730: Line 1,719:
 
====CHAPTER III.====
 
====CHAPTER III.====
  
=====''THE [[DELUGE]] OF THE [[CHALDEAN]]S''=====.
+
=====''THE [[DELUGE]] OF THE [[CHALDEAN]]S''=====
  
  
Line 1,750: Line 1,739:
 
"Meanwhile those who had remained in the vessel, not seeing Xisutbros return, descended too, and began to seek him, calling him by his name. They saw [[Xisuthros]] no more; but a voice from heaven was heard commanding them piety toward the gods; that he, indeed, was receiving the reward of his piety in being carried away to dwell thenceforth in the midst of the gods, and that his wife, his daughter, and the pilot of the ship shared the same honor. The voice further said that they were to return to [[Babylon]], and, conformably to the decrees of fate, disinter  thethe writings buried at [[Sippara]] in order to transmit them to men. It added that the country in which they found themselves was [[Armenia]]. These, then, having heard the voice, sacrificed to the gods and returned on foot to [[Babylon]]. Of the vessel of [[Xisuthros]], which had finally landed in [[Armenia]], a portion is still to be found in the [[Gordyan Mountains]] in [[Armenia]], and pilgrims bring thence asphalte that they have scraped from its fragments. It is used to keep off the influence of witchcraft. As to the companions of [[Xisuthros]], they came to [[Babylon]], disinterred the writings left at [[Sippara]], founded numerous cities, built temples, and restored [[Babylon]]."
 
"Meanwhile those who had remained in the vessel, not seeing Xisutbros return, descended too, and began to seek him, calling him by his name. They saw [[Xisuthros]] no more; but a voice from heaven was heard commanding them piety toward the gods; that he, indeed, was receiving the reward of his piety in being carried away to dwell thenceforth in the midst of the gods, and that his wife, his daughter, and the pilot of the ship shared the same honor. The voice further said that they were to return to [[Babylon]], and, conformably to the decrees of fate, disinter  thethe writings buried at [[Sippara]] in order to transmit them to men. It added that the country in which they found themselves was [[Armenia]]. These, then, having heard the voice, sacrificed to the gods and returned on foot to [[Babylon]]. Of the vessel of [[Xisuthros]], which had finally landed in [[Armenia]], a portion is still to be found in the [[Gordyan Mountains]] in [[Armenia]], and pilgrims bring thence asphalte that they have scraped from its fragments. It is used to keep off the influence of witchcraft. As to the companions of [[Xisuthros]], they came to [[Babylon]], disinterred the writings left at [[Sippara]], founded numerous cities, built temples, and restored [[Babylon]]."
  
"By the side of this version," says [[Lenormant]], "which, interesting though it be, is, after all, second-hand, we are now able to place an original [[Chaldeo-[[Babylonian]]]] edition, which the lamented [[George Smith]] was the first to decipher on the cuneiform tablets exhumed at [[Nineveh]], and now in the [[British]] Museum. Here the narrative of the [[Deluge]] appears as an episode in the eleventh tablet, or eleventh chant of the great
+
"By the side of this version," says [[Lenormant]], "which, interesting though it be, is, after all, second-hand, we are now able to place an original [[Chaldeo-Babylonian]] edition, which the lamented [[George Smith]] was the first to decipher on the cuneiform tablets exhumed at [[Nineveh]], and now in the [[British]] Museum. Here the narrative of the [[Deluge]] appears as an episode in the eleventh tablet, or eleventh chant of the great
 
----
 
----
 
{{pagebreak}}
 
{{pagebreak}}
Line 1,769: Line 1,758:
 
"'The town of [[Shurippak]], a town which thou knowest, is situated on the [[Euphrates]]--it was ancient, and in it [men did not honor] the gods. [I alone, I was] their servant, to the great gods--[The gods took counsel on the appeal of] [[Ann]]--[a [[Deluge]] was proposed by] [[Bel]]--[and approved by [[Nabon]], [[Nergal]] and] [[Adar]].
 
"'The town of [[Shurippak]], a town which thou knowest, is situated on the [[Euphrates]]--it was ancient, and in it [men did not honor] the gods. [I alone, I was] their servant, to the great gods--[The gods took counsel on the appeal of] [[Ann]]--[a [[Deluge]] was proposed by] [[Bel]]--[and approved by [[Nabon]], [[Nergal]] and] [[Adar]].
  
"'And the god [[[Ea]]], the immutable lord, repeated this command in a dream.--I listened to the decree of fate that he announced, and he said to me:--" Man of [[Shurippak]], son of [[Ubaratutu]]--thou, build a vessel and finish it [quickly].--[By a [[Deluge]]] I will destroy substance and life.--Cause thou to go up into the vessel the substance of all that has life.--The vessel thou shall build--600 cubits shall be the measure of its length--and 60 cubits the amount of its breadth and of its height. [Launch it] thus on the ocean, and cover it with a roof."--I understood, and I said to [[Ea]], my lord:--"[The vessel] that thou commandest me to build thus--[when] I shall do it,--young and old [shall laugh at me.]"--[[[Ea]] opened his mouth and] spoke.--He said to me, his servant:--"[If they laugh at thee] thou shalt say to them:--[shall be punished] he who has insulted me, [for the protection of the gods] is over me.-- ... like to caverns ... -- ... I will exercise my judgment on that which is on high and that which is below ... -- ... Close the vessel ... -- ... At a given moment that I shall cause thee to know,--enter into it, and draw the door of the ship toward thee.--Within it, thy grains, thy furniture, thy provisions, thy riches, thy men-servants, and thy maid-servants, and thy young people--the cattle of the field, and the wild beasts of the plain that I will assemble--and that I will send thee, shall be kept behind thy door."--[[Khasisatra]] opened his mouth and spoke;--he said to [[Ea]], his lord:--"No one has made [such a] ship.--On the prow I will fix ... --I shall see ... and the vessel ... --the vessel thou commandest me to build [thus] which in...."
+
"'And the god [[Ea]], the immutable lord, repeated this command in a dream.--I listened to the decree of fate that he announced, and he said to me:--" Man of [[Shurippak]], son of [[Ubaratutu]]--thou, build a vessel and finish it [quickly].--[By a [[Deluge]]] I will destroy substance and life.--Cause thou to go up into the vessel the substance of all that has life.--The vessel thou shall build--600 cubits shall be the measure of its length--and 60 cubits the amount of its breadth and of its height. [Launch it] thus on the ocean, and cover it with a roof."--I understood, and I said to [[Ea]], my lord:--"[The vessel] that thou commandest me to build thus--[when] I shall do it,--young and old [shall laugh at me.]"--[[Ea]] opened his mouth and] spoke.--He said to me, his servant:--"[If they laugh at thee] thou shalt say to them:--[shall be punished] he who has insulted me, [for the protection of the gods] is over me.-- ... like to caverns ... -- ... I will exercise my judgment on that which is on high and that which is below ... -- ... Close the vessel ... -- ... At a given moment that I shall cause thee to know,--enter into it, and draw the door of the ship toward thee.--Within it, thy grains, thy furniture, thy provisions, thy riches, thy men-servants, and thy maid-servants, and thy young people--the cattle of the field, and the wild beasts of the plain that I will assemble--and that I will send thee, shall be kept behind thy door."--[[Khasisatra]] opened his mouth and spoke;--he said to [[Ea]], his lord:--"No one has made [such a] ship.--On the prow I will fix ... --I shall see ... and the vessel ... --the vessel thou commandest me to build [thus] which in...."
  
 
"'On the fifth day [the two sides of the bark] were raised.--In it's covering fourteen in all were its rafters--fourteen in all did it count above.--I placed its roof, and I covered it.--I embarked in it on the sixth day; I divided its floors on the seventh;--I divided the interior compartments on the eighth.
 
"'On the fifth day [the two sides of the bark] were raised.--In it's covering fourteen in all were its rafters--fourteen in all did it count above.--I placed its roof, and I covered it.--I embarked in it on the sixth day; I divided its floors on the seventh;--I divided the interior compartments on the eighth.
Line 1,826: Line 1,815:
 
When we consider these two forms of the same legend, we see many points wherein the story points directly to [[Atlantis]].
 
When we consider these two forms of the same legend, we see many points wherein the story points directly to [[Atlantis]].
  
1. In the first place, [[Berosus]] tells us that the god who gave warning of the coming of the [[Deluge]] was [[Chronos]]. [[Chronos]], it is well known, was the same as [[Saturn]]. [[Saturn]] was an ancient king of [[Italy]], who, far anterior to the founding of Rome, introduced civilization from some other country to the Italians. He established industry and social order, filled the land with plenty, and created the golden age of [[Italy]]. He was suddenly removed to the abodes of the gods. His name is connected, in the mythological legends, with "a great Saturnian continent" in the [[Atlantic]] Ocean, and a great kingdom which, in the remote ages, embraced Northern [[Africa]] and the [[European]] coast of the [[Mediterranean]] as far as the peninsula of [[Italy]], and "certain islands in the sea;" agreeing, in this respect, with the story of [[Plato]] as to the dominions of [[Atlantis]]. The Romans called the [[Atlantic Ocean]] "[[Chronium Mare]]," the Sea of [[Chronos]], thus identifying [[Chronos]] with that ocean. The [[Pillars of Hercules]] were also called by the ancients "the pillars of [[Chronos]]."
+
1. In the first place, [[Berosus]] tells us that the god who gave warning of the coming of the [[Deluge]] was [[Chronos]]. [[Chronos]], it is well known, was the same as [[Saturn]]. [[Saturn]] was an ancient king of [[Italy]], who, far anterior to the founding of [[Rome]], introduced civilization from some other country to the Italians. He established industry and social order, filled the land with plenty, and created the golden age of [[Italy]]. He was suddenly removed to the abodes of the gods. His name is connected, in the mythological legends, with "a great Saturnian continent" in the [[Atlantic]] Ocean, and a great kingdom which, in the remote ages, embraced [[Northern Africa]] and the [[European]] coast of the [[Mediterranean]] as far as the peninsula of [[Italy]], and "certain islands in the sea;" agreeing, in this respect, with the story of [[Plato]] as to the dominions of [[Atlantis]]. The [[Romans]] called the [[Atlantic Ocean]] "[[Chronium Mare]]," the Sea of [[Chronos]], thus identifying [[Chronos]] with that ocean. The [[Pillars of Hercules]] were also called by the ancients "the pillars of [[Chronos]]."
  
 
Here, then, we have convincing testimony that the country referred to in the [[Chaldean]] legends was the land of [[Chronos]], or [[Saturn]]--the ocean world, the dominion of [[Atlantis]].
 
Here, then, we have convincing testimony that the country referred to in the [[Chaldean]] legends was the land of [[Chronos]], or [[Saturn]]--the ocean world, the dominion of [[Atlantis]].
Line 1,837: Line 1,826:
  
  
he was represented in the [[Chaldean]] monuments as half man and half fish; he was described as the god, not of the rivers and seas, but of "the abyss"--to wit, the ocean. He it was who was said to have brought civilization and letters to the ancestors of the [[Assyrians]]. He clearly represented an ancient, maritime, civilized nation; he came from the ocean, and was associated with some land and people that had been destroyed by rain and inundations. The fact that the scene of the [[Deluge]] is located on the [[Euphrates]] proves nothing, for we will see hereafter that almost every nation had its especial mountain on which, according to its traditions, the ark rested; just as every [[Greek]] tribe had its own particular mountain of [[Olympos]]. The god [[Bel]] of the legend was the Baal of the [[Phoenician]]s, who, as we shall show, were of [[Atlantean]] origin. [[Bel]], or Baal, was worshipped on the western and northern coasts of [[Europe]], and gave his name to the [[Baltic]], the Great and Little Belt, Balesbaugen, Balestranden, etc.; and to many localities, in the [[British Islands]], as, for instance, Belan and the Baal hills in Yorkshire.
+
he was represented in the [[Chaldean]] monuments as half man and half fish; he was described as the god, not of the rivers and seas, but of "the abyss"--to wit, the ocean. He it was who was said to have brought civilization and letters to the ancestors of the [[Assyrians]]. He clearly represented an ancient, maritime, civilized nation; he came from the ocean, and was associated with some land and people that had been destroyed by rain and inundations. The fact that the scene of the [[Deluge]] is located on the [[Euphrates]] proves nothing, for we will see hereafter that almost every nation had its especial mountain on which, according to its traditions, the ark rested; just as every [[Greek]] tribe had its own particular mountain of [[Olympos]]. The god [[Bel]] of the legend was the [[Baal]] of the [[Phoenician]]s, who, as we shall show, were of [[Atlantean]] origin. [[Bel]], or [[Baal]], was worshipped on the western and northern coasts of [[Europe]], and gave his name to the [[Baltic]], the Great and Little Belt, Balesbaugen, Balestranden, etc.; and to many localities, in the [[British Islands]], as, for instance, Belan and the [[Baal]] hills in [[Yorkshire]].
  
 
3. In those respects wherein the [[Chaldean]] legend, evidently the older form of the tradition, differs from the Biblical record, we see that in each instance we approach nearer to [[Atlantis]]. The account given in [[Genesis]] is the form of the tradition that would be natural to an inland people. Although there is an allusion to "the breaking up of the fountains of the great deep" (about which I shall speak more fully hereafter), the principal destruction seems to have been accomplished by rain; hence the greater period allowed for the [[Deluge]], to give time enough for the rain to fall, and subsequently drain off from the land. A people dwelling in the midst of a continent could not conceive the possibility of a whole world sinking beneath the sea; they therefore supposed the destruction to have been caused by a continuous down-pour of rain for forty days and forty nights.
 
3. In those respects wherein the [[Chaldean]] legend, evidently the older form of the tradition, differs from the Biblical record, we see that in each instance we approach nearer to [[Atlantis]]. The account given in [[Genesis]] is the form of the tradition that would be natural to an inland people. Although there is an allusion to "the breaking up of the fountains of the great deep" (about which I shall speak more fully hereafter), the principal destruction seems to have been accomplished by rain; hence the greater period allowed for the [[Deluge]], to give time enough for the rain to fall, and subsequently drain off from the land. A people dwelling in the midst of a continent could not conceive the possibility of a whole world sinking beneath the sea; they therefore supposed the destruction to have been caused by a continuous down-pour of rain for forty days and forty nights.
Line 1,857: Line 1,846:
  
 
''THE [[DELUGE]] LEGENDS OF OTHER NATIONS.''<p align="right">85</p>
 
''THE [[DELUGE]] LEGENDS OF OTHER NATIONS.''<p align="right">85</p>
 
 
 
  
 
====CHAPTER IV.====
 
====CHAPTER IV.====
Line 1,894: Line 1,880:
 
had inspired them; as in great calamities the creatures of the forest have been known to seek refuge in the houses of men.
 
had inspired them; as in great calamities the creatures of the forest have been known to seek refuge in the houses of men.
  
[[India]] affords us an account of the [[Deluge]] which, by its poverty, strikingly contrasts with that of the Bible and the [[Chaldean]]s. Its most simple and ancient form is found in the ''[[Catapatha Brahmana]]'' of the [[Rig-Veda]]. It has been translated for the first time by [[Max Mueller]].
+
[[India]] affords us an account of the [[Deluge]] which, by its poverty, strikingly contrasts with that of the Bible and the [[Chaldean]]s. Its most simple and ancient form is found in the ''[[Catapatha [[Brahman]]a]]'' of the [[Rig-Veda]]. It has been translated for the first time by [[Max Mueller]].
  
 
"One morning water for washing was brought to [[Manu]], and when he had washed himself a fish remained in his hands, and it addressed these words to him: 'Protect me, and I will save thee.' 'From what wilt thou save me?' 'A [[Deluge]] will sweep all creatures away; it is from that I will save thee.' 'How shall I protect thee?' The fish replied, 'While we are small we run great dangers, for fish swallow fish. Keep me at first in a vase; when I become too large for it, dig a basin to put me into. When I shall have grown still more, throw me into the ocean; then I shall be preserved from destruction.' Soon it grew a large fish. It said to [[Manu]], 'The very year I shall have reached my full growth the [[Deluge]] will happen. Then build a vessel and worship me. When the waters rise, enter the vessel, and I will save thee.'
 
"One morning water for washing was brought to [[Manu]], and when he had washed himself a fish remained in his hands, and it addressed these words to him: 'Protect me, and I will save thee.' 'From what wilt thou save me?' 'A [[Deluge]] will sweep all creatures away; it is from that I will save thee.' 'How shall I protect thee?' The fish replied, 'While we are small we run great dangers, for fish swallow fish. Keep me at first in a vase; when I become too large for it, dig a basin to put me into. When I shall have grown still more, throw me into the ocean; then I shall be preserved from destruction.' Soon it grew a large fish. It said to [[Manu]], 'The very year I shall have reached my full growth the [[Deluge]] will happen. Then build a vessel and worship me. When the waters rise, enter the vessel, and I will save thee.'
Line 1,910: Line 1,896:
  
  
--[[Satyravata]], 'the man who loves justice and truth,' strikingly corresponding to the [[Chaldean]] [[Khasisatra]]. Nor is the [[Puranic]] version of the Legend of the [[Deluge]] to be despised, though it be of recent date, and full of fantastic and often puerile details. In certain aspects it is less [[Aryan]]ized than that of ''[[Brahmana]]'' or than the ''[[Mahabharata]]''; and, above all, it gives some circumstances omitted in these earlier versions, which must yet have belonged to the original foundation, since they appear in the [[Babylonian]] legend; a circumstance preserved, no doubt, by the oral tradition--popular, and not [[Brahmanic]]--with which the ''[[Puranas]]'' are so deeply imbued. This has already been observed by [[Pictet]], who lays due stress on the following passage of the ''[[Bhagavata-Purana]]'': 'In seven days,' said [[Vishnu]] to [[Satyravata]], ''the three worlds shall be submerged.'' There is nothing like this in the ''[[Brahmana]]'' nor the ''[[Mahabharata]]'', but in [[Genesis]] the Lord says to [[Noah]], 'Yet seven days and I will cause it to rain upon the earth;' and a little farther we read, 'After seven days the waters of the flood were upon the earth.'... Nor must we pay less attention to the directions given by the fish-god to [[Satyravata]] for the placing of the sacred Scriptures in a safe place, in order to preserve them from [[Hayagriva]], a marine [[Horse]] dwelling in the abyss.... We recognize in it, under an [[Indian]] garb, the very tradition of the interment of the sacred writings at [[Sippara]] by [[Khasisatra]], such as we have seen it in the fragment of [[Berosus]]."
+
--[[Satyravata]], 'the man who loves justice and truth,' strikingly corresponding to the [[Chaldean]] [[Khasisatra]]. Nor is the [[Puranic]] version of the Legend of the [[Deluge]] to be despised, though it be of recent date, and full of fantastic and often puerile details. In certain aspects it is less [[Aryan]]ized than that of ''[[[[Brahman]]a]]'' or than the ''[[Mahabharata]]''; and, above all, it gives some circumstances omitted in these earlier versions, which must yet have belonged to the original foundation, since they appear in the [[Babylonian]] legend; a circumstance preserved, no doubt, by the oral tradition--popular, and not [[[[Brahman]]ic]]--with which the ''[[Puranas]]'' are so deeply imbued. This has already been observed by [[Pictet]], who lays due stress on the following passage of the ''[[Bhagavata-Purana]]'': 'In seven days,' said [[Vishnu]] to [[Satyravata]], ''the three worlds shall be submerged.'' There is nothing like this in the ''[[[[Brahman]]a]]'' nor the ''[[Mahabharata]]'', but in [[Genesis]] the Lord says to [[Noah]], 'Yet seven days and I will cause it to rain upon the earth;' and a little farther we read, 'After seven days the waters of the flood were upon the earth.'... Nor must we pay less attention to the directions given by the fish-god to [[Satyravata]] for the placing of the sacred Scriptures in a safe place, in order to preserve them from [[Hayagriva]], a marine [[Horse]] dwelling in the abyss.... We recognize in it, under an [[Indian]] garb, the very tradition of the interment of the sacred writings at [[Sippara]] by [[Khasisatra]], such as we have seen it in the fragment of [[Berosus]]."
  
 
The references to "the three worlds" and the "fish-god" in these legends point to [[Atlantis]]. The "three worlds" probably refers to the great empire of [[Atlantis]], described by [[Plato]], to wit, the western continent, [[America]], the eastern continent, [[Europe]] and [[Africa]], considered as one, and the island of [[Atlantis]]. As we have seen, [[Poseidon]], the founder of the civilization of [[Atlantis]], is identical with [[Neptune]], who is always represented riding a dolphin, bearing a trident, or three-pronged symbol, in his hand, emblematical probably of the triple kingdom. He is thus a sea-god, or fish-god, and he comes to save the representative of his country.
 
The references to "the three worlds" and the "fish-god" in these legends point to [[Atlantis]]. The "three worlds" probably refers to the great empire of [[Atlantis]], described by [[Plato]], to wit, the western continent, [[America]], the eastern continent, [[Europe]] and [[Africa]], considered as one, and the island of [[Atlantis]]. As we have seen, [[Poseidon]], the founder of the civilization of [[Atlantis]], is identical with [[Neptune]], who is always represented riding a dolphin, bearing a trident, or three-pronged symbol, in his hand, emblematical probably of the triple kingdom. He is thus a sea-god, or fish-god, and he comes to save the representative of his country.
Line 1,978: Line 1,964:
 
and thou, O heaven, withhold thy rain;' and immediately the waters abated."
 
and thou, O heaven, withhold thy rain;' and immediately the waters abated."
  
In the bardic poems of Wales we have a tradition of the [[Deluge]] which, although recent, under the concise forms of the triads, is still deserving of attention. As usual, the legend is localized in the country, and the [[Deluge]] counts among three terrible catastrophes of the island of [[Prydian]], or [[Britain]], the other two consisting of devastation by fire and by drought.
+
In the bardic poems of [[Wales]] we have a tradition of the [[Deluge]] which, although recent, under the concise forms of the triads, is still deserving of attention. As usual, the legend is localized in the country, and the [[Deluge]] counts among three terrible catastrophes of the island of [[Prydian]], or [[Britain]], the other two consisting of devastation by fire and by drought.
  
 
"The first of these events," it is said, "was the eruption of [[Llyn-llion]], or 'the lake of waves,' and the inundation (''bawdd'') of the whole country, by which all mankind was drowned with the exception of [[Dwyfam]] and [[Dwyfach]], who saved themselves in a vessel without rigging, and it was by them that the island of [[Prydian]] was repeopled."
 
"The first of these events," it is said, "was the eruption of [[Llyn-llion]], or 'the lake of waves,' and the inundation (''bawdd'') of the whole country, by which all mankind was drowned with the exception of [[Dwyfam]] and [[Dwyfach]], who saved themselves in a vessel without rigging, and it was by them that the island of [[Prydian]] was repeopled."
Line 1,986: Line 1,972:
 
"Although the triads in their actual form hardly date farther than the thirteenth or fourteenth century, some of them are undoubtedly connected with very ancient traditions, and nothing here points to a borrowing from [[Genesis]].
 
"Although the triads in their actual form hardly date farther than the thirteenth or fourteenth century, some of them are undoubtedly connected with very ancient traditions, and nothing here points to a borrowing from [[Genesis]].
  
"But it is not so, perhaps, with another triad, speaking of the vessel ''[[Nefyddnaf-Neifion]]'', which at the time of the overflow of [[Llyon-llion]], bore a pair of all living creatures, and rather too much resembles the ark of [[Noah]]. The very name of the patriarch may have suggested this triple epithet, obscure as to its meaning, but evidently formed on the principle of Cymric alliteration. In the same triad we have the enigmatic story of the horned oxen (''[[ychain banog]]'') of [[Hu]] the mighty, who drew out of [[Llyon-llion]] the avanc (beaver or crocodile?), in order that the lake should not overflow. The meaning of these enigmas could only be hoped from deciphering the chaos of barbaric monuments of the Welsh middle age; but meanwhile we cannot doubt that the [[Cymri]] possessed an indigenous tradition of the [[Deluge]]."
+
"But it is not so, perhaps, with another triad, speaking of the vessel ''[[Nefyddnaf-Neifion]]'', which at the time of the overflow of [[Llyon-llion]], bore a pair of all living creatures, and rather too much resembles the ark of [[Noah]]. The very name of the patriarch may have suggested this triple epithet, obscure as to it's meaning, but evidently formed on the principle of Cymric alliteration. In the same triad we have the enigmatic story of the horned oxen (''[[ychain banog]]'') of [[Hu]] the mighty, who drew out of [[Llyon-llion]] the [[avanc]] (beaver or crocodile?), in order that the lake should not overflow. The meaning of these enigmas could only be hoped from deciphering the chaos of barbaric monuments of the [[Welsh]] middle age; but meanwhile we cannot doubt that the [[Cymri]] possessed an indigenous tradition of the [[Deluge]]."
  
 
We also find a vestige of the same tradition in the [[Scandinavian Edda]]. Here the story is combined with a cosmogonic myth. The three sons of [[Borr-Othin]], [[Wili]], and [[We]]-grandsons of [[Buri]], the first man, slay [[Ymir]], the father of the
 
We also find a vestige of the same tradition in the [[Scandinavian Edda]]. Here the story is combined with a cosmogonic myth. The three sons of [[Borr-Othin]], [[Wili]], and [[We]]-grandsons of [[Buri]], the first man, slay [[Ymir]], the father of the
Line 2,015: Line 2,001:
  
  
[[File:Atlantis16.jpg|border|THE WORLD ACCORDING TO COSMOS]]
+
[[File:Atlantis16.jpg|center|frame|THE WORLD ACCORDING TO COSMOS]]
  
  
Line 2,033: Line 2,019:
 
I copy this map, not to show how much more we know than poor [[Cosmos]], but because he taught that all around this habitable world there was yet another world, adhering closely on all sides to the circumscribing walls of heaven. "Upon the eastern side of this transmarine land he judges man was created; and that there the paradise of gladness was located,
 
I copy this map, not to show how much more we know than poor [[Cosmos]], but because he taught that all around this habitable world there was yet another world, adhering closely on all sides to the circumscribing walls of heaven. "Upon the eastern side of this transmarine land he judges man was created; and that there the paradise of gladness was located,
  
[[File:Atlantis17.jpg|border|MAP OF [[EUROPE]], AFTER [[COSMOS]]]]
+
[[File:Atlantis17.jpg|center|frame|MAP OF [[EUROPE]], AFTER [[COSMOS]]]]
  
 
such as here on the eastern edge is described, where it received our first parents, driven out of Paradise to that extreme point of land on the sea-shore. Hence, upon the coming of the [[Deluge]], [[Noah]] and his sons were borne by the ark to the earth we now inhabit. The four rivers he supposes to be gushing up the spouts of Paradise." They are depicted on the above map: O is the [[Mediterranean Sea]]; P, the [[Arabian Gulf]]; L, the [[Caspian Sea]]; Q, the [[Tigris]]; M, the river [[Pison]]; "''and J, the land where men dwelt before the Flood.''"
 
such as here on the eastern edge is described, where it received our first parents, driven out of Paradise to that extreme point of land on the sea-shore. Hence, upon the coming of the [[Deluge]], [[Noah]] and his sons were borne by the ark to the earth we now inhabit. The four rivers he supposes to be gushing up the spouts of Paradise." They are depicted on the above map: O is the [[Mediterranean Sea]]; P, the [[Arabian Gulf]]; L, the [[Caspian Sea]]; Q, the [[Tigris]]; M, the river [[Pison]]; "''and J, the land where men dwelt before the Flood.''"
Line 2,046: Line 2,032:
 
This shows that the traditions in the time of [[Cosmos]] looked to the west as the place of the [[Deluge]], and that after the [[Deluge]] [[Noah]] came to the shores of the [[Mediterranean]]. The fact, too, that there was land in the west beyond the ocean is recognized by [[Cosmos]], and is probably a dim echo from [[Atlantean]] times.
 
This shows that the traditions in the time of [[Cosmos]] looked to the west as the place of the [[Deluge]], and that after the [[Deluge]] [[Noah]] came to the shores of the [[Mediterranean]]. The fact, too, that there was land in the west beyond the ocean is recognized by [[Cosmos]], and is probably a dim echo from [[Atlantean]] times.
  
The following rude cut, from [[Cosmos]], represents the high mountain in the
+
The following rude cut, from [[Cosmos]], represents the high mountain in the north behind which the sun hid himself at night, thus producing the alternations of day and night. His solar majesty is just getting behind the mountain, while Luna looks calmly on at the operation. The mountain is as crooked as [[Culhuacan]], the crooked mountain of [[Atzlan]] described by the [[Aztecs]].
north behind which the sun hid himself at night, thus producing the
+
alternations of day and night. His solar majesty is just getting behind
+
the mountain, while Luna looks calmly on at the operation. The mountain
+
is as crooked as Culhuacan, the crooked mountain of Atzlan described by
+
the [[Aztecs]].
+
  
[[File:Atlantis18.jpg|border|THE MOUNTAIN THE SUN GOES BEHIND AT NIGHT]]
+
[[File:Atlantis18.jpg|center|frame|THE MOUNTAIN THE SUN GOES BEHIND AT NIGHT]]
 
<center>5</center>
 
<center>5</center>
 
----
 
----
Line 2,067: Line 2,048:
  
  
"It is a very remarkable fact," says [[Alfred Maury]], "that we find in [[America]] traditions of the [[Deluge]] coming infinitely nearer to that of the Bible and the [[Chaldean]] religion than among any people of the Old World. It is difficult to suppose that the emigration that certainly took place from [[Asia]] into [[North America]] by the [[Kourile]] and [[Aleutian Islands]], and still does so in our day, should have brought in these memories, since no trace is found of them among those [[Mongol]] or [[Siberian]] populations which were fused with the natives of the New World.... The attempts that have been made to trace the origin of [[Mexican]] civilization to [[Asia]] have not as yet led to any sufficiently conclusive facts. Besides, had [[Buddhism]], which we doubt, made its way into [[America]], it could not have introduced a myth not found in its own scriptures. The cause of these similarities between the diluvian traditions of the nations of the New World and that of the Bible remains therefore unexplained."
+
"It is a very remarkable fact," says [[Alfred Maury]], "that we find in [[America]] traditions of the [[Deluge]] coming infinitely nearer to that of the Bible and the [[Chaldean]] religion than among any people of the Old World. It is difficult to suppose that the emigration that certainly took place from [[Asia]] into [[North America]] by the [[Kourile]] and [[Aleutian Islands]], and still does so in our day, should have brought in these memories, since no trace is found of them among those [[Mongol]] or [[[[Siberia]]n]] populations which were fused with the natives of the New World.... The attempts that have been made to trace the origin of [[Mexican]] civilization to [[Asia]] have not as yet led to any sufficiently conclusive facts. Besides, had [[Buddhism]], which we doubt, made its way into [[America]], it could not have introduced a myth not found in its own scriptures. The cause of these similarities between the diluvian traditions of the nations of the New World and that of the Bible remains therefore unexplained."
  
 
The cause of these similarities can be easily explained: the legends of the Flood did not pass into [[America]] by way of the [[Aleutian Islands]], or through the [[Buddhist]]s of [[Asia]], but were derived from an actual knowledge of [[Atlantis]] possessed by the people of [[America]].
 
The cause of these similarities can be easily explained: the legends of the Flood did not pass into [[America]] by way of the [[Aleutian Islands]], or through the [[Buddhist]]s of [[Asia]], but were derived from an actual knowledge of [[Atlantis]] possessed by the people of [[America]].
Line 2,078: Line 2,059:
  
  
extended; and therefore it is not strange to find, as [[Alfred Maury]] says, [[America]]n traditions of the [[Deluge]] coming nearer to that of the Bible and the [[Chaldean]] record than those of any people of the Old World.
+
extended; and therefore it is not strange to find, as [[Alfred Maury]] says, [[American]] traditions of the [[Deluge]] coming nearer to that of the Bible and the [[Chaldean]] record than those of any people of the Old World.
  
"The most important among the [[America]]n traditions are the [[Mexican]], for
+
"The most important among the [[American]] traditions are the [[Mexican]], for they appear to have been definitively fixed by symbolic and mnemonic paintings before any contact with [[Europeans]]. According to these documents, the [[Noah]] of the [[Mexican]] cataclysm was [[Coxcox]], called by certain peoples [[Teocipactli]] or [[Tezpi]]. He had saved himself, together with his wife [[Xochiquetzal]], in a bark, or, according to other traditions, on a raft made of cypress-wood (''Cupressus disticha''). Paintings retracing the [[Deluge]] of [[Coxcox]] have been discovered among the [[Aztecs]], [[Miztecs]], [[Zapotecs]], [[Tlascaltecs]], and [[Mechoacaneses]]. The tradition of the latter is still more strikingly in conformity with the story as we have it in [[Genesis]], and in [[Chaldean]] sources. It tells how [[Tezpi]] embarked in a spacious vessel with his wife, his children, and several animals, and grain, whose preservation was essential to the subsistence of the human race. When the great god [[Tezcatlipoca]] decreed that the waters should retire, [[Tezpi]] sent a vulture from the bark. The bird, feeding on the carcasses with which the earth was laden, did not return. [[Tezpi]] sent out other birds, of which the humming-bird only came back with a leafy branch in its beak. Then [[Tezpi]], seeing that the country began to vegetate, left his bark on the mountain of [[Colhuacan]].
they appear to have been definitively fixed by symbolic and mnemonic
+
paintings before any contact with [[Europeans]]. According to these
+
documents, the [[Noah]] of the [[Mexican]] cataclysm was Coxcox, called by
+
certain peoples Teocipactli or Tezpi. He had saved himself, together
+
with his wife Xochiquetzal, in a bark, or, according to other
+
traditions, on a raft made of cypress-wood (Cupressus disticha).
+
Paintings retracing the [[Deluge]] of Coxcox have been discovered among the
+
[[Aztecs]], Miztecs, Zapotecs, Tlascaltecs, and Mechoacaneses. The tradition
+
of the latter is still more strikingly in conformity with the story as
+
we have it in [[Genesis]], and in [[Chaldean]] sources. It tells how Tezpi
+
embarked in a spacious vessel with his wife, his children, and several
+
animals, and grain, whose preservation was essential to the subsistence
+
of the human race. When the great god Tezcatlipoca decreed that the
+
waters should retire, Tezpi sent a vulture from the bark. The bird,
+
feeding on the carcasses with which the earth was laden, did not return.
+
Tezpi sent out other birds, of which the humming-bird only came back
+
with a leafy branch in its beak. Then Tezpi, seeing that the country
+
began to vegetate, left his bark on the mountain of Colhuacan.
+
  
"The document, however, that gives the most valuable information," says
+
"The document, however, that gives the most valuable information," says [[Lenormant]], "as to the cosmogony of the [[Mexican]]s is one known as '[[Codex Vaticanus]],' from the library where it is preserved. It consists of four symbolic pictures, representing the four ages of the world preceding the actual one. They were copied at [[Chobula]] from a manuscript anterior to the conquest, and accompanied by the explanatory commentary of [[Pedro de los Rios]], a [[Dominican monk]], who, in 1566, less than fifty years after the arrival of [[Cortez]], devoted himself to the research of indigenous traditions as being necessary to his missionary work."
[[Lenormant]], "as to the cosmogony of the [[Mexican]]s is one known as 'Codex
+
Vaticanus,' from the library where it is preserved. It consists of four
+
symbolic pictures, representing the four ages of the world preceding the
+
actual one. They were copied at Chobula from a manuscript anterior to
+
the conquest, and accompanied by the explanatory commentary of Pedro de
+
los Rios, a Dominican monk, who, in 1566, less than fifty years after
+
the arrival of Cortez, devoted himself to the research of indigenous
+
traditions as being necessary to his missionary work."
+
  
There were, according to this document, four ages of the world. The
+
There were, according to this document, four ages of the world. The first was an age of giants (the great [[mammalia]]?)
first was an age of giants (the great mammalia?) who were destroyed by
+
----
famine; the second age ended in a conflagration; the third age was an
+
{{pagebreak}}
age of monkeys.
+
  
"Then comes the fourth age, Atonatiuh, 'Sun of Water,' whose number is
+
100 <center>''ATLANTIS: THE ANTEDILUVIAN WORLD.''</center>
10 X 400 + 8, or 4008. It ends by a great inundation, a veritable
+
[[Deluge]]. All mankind are changed into fish, with the exception of one man
+
and his wife, who save themselves in a bark made of the trunk of a
+
cypress-tree. The picture represents Matlalcueye, goddess of waters, and
+
consort of Tlaloc, god of rain, as darting down toward earth. Coxcox and
+
Xochiquetzal, the two human beings preserved, are seen seated on a
+
tree-trunk and floating in the midst of the waters. This flood is
+
represented as the last cataclysm that devastates the earth."
+
  
The learned Abbe Brasseur de Bourbourg translates from the Aztec
 
language of the "Codex Chimalpopoca" the following Flood legend:
 
  
"This is the sun called Nahui-atl, '4 water.' Now the water was tranquil
+
who were destroyed by famine; the second age ended in a conflagration; the third age was an age of monkeys.
for forty years, plus twelve, and men lived for the third and fourth
+
times. When the sun Nahui-atl came there had passed away four hundred
+
years, plus two ages, plus seventy-six years. Then all mankind was lost
+
and drowned, and found themselves changed into fish. The sky came nearer
+
the water. In a single day all was lost, and the day Nahui-xochitl, '4
+
flower,' destroyed all our flesh.
+
  
"And that year was that of ce-calli, '1 house,' and the day Nahui-atl
+
"Then comes the fourth age, ''[[Atonatiuh]]'', 'Sun of Water,' whose number is 10 X 400 + 8, or 4008. It ends by a great inundation, a veritable [[Deluge]]. All mankind are changed into fish, with the exception of one man and his wife, who save themselves in a bark made of the trunk of a cypress-tree. The picture represents [[Matlalcueye]], goddess of waters, and consort of [[Tlaloc]], god of rain, as darting down toward earth. [[Coxcox]] and [[Xochiquetzal]], the two human beings preserved, are seen seated on a tree-trunk and floating in the midst of the waters. This flood is represented as the last cataclysm that devastates the earth."
all was lost. Even the mountains sunk into the water, and the water
+
remained tranquil for fifty-two springs.
+
  
"Now at the end of the year the god Titlacahuan had warned Nata and his
+
The learned [[Abbe [[Brasseur]] De Bourbourg]] translates from the [[Aztec]] language of the "[[Codex Chimalpopoca]]" the following Flood legend:
spouse Nena, saying, 'Make no more wine of Agave, but begin to hollow
+
out a great cypress, and you will enter into it when in the month
+
Tozontli the water approaches the sky.'
+
  
"Then they entered in, and when the god had closed the door, he said,
+
"This is the sun called ''[[Nahui-atl]]'', '4 water.' Now the water was tranquil for forty years, plus twelve, and men lived for the third and fourth times. When the sun ''[[Nahui-atl]]'' came there had passed away four hundred years, plus two ages, plus seventy-six years. Then all mankind was lost and drowned, and found themselves changed into fish. The sky came nearer the water. In a single day all was lost, and the day ''[[Nahui-xochitl]]'', '4 flower,' destroyed all our flesh.
'Thou shalt eat but one ear of [[Maize]], and thy wife one also.'
+
  
"But as soon as they had finished they went out, and the water remained
+
"And that year was that of ''[[ce-calli]]'', '1 house,' and the day ''[[Nahui-atl]]'' all was lost. Even the mountains ''sunk into the water'', and the water remained tranquil for fifty-two springs.
calm, for the wood no longer moved, and, on opening it, they began to
+
see fish.
+
  
"Then they lit a fire, by rubbing together pieces of wood, and they
+
"Now at the end of the year the god [[Titlacahuan]] had warned [[Nata]] and his spouse [[Nena]], saying, 'Make no more wine of Agave, but begin to hollow out a great cypress, and you will enter into it when in the month [[Tozontli]] the water approaches the sky.'
roasted fish.
+
  
"The gods Citlallinicue and Citlalatonac, instantly looking down said:
+
"Then they entered in, and when the god had closed the door, he said, 'Thou shalt eat but one ear of [[Maize]], and thy wife one also.'
'Divine Lord, what is that fire that is making there? Why do they thus
+
smoke the sky?' At once Titlacahuan-Tezcatlipoca descended. He began to
+
chide, saying, 'Who has made this fire here?' And, seizing hold of the
+
fish, he shaped their loins and heads, and they were transformed into
+
dogs (chichime)."
+
  
Here we note a remarkable approximation to [[Plato]]'s account of the
+
"But as soon as they had finished they went out, and the water remained calm, for the wood no longer moved, and, on opening it, they began to see fish.
destruction of [[Atlantis]]. "In one day and one fatal night," says [[Plato]],
+
----
"there came mighty earthquakes and inundations that ingulfed that
+
{{pagebreak}}
warlike people." "In a single day all was lost," says the Aztec legend.
+
And, instead of a rainfall of forty days and forty nights, as
+
represented in the Bible, here we see "in a single day ... even the
+
mountains sunk into the water;" not only the land on which the people
+
dwelt who were turned into fish, but the very mountains of that land
+
sunk into the water. Does not this describe the fate of [[Atlantis]]? In the
+
[[Chaldean]] legend "the great goddess [[Ishtar]] wailed like a child," saying,
+
"I am the mother who gave birth to men, and, like to the race of fishes,
+
they are filling the sea."
+
  
In the account in [[Genesis]], [[Noah]] "builded an altar unto the Lord, and
+
''THE [[DELUGE]] LEGENDS OF [[AMERICA]].''<p align="right">101</p>
took of every clean beast, and of every clean fowl, and offered burnt
+
offerings on the altar. And the Lord smelled a sweet savor; and the Lord
+
said in his heart, 'I will not again curse the ground any more for man's
+
sake.'" In the [[Chaldean]] legend we are told that [[Khasisatra]] also offered
+
a sacrifice, a burnt offering, "and the gods assembled like flies above
+
the master of the sacrifice." But [[Bel]] came in a high state of
+
indignation, just as the Aztec god did, and was about to finish the work
+
of the [[Deluge]], when the great god [[Ea]] took pity in his heart and
+
interfered to save the remnant of mankind.
+
  
These resemblances cannot be accidental; neither can they be the
 
interpolations of [[Christian]] missionaries, for it will be observed the
 
Aztec legends differ from the Bible in points where they resemble on the
 
one hand [[Plato]]'s record, and on the other the [[Chaldean]] legend.
 
  
The name of the hero of the Aztec story, Nata, pronounced with the broad
+
"Then they lit a fire, by rubbing together pieces of wood, and they roasted fish.
sound of the a, is not far from the name of [[Noah]] or Noe. The [[Deluge]] of
+
[[Genesis]] is a [[Phoenician]], [[Semitic]], or Hebraic legend, and yet, strange to
+
say, the name of [[Noah]], which occurs in it, bears no appropriate meaning
+
in those tongues, but is derived from [[Aryan]] sources; its fundamental
+
root is Na, to which in all the [[Aryan]] language is attached the meaning
+
of water--{[[Greek]]} na'ein, to flow; {[[Greek]]} na~ma, water; Nympha,
+
Neptunus, water deities. ([[Lenormant]] and [[Chevallier]], "Anc. Hist. of the
+
East," vol. i., p. 15.) We find the root Na repeated in the name of this
+
Central [[America]]n [[Noah]], Na-ta, and probably in the word "Na-hui-atl"--the
+
age of water.
+
  
But still more striking analogies exist between the [[Chaldean]] legend and
+
"The gods [[Citlallinicue]] and [[Citlalatonac]], instantly looking down said: 'Divine Lord, what is that fire that is making there? Why do they thus smoke the sky?' At once [[Titlacahuan]]-[[Tezcatlipoca]] descended. He began to chide, saying, 'Who has made this fire here?' And, seizing hold of the fish, he shaped their loins and heads, and they were transformed into dogs (''[[chichime]]'')."
the story of the [[Deluge]] as told in the "Popul Vuh" (the Sacred Book) of
+
the Central [[America]]ns:
+
  
"Then the waters were agitated by the will of the Heart of Heaven
+
Here we note a remarkable approximation to [[Plato]]'s account of the destruction of [[Atlantis]]. "In one day and one fatal night," says [[Plato]], "there came mighty earthquakes and inundations that ingulfed that warlike people." "In a single day all was lost," says the [[Aztec]] legend. And, instead of a rainfall of forty days and forty nights, as represented in the Bible, here we see "in a single day ... ''even the mountains sunk into the water'';" not only the land on which the people dwelt who were turned into fish, but the very mountains of that land sunk into the water. Does not this describe the fate of [[Atlantis]]? In the [[Chaldean]] legend "the great goddess [[Ishtar]] wailed like a child," saying, "I am the mother who gave birth to men, and, ''like to the race of fishes'', they are filling the sea."
(Hurakan), and a great inundation came upon the heads of these
+
creatures.... They were ingulfed, and a resinous thickness descended
+
from heaven; ... the face of the earth was obscured, and a heavy
+
darkening rain commenced--rain by day and rain by night.... There was
+
heard a great noise above their heads, as if produced by fire. Then were
+
men seen running, pushing each other, filled with despair; they wished
+
to climb upon their houses, and the houses, tumbling down, fell to the
+
ground; they wished to climb upon the trees, and the trees shook them
+
off; they wished to enter into the grottoes (caves), and the grottoes
+
closed themselves before them.... Water and fire contributed to the
+
universal ruin at the time of the last great cataclysm which preceded
+
the fourth creation."
+
  
Observe the similarities here to the [[Chaldean]] legend. There is the same
+
In the account in [[Genesis]], [[Noah]] "builded an altar unto the Lord, and took of every clean beast, and of every clean fowl, and offered burnt offerings on the altar. And the Lord smelled a sweet savor; and the Lord said in his heart, 'I will not again curse the ground any more for man's sake.'" In the [[Chaldean]] legend we are told that [[Khasisatra]] also offered a sacrifice, a burnt offering, "and the gods assembled like flies above the master of the sacrifice." But [[Bel]] came in a high state of indignation, just as the [[Aztec]] god did, and was about to finish the work of the [[Deluge]], when the great god [[Ea]] took pity in his heart and interfered to save the remnant of mankind.
graphic description of a terrible event. The "black cloud" is referred
+
to in both instances; also the dreadful noises, the rising water, the
+
earthquake rocking the trees, overthrowing the houses, and crushing even
+
the mountain caverns; "the men running and pushing each other, filled
+
with despair," says the "Popul Vuh;" "the brother no longer saw his
+
brother," says the [[Assyria]]n legend.
+
  
And here I may note that this word hurakan--the spirit of the abyss, the
+
These resemblances cannot be accidental; neither can they be the interpolations of [[Christian]] missionaries, for it will be observed the [[Aztec]] legends differ from the Bible in points
god of storm, the hurricane--is very suggestive, and testifies to an
+
----
early intercourse between the opposite shores of the [[Atlantic]]. We find
+
{{pagebreak}}
in [[Spanish]] the word huracan; in [[Portuguese]], furacan; in French, ouragan;
+
in [[German]], [[Danish]], and Swedish, orcan--all of them signifying a storm;
+
while in Latin furo, or furio, means to rage. And are not the old
+
Swedish hurra, to be driven along; our own word hurried; the [[Iceland]]ic
+
word hurra, to be rattled over frozen ground, all derived from the same
+
root from which the god of the abyss, Hurakan, obtained his name? The
+
last thing a people forgets is the name of their god; we retain to this
+
day, in the names of the days of the week, the designations of four
+
[[Scandinavia]]n gods and one [[Roman]] deity.
+
  
It seems to me certain the above are simply two versions of the same
+
102 <center>''ATLANTIS: THE ANTEDILUVIAN WORLD.''</center>
event; that while ships from [[Atlantis]] carried terrified passengers to
+
tell the story of the dreadful catastrophe to the people of the
+
[[Mediterranean]] shores, other ships, flying from the tempest, bore similar
+
awful tidings to the civilized races around the [[Gulf of Mexico]].
+
  
The native [[Mexican]] historian, Ixtlilxochitl, gave this as the Toltec
 
legend of the Flood:
 
  
It is found in the histories of the Toltecs that this age and first
+
where they resemble on the one hand [[Plato]]'s record, and on the other the [[Chaldean]] legend.
world, as they call it, lasted 1716 years; that men were destroyed by
+
tremendous rains and lightning from the sky, and even all the land,
+
without the exception of anything, and the highest mountains, were
+
covered up and submerged in water fifteen cubits (caxtolmolatli); and
+
here they added other fables of how men came to multiply from the few
+
who escaped from this destruction in a "toptlipetlocali;" that this word
+
nearly signifies a close chest; and how, after men had multiplied, they
+
erected a very high "zacuali," which is to-day a tower of great height,
+
in order to take refuge in it should the second world (age) be
+
destroyed. Presently their languages were confused, and, not being able
+
to understand each other, they went to different parts of the earth.
+
  
"The Toltecs, consisting of seven friends, with their wives, who
+
The name of the hero of the [[Aztec]] story, ''[[Nata]]'', pronounced with the broad sound of the a, is not far from the name of [[Noah]] or Noe. The [[Deluge]] of [[Genesis]] is a [[Phoenician]], [[Semitic]], or Hebraic legend, and yet, strange to say, the name of [[Noah]], which occurs in it, bears no appropriate meaning in those tongues, but is derived from [[Aryan]] sources; its fundamental root is Na, to which in all the [[Aryan]] language is attached the meaning of water--{[[Greek]]} na'ein, to flow; {[[Greek]]} na~ma, water; Nympha, [[Neptunus]], water deities. ([[Lenormant]] and [[Chevallier]], "Anc. Hist. of the East," vol. i., p. 15.) We find the root Na repeated in the name of this Central [[American Noah]], Na-ta, and probably in the word "Na-hui-atl"--the age of water.
understood the same language, came to these parts, having first passed
+
great land and seas, having lived in caves, and having endured great
+
hardships in order to reach this land; ... they wandered 104 years
+
through different parts of the world before they reached Hue Hue
+
Tlapalan, which was in Ce Tecpatl, 520 years after the Flood."
+
("Ixtlilxochitl Relaciones," in Kingsborough's "Mex. Ant.," vol. ix.,
+
pp. 321, 322.)
+
  
It will of course be said that this account, in those particulars where
+
But still more striking analogies exist between the [[Chaldean]] legend and the story of the [[Deluge]] as told in the "[[Popul Vuh]]" (the Sacred Book) of the [[Central Americans]]:
it agrees with the Bible, was derived from the teachings of the [[Spanish]]
+
priests; but it must be remembered that Ixtlilxochitl was an [[Indian]], a
+
native of Tezeuco, a son of the queen, and that his "Relaciones" were
+
drawn from the archives of his family and the ancient writings of his
+
nation: he had no motive to falsify documents that were probably in the
+
hands of hundreds at that time.
+
  
Here we see that the depth of the water over the earth, "fifteen
+
"Then the waters were agitated by the will of the Heart of Heaven ([[hurakan]]), and a great inundation came upon the heads of these creatures.... They were ingulfed, and a resinous thickness descended from heaven; ... the face of the earth was obscured, and a heavy darkening rain commenced--rain by day and rain by night.... There was heard a great noise above their heads, as if produced by fire. Then were men seen running, pushing each other, filled with despair; they wished to climb upon their houses, and the houses, tumbling down, fell to the ground; they wished to climb upon the trees, and the trees shook them off; they wished to enter into the grottoes (caves), and the grottoes closed themselves before them.... Water and fire contributed to the universal ruin at the time of the last great cataclysm which preceded the fourth creation."
cubits," given in the Toltec legend, is precisely the same as that named
+
in the Bible: "fifteen cubits upward did the waters prevail." (Gen.,
+
chap. vii., 20.)
+
  
In the two curious picture-histories of the [[Aztecs]] preserved in the
+
Observe the similarities here to the [[Chaldean]] legend. There is the same graphic description of a terrible event. The "black cloud" is referred to in both instances; also the dreadful noises, the rising water, the earthquake rocking the trees, overthrowing the houses, and crushing even the mountain caverns;
[[Boturini]] collection, and published by [[Gamelli Careri]] and others, there
+
----
is a record of their migrations from their original location through
+
{{pagebreak}}
various parts of the [[North America]]n continent until their arrival in
+
[[Mexico]]. In both cases their starting-point is an island, from which they
+
pass in a boat; and the island contains in one case a mountain, and in
+
the other a high temple in the midst thereof. These things seem to be
+
reminiscences of their origin in [[Atlantis]].
+
  
In each case we see the crooked mountain of the Aztec legends, the
+
''THE [[DELUGE]] LEGENDS OF [[AMERICA]].''<p align="right">103</p>
Calhuacan, looking not unlike the bent mountain of the monk, [[Cosmos]].
+
  
In the legends of the Chibchas of Bogota we seem to have distinct
 
reminiscences of [[Atlantis]]. Bochica was their leading divinity. During
 
two thousand years he employed himself in elevating his subjects. He
 
lived in the sun, while his wife Chia occupied the moon. This would
 
appear to be an allusion to the worship of the sun and moon. Beneath
 
Bochica in their mythology was Chibchacum. In an angry mood he brought a
 
[[Deluge]] on the people of the table-land. Bochica punished him for this
 
act, and obliged him ever after, like [[Atlas]], to bear the burden of the
 
earth on his back. Occasionally be shifts the earth from one shoulder to
 
another, and this causes earthquakes!
 
  
Here we have allusions to an ancient people who, during thousands of
+
"the men running and pushing each other, filled with despair," says the "[[Popul Vuh]];" "the brother no longer saw his brother," says the [[Assyria]]n legend.
years, were elevated in the scale of civilization, and were destroyed by
+
a [[Deluge]]; and with this is associated an [[Atlantean]] god bearing the world
+
on his back. We find even the rainbow appearing in connection with this
+
legend. When Bochica appeared in answer to prayer to quell the [[Deluge]] he
+
is seated on a rainbow. He opened a breach in the earth at Tequendama,
+
through which the waters of the flood escaped, precisely as we have seen
+
them disappearing through the crevice in the earth near [[Bambyce]], in
+
[[Greece]].
+
  
The Toltecs traced their migrations back to a starting-point called
+
And here I may note that this word ''[[hurakan]]''--the spirit of the abyss, the god of storm, the hurricane--is very suggestive, and testifies to an early intercourse between the opposite shores of the [[Atlantic]]. We find in [[Spanish]] the word ''huracan''; in [[Portuguese]], ''furacan''; in French, ''ouragan''; in [[German]], [[Danish]], and [[Swedish]], ''orcan''--all of them signifying a storm; while in [[Latin]] ''furo'', or ''furio'', means to rage. And are not the old [[Swedish]] ''hurra'', to be driven along; our own word ''hurried''; the [[Iceland]]ic word ''hurra'', to be rattled over frozen ground, all derived from the same root from which the god of the abyss, [[Hurakan]], obtained his name? The last thing a people forgets is the name of their god; we retain to this day, in the names of the days of the week, the designations of four [[Scandinavia]]n gods and one [[Roman]] deity.
"Aztlan," or "Atlan." This could be no other than, [[Atlantis]]. (Bancroft's
+
"Native Races," vol. v., p. 221.) "The original home of the Nahuatlacas
+
was Aztlan, the location of which has been the subject of much
+
discussion. The causes that led to their exodus from that country can
+
only be conjectured; but they may be supposed to have been driven out by
+
their enemies, for Aztlan is described as a land too fair and beautiful
+
to be left willingly in the mere hope of finding a better." (Bancroft's
+
"Native Races," vol. v., p. 306.) The [[Aztecs]] also claimed to have come
+
originally from Aztlan. (Ibid., p. 321.) Their very name, [[Aztecs]], was
+
derived from Aztlan. (Ibid., vol. ii., p. 125). They were [[Atlantean]]s.
+
  
The "Popul Vuh" tells us that after the migration from Aztlan three sons
+
It seems to me certain the above are simply two versions of the same event; that while ships from [[Atlantis]] carried terrified passengers to tell the story of the dreadful catastrophe to the people of the [[Mediterranean]] shores, other ships, flying from the tempest, bore similar awful tidings to the civilized races around the [[Gulf of Mexico]].
of the King of the Quiches, upon the death of their father, "determined
+
to go as their fathers had ordered to the East, on the shores of the sea
+
whence their fathers had come, to receive the royalty, 'bidding adieu to
+
their brothers and friends, and promising to return.' Doubtless they
+
passed over the sea when they went to the East to receive the royalty.
+
Now this is the name of the lord, of the monarch of the people of the
+
East where they went. And when they arrived before the lord Nacxit, the
+
name of the great lord, the only judge, whose power was without limit,
+
behold he granted them the sign of royalty and all that represents
+
it ... and the insignia of royalty ... all the things, in fact,
+
which they brought on their return, and which they went to receive
+
from the other side of the sea--the art of painting from Tulan, a
+
system of writing, they said, for the things recorded in their
+
histories." (Bancroft's "Native Races," vol. v., p. 553 "Popul
+
Vuh," p. 294.)
+
  
This legend not only points to the East as the place of origin of these
+
The native [[Mexican]] historian, [[Ixtlilxochitl]], gave this as the [[Toltec]] legend of the Flood:
races, but also proves that this land of the East, this Aztlan, this
+
[[Atlantis]], exercised dominion over the colonies in Central [[America]], and
+
furnished them with the essentials of civilization. How completely does
+
this agree with the statement of [[Plato]] that the kings of [[Atlantis]] held
+
dominion over parts of "the great opposite continent!"
+
  
Professor Valentini ("Maya Archaeol.," p. 23) describes an Aztec picture
+
It is found in the histories of the [[Toltecs]] that this age and first world, as they call it, lasted 1716 years; that men were destroyed by tremendous rains and lightning from the sky, and even all the land, without the exception of anything, and the highest mountains, were covered up and submerged in water fifteen cubits (caxtolmolatli); and here they added other fables of how men came to multiply from the few who escaped from this destruction in a "toptlipetlocali;" that this word nearly signifies a close chest; and how, after men had multiplied, they erected a very high "zacuali," which is to-day a tower of great height, in order to take refuge in it should the
in the work of Gemelli ("Il giro del mondo," vol. vi.) of the migration
+
----
of the [[Aztecs]] from Aztlan:
+
{{pagebreak}}
  
"Out of a sheet of water there projects the peak of a mountain; on it
+
104 <center>''ATLANTIS: THE ANTEDILUVIAN WORLD.''</center>
stands a tree, and on the tree a bird spreads its wings. At the foot of
+
 
the mountain-peak there comes out of the water the heads of a man and a
+
 
woman. The one wears on his head the symbol of his name, Coxcox, a
+
second world (age) be destroyed. Presently their languages were confused, and, not being able to understand each other, they went to different parts of the earth.
pheasant. The other head bears that of a hand with a bouquet (xochitl, a
+
 
flower, and quetzal, shining in green gold). In the foreground is a
+
"The [[Toltecs]], consisting of seven friends, with their wives, who understood the same language, came to these parts, having first passed great land and seas, having lived in caves, and having endured great hardships in order to reach this land; ... they wandered 104 years through different parts of the world before they reached [[Hue Hue Tlapalan]], which was in Ce Tecpatl, 520 years after the Flood." ("[[Ixtlilxochitl]] Relaciones," in Kingsborough's "Mex. Ant.," vol. ix., pp. 321, 322.)
boat, out of which a naked man stretches out his hand imploringly to
+
 
heaven. Now turn to the sculpture in the Flood tablet (on the great
+
It will of course be said that this account, in those particulars where it agrees with the Bible, was derived from the teachings of the [[Spanish]] priests; but it must be remembered that [[Ixtlilxochitl]] was an [[Indian]], a native of Tezeuco, a son of the queen, and that his "Relaciones" were drawn from the archives of his family and the ancient writings of his nation: he had no motive to falsify documents that were probably in the hands of hundreds at that time.
Calendar stone). There you will find represented the Flood, and with
+
 
great emphasis, by the accumulation of all those symbols with which the
+
Here we see that the depth of the water over the earth, "fifteen cubits," given in the [[Toltec]] legend, is precisely the same as that named in the Bible: "fifteen cubits upward did the waters prevail." ([[Genesis 7:20]])
ancient [[Mexican]]s conveyed the idea of water: a tub of standing water,
+
 
drops springing out--not two, as heretofore in the symbol for Atl,
+
In the two curious picture-histories of the [[Aztecs]] preserved in the [[Boturini]] collection, and published by [[Gamelli Careri]] and
water--but four drops; the picture for moisture, a snail; above, a
+
 
crocodile, the king of the rivers. In the midst of these symbols you
+
[[File:Atlantis19.jpg|center|frame|]]
notice the profile of a man with a fillet, and a smaller one of a woman.
+
----
There can be no doubt these are the [[Mexican]] [[Noah]], Coxcox, and his wife,
+
{{pagebreak}}
Xochiquetzal; and at the same time it is evident (the Calendar stone, we
+
 
know, was made in A.D., 1478) that the story of them, and the pictures
+
''THE [[DELUGE]] LEGENDS OF [[AMERICA]].''<p align="right">105</p>
representing the story, have not been invented by the Catholic clergy,
+
 
but really existed among these nations long before the Conquest."
+
 
 +
others, there is a record of their migrations from their original location through various parts of the [[North America]]n continent until their arrival in [[Mexico]]. In both cases their starting-point is an ''island'', from which they pass in a boat; and the island contains in one case a mountain, and in the other a high temple in the midst thereof. These things seem to be reminiscences of their origin in [[Atlantis]].
 +
 
 +
In each case we see the crooked mountain of the [[Aztec]] legends, the Calhuacan, looking not unlike the bent mountain of the monk, [[Cosmos]].
 +
 
 +
In the legends of the [[Chibchas]] of [[Bogota]] we seem to have distinct reminiscences of [[Atlantis]]. [[Bochica]] was their leading divinity. During two thousand years he employed himself in elevating his subjects. He lived in the sun, while his wife [[Chia]] occupied the moon. This would appear to be an allusion to the worship of the sun and moon. Beneath [[Bochica]] in their mythology was [[Chibchacum]]. In an angry mood he brought a [[Deluge]] on the people of the table-land. [[Bochica]] punished him for this act, and obliged him ever after, like [[Atlas]], to bear the burden of the earth on his back. Occasionally be shifts the earth from one shoulder to another, and this causes earthquakes!
 +
 
 +
Here we have allusions to an ancient people who, during thousands of years, were elevated in the scale of civilization, and were destroyed by a [[Deluge]]; and with this is associated an [[Atlantean]] god bearing the world on his back. We find even the rainbow appearing in connection with this legend. When [[Bochica]] appeared in answer to prayer to quell the [[Deluge]] he is seated on a rainbow. He opened a breach in the earth at Tequendama, through which the waters of the flood escaped, precisely as we have seen them disappearing through the crevice in the earth near [[Bambyce]], in [[Greece]].
 +
 
 +
The [[Toltecs]] traced their migrations back to a starting-point called "[[Aztlan]]," or "Atlan." This could be no other than, [[Atlantis]]. ([[Bancroft]]'s "[[Native Races]]," vol. v., p. 221.) "The
 +
----
 +
{{pagebreak}}
 +
 
 +
106 <center>''ATLANTIS: THE ANTEDILUVIAN WORLD.''</center>
 +
 
 +
original home of the [[[[Nahuatl]]acas]] was [[Aztlan]], the location of which has been the subject of much discussion. The causes that led to their exodus from that country can only be conjectured; but they may be supposed to have been driven out by their enemies, for [[Aztlan]] is described as a land too fair and beautiful to be left willingly in the mere hope of finding a better." ([[Bancroft]]'s "[[Native Races]]," vol. v., p. 306.) The [[Aztecs]] also claimed to have come originally from [[Aztlan]]. (''Ibid''., p. 321.) Their very name, [[Aztecs]], was derived from [[Aztlan]]. (''Ibid''., vol. ii., p. 125). They were [[Atlantean]]s.
 +
 
 +
The "[[Popul Vuh]]" tells us that after the migration from [[Aztlan]] three sons of the King of the [[Quiches]], upon the death of their father, "determined to go as their fathers had ordered to the East, on the shores of the sea whence their fathers had come, to receive the royalty, 'bidding adieu to their brothers and friends, and promising to return.' Doubtless they passed over the sea when they went to the East to receive the royalty. Now this is the name of the lord, of the monarch of the people of the East where they went. And when they arrived before the lord [[Nacxit]], the name of the great lord, the only judge, whose power was without limit, behold he granted them the sign of royalty and all that represents it ... and the insignia of royalty ... all the things, in fact, which they brought on their return, and which they went to receive from the other side of the sea--the art of painting from [[Tulan]], ''a system of writing, they said, for the things recorded in their histories.''" ([[Bancroft]]'s "[[Native Races]]," vol. v., p. 553 "[[Popul Vuh]]," p. 294.)
 +
 
 +
This legend not only points to the East as the place of origin of these races, but also proves that this land of the East, this [[Aztlan]], this [[Atlantis]], exercised dominion over the colonies in [[Central America]], and furnished them with the essentials of civilization. How completely does this agree with the statement of [[Plato]] that the kings of [[Atlantis]] held dominion over parts of "the great opposite continent!"
 +
----
 +
{{pagebreak}}
 +
 
 +
''THE [[DELUGE]] LEGENDS OF [[AMERICA]].''<p align="right">107</p>
 +
 
 +
 
 +
Professor [[Valentini]] ("[[Maya]] Archaeol.," p. 23) describes an [[Aztec]] picture in the work of Gemelli ("Il giro del mondo," vol. vi.) of the migration of the [[Aztecs]] from [[Aztlan]]:
 +
 
 +
"Out of a sheet of water there projects the peak of a mountain; on it stands a tree, and on the tree a bird spreads its wings. At the foot of the mountain-peak there comes out of the water the heads of a man and a woman. The one wears on his head the symbol of his name, ''[[Coxcox]]'', a pheasant. The other head bears that of a hand with a bouquet (''xochitl'', a flower, and ''quetzal'', shining in green gold). In the foreground is a boat, out of which a naked man stretches out his hand imploringly to heaven. Now turn to the sculpture in the Flood tablet (on the great Calendar stone). There you will find represented the Flood, and with great emphasis, by the accumulation of all those symbols with which the ancient [[Mexican]]s conveyed the idea of water: a tub of standing water, drops springing out--not two, as heretofore in the symbol for ''Atl'', water--but four drops; the picture for moisture, a snail; above, a crocodile, the king of the rivers. In the midst of these symbols you notice the profile of a man with a fillet, and a smaller one of a woman. There can be no doubt these are the [[Mexican]] [[Noah]], ''[[Coxcox]]'', and his wife, ''[[Xochiquetzal]]''; and at the same time it is evident (the Calendar stone, we know, was made in A.D., 1478) that the story of them, and the pictures representing the story, have not been invented by the Catholic clergy, but really existed among these nations long before the Conquest."
 +
 
 +
[[File:Atlantis20.jpg|center|frame|CALENDAR STONE.]]
  
 
The above figure represents the Flood tablet on the great Calendar stone.
 
The above figure represents the Flood tablet on the great Calendar stone.
  
When we turn to the uncivilized [[Indian]]s of [[America]], while we still find
+
When we turn to the uncivilized [[Indian]]s of [[America]], while we still find legends referring to the [[Deluge]], they are, with one exception, in such garbled and uncouth forms that we can only see glimpses of the truth shining through a mass of fable.
legends referring to the [[Deluge]], they are, with one exception, in such
+
garbled and uncouth forms that we can only see glimpses of the truth
+
shining through a mass of fable.
+
  
 
The following tradition was current among the [[Indian]]s of the Great Lakes:
 
The following tradition was current among the [[Indian]]s of the Great Lakes:
 +
----
 +
{{pagebreak}}
  
"In former times the father of the [[Indian]] tribes dwelt toward the rising
+
108 <center>''ATLANTIS: THE ANTEDILUVIAN WORLD.''</center>
sun. Having been warned in a dream that a [[Deluge]] was coming upon the
+
earth, he built a raft, on which he saved himself, with his family and
+
all the animals. He floated thus for several months. The animals, who at
+
that time spoke, loudly complained and murmured against him. At last a
+
new earth appeared, on which he landed with all the animals, who from
+
that time lost the power of speech, as a punishment for their murmurs
+
against their deliverer."
+
  
According to Father Charlevoix, the tribes of [[Canada]] and the valley of
 
the [[Mississippi]] relate in their rude legends that all mankind was
 
destroyed by a flood, and that the Good Spirit, to repeople the earth,
 
had changed animals into men. It is to J. S. Kohl we owe our
 
acquaintance with the version of the Chippeways--full of grotesque and
 
perplexing touches--in which the man saved from the [[Deluge]] is called
 
Menaboshu. To know if the earth be drying, he sends a bird, the diver,
 
out of his bark; then becomes the restorer of the human race and the
 
founder of existing society.
 
  
A clergyman who visited the [[Indian]]s north-west of the [[Ohio]] in 1764 met,
+
"In former times the father of the [[Indian]] tribes dwelt toward the rising sun. Having been warned in a dream that a [[Deluge]] was coming upon the earth, he built a raft, on which he saved himself, with his family and all the animals. He floated thus for several months. The animals, who at that time spoke, loudly complained and murmured against him. At last a new earth appeared, on which he landed with all the animals, who from that time lost the power of speech, as a punishment for their murmurs against their deliverer."
at a treaty, a party of [[Indian]]s from the west of the [[Mississippi]].
+
  
"They informed him that one of their most ancient traditions was that, a
+
According to Father [[Charlevoix]], the tribes of [[Canada]] and the valley of the [[Mississippi]] relate in their rude legends that all mankind was destroyed by a flood, and that the Good Spirit, to repeople the earth, had changed animals into men. It is to [[J. S. Kohl]] we owe our acquaintance with the version of the [[Chippeways]]--full of grotesque and perplexing touches--in which the man saved from the [[Deluge]] is called [[Menaboshu]]. To know if the earth be drying, he sends a bird, the diver, out of his bark; then becomes the restorer of the human race and the founder of existing society.
great while ago, they had a common father, who lived toward the rising
+
of the sun, and governed the whole world; that all the white people's
+
heads were under his feet; that he had twelve sons, by whom he
+
administered the government; that the twelve sons behaved very bad, and
+
tyrannized over the people, abusing their power; that the Great Spirit,
+
being thus angry with them, suffered the white people to introduce
+
spirituous liquors among them, made them drunk, stole the special gift
+
of the Great Spirit from them, and by this means usurped power over
+
them; and ever since the [[Indian]]s' heads were under the white people's
+
feet." (Boudinot's "Star in the West," p. 111.)
+
  
Here we note that they looked "toward the rising sun"--toward
+
A clergyman who visited the [[Indian]]s north-west of the [[Ohio]] in 1764 met, at a treaty, a party of [[Indian]]s from the west of the [[Mississippi]].
[[Atlantis]]--for the original home of their race; that this region governed
+
"the whole world;" that it contained white people, who were at first a
+
subject race, but who subsequently rebelled, and acquired dominion over
+
the darker races. We will see reason hereafter to conclude that [[Atlantis]]
+
had a composite population, and that the rebellion of the Titans in
+
[[Greek]] mythology was the rising up of a subject population.
+
  
In 1836 C. S. Rafinesque published in Philadelphia, Pa., a work called
+
"They informed him that one of their most ancient traditions was that, a great while ago, they had a common father, who lived toward the rising of the sun, and governed the whole world; that all the white people's heads were under his feet; that he had twelve sons, by whom he administered the government; that the twelve sons behaved very bad, and tyrannized over the people, abusing their power; that the Great Spirit, being thus angry with them, suffered the white people to introduce spirituous liquors among them, made them drunk, stole the special gift of the Great Spirit from them, and by this means usurped power over them; and ever since the [[Indian]]s' heads were under the white people's feet." (Boudinot's "Star in the West," p. 111.)
"The [[America]]n Nations," in which he gives the historical songs or chants
+
of the Lenni-Lenapi, or Delaware [[Indian]]s, the tribe that originally
+
dwelt along the Delaware River. After describing a time "when there was
+
nothing but sea-water on top of the land," and the creation of sun,
+
moon, stars, earth, and man, the legend depicts the Golden Age and the
+
Fall in these words: "All were willingly pleased, all were
+
easy-thinking, and all were well-happified. But after a while a
+
snake-priest, Powako, brings on earth secretly the snake-worship
+
(Initako) of the god of the snakes, Wakon. And there came wickedness,
+
crime, and unhappiness. And bad weather was coming, distemper was
+
coming, with death was coming. All this happened very long ago, at the
+
first land, Netamaki, beyond the great ocean Kitahikau." Then follows
+
the Song of the Flood:
+
  
"There was, long ago, a powerful snake, Maskanako, when the men had
+
Here we note that they looked "toward the rising sun"--toward [[Atlantis]]--for the original home of their race; that this
become bad beings, Makowini. This strong snake had become the foe of the
+
----
Jins, and they became troubled, hating each other. Both were fighting,
+
{{pagebreak}}
both were spoiling, both were never peaceful. And they were fighting,
+
least man Mattapewi with dead-keeper Nihaulowit. And the strong snake
+
readily resolved to destroy or fight the beings or the men. The dark
+
snake he brought, the monster (Amanyam) he brought, snake-rushing water
+
he brought (it). Much water is rushing, much go to hills, much
+
penetrate, much destroying. Meanwhile at Tula (this is the same Tula
+
referred to in the Central [[America]]n legends), at THAT ISLAND, Nana-Bush
+
(the great hare Nana) becomes the ancestor of beings and men. Being born
+
creeping, he is ready to move and dwell at Tula. The beings and men all
+
go forth from the flood creeping in shallow water or swimming afloat,
+
asking which is the way to the turtle-back, Tula-pin. But there are many
+
monsters in the way, and some men were devoured by them. But the
+
daughter of a spirit helped them in a boat, saying, 'Come, come;' they
+
were coming and were helped. The name of the boat or raft is Mokol....
+
Water running off, it is drying; in the plains and the mountains, at
+
the path of the cave, elsewhere went the powerful action or motion."
+
Then follows Song 3, describing the condition of mankind after the
+
Flood. Like the [[Aryan]]s, they moved into a cold country: "It freezes was
+
there; it snows was there; it is cold was there." They move to a milder
+
region to hunt cattle; they divided their forces into tillers and
+
hunters. "The good and the holy were the hunters; they spread
+
themselves north, south, east, and west." Meantime all the snakes were
+
afraid in their huts, and the Snake-priest Nakopowa said to all, 'Let us
+
go.' Eastwardly they go forth at Snakeland (Akhokink), and they went
+
away earnestly grieving." Afterward the fathers of the Delawares, who
+
"were always boating and navigating," find that the Snake-people have
+
taken possession of a fine country; and they collect together the people
+
from north, south, east, and west, and attempt "to pass over the waters
+
of the frozen sea to possess that land." They seem to travel in the dark
+
of an Arctic winter until they come to a gap of open sea. They can go no
+
farther; but some tarry at Firland, while the rest return to where they
+
started from, "the old turtle land."
+
  
Here we find that the land that was destroyed was the "first land;" that
+
''THE [[DELUGE]] LEGENDS OF [[AMERICA]].''<p align="right">109</p>
it was an island "beyond the great ocean." In an early age the people
+
were happy and peaceful; they became wicked; "snake worship" was
+
introduced, and was associated, as in [[Genesis]], with the "fall of man;"
+
Nana-Bush became the ancestor of the new race; his name reminds us of
+
the Toltec Nata and the Hebrew [[Noah]]. After the flood came a dispersing
+
of the people, and a separation into hunters and tillers of the soil.
+
  
Among the Mandan [[Indian]]s we not only find flood legends, but, more
 
remarkable still, we find an image of the ark preserved from generation
 
to generation, and a religious ceremony performed which refers plainly
 
to the destruction of [[Atlantis]], and to the arrival of one of those who
 
escaped from the Flood, bringing the dreadful tidings of the disaster.
 
It must be remembered, as we will show hereafter, that many of these
 
Mandan [[Indian]]s were white men, with hazel, gray, and blue eyes, and all
 
shades of color of the hair from black to pure white; that they dwelt in
 
houses in fortified towns, and manufactured earthen-ware pots in which
 
they could boil water--an art unknown to the ordinary [[Indian]]s, who
 
boiled water by putting heated stones into it.
 
  
I quote the very interesting account of George Catlin, who visited the
+
region governed "the whole world;" that it contained white people, who were at first a subject race, but who subsequently rebelled, and acquired dominion over the darker races. We will see reason hereafter to conclude that [[Atlantis]] had a composite population, and that the rebellion of the Titans in [[Greek]] mythology was the rising up of a subject population.
Mandans nearly fifty years ago, lately republished in [[London]] in the
+
"[[North America]]n [[Indian]]s," a very curious and valuable work. He says
+
(vol. i., p. 88):
+
  
"In the centre of the village is an open space, or public square, 150
+
In 1836 [[C. S. Rafinesque]] published in [[Philadelphia]], Pa., a work called "[[The time the American Nations]]," in which he gives the historical songs or chants of the [[Lenni-Lenapi]], or [[Delaware]] [[Indian]]s, the tribe that originally dwelt along the [[Delaware River]]. After describing a time "when there was nothing but sea-water on top of the land," and the creation of sun, moon, stars, earth, and man, the legend depicts the Golden Age and the Fall in these words: "All were willingly pleased, all were easy-thinking, and all were well-happified. But after a while a snake-priest, ''[[Powako]]'', brings on earth secretly the snake-worship (''[[Initako]]'') of the god of the snakes, ''[[Wakon]]''. And there came wickedness, crime, and unhappiness. And bad weather was coming, distemper was coming, with death was coming. All this happened ''very long ago, at the first land, [[Netamaki]]'', beyond the great ''ocean [[Kitahikau]]''." Then follows the Song of the Flood:
feet in diameter and circular in form, which is used for all public
+
games and festivals, shows and exhibitions. The lodges around this open
+
space front in, with their doors toward the centre; and in the middle
+
of this stands an object of great religious veneration, on account of
+
the importance it has in connection with the annual religious
+
ceremonies. This object is in the form of a large hogshead, some eight
+
or ten feet high, made of planks and hoops, containing within it some of
+
their choicest mysteries or medicines. They call it the 'Big Canoe.'"
+
  
This is a representation of the ark; the ancient [[Jews]] venerated a
+
"There was, long ago, a powerful snake, ''[[Maskanako]]'', when the men had become bad beings, ''[[Makowini]]''. This strong snake had become the foe of the Jins, and they became troubled, hating each other. Both were fighting, both were spoiling, both were never peaceful. And they were fighting, least man ''[[Mattapewi]]'' with dead-keeper ''[[Nihaulowit]]''. And the strong snake readily resolved to destroy or fight the beings or the men. The dark snake he brought, the monster (''[[Amanyam]]'') he brought, snake-rushing water he brought (it). ''Much water is rushing, much go to hills, much penetrate, much destroying''. Meanwhile at ''[[Tula]]'' (this is the same [[Tula]] referred to in the [[Central America]]n legends), at THAT ISLAND, [[Nana]]-Bush (the great hare [[Nana]]) becomes the ancestor of beings and men. Being born creeping, he is ready to move and dwell at ''[[Tula]]''. The beings and men all go forth from the flood creeping in shallow water or
similar image, and some of the ancient [[Greek]] States followed in
+
----
processions a model of the ark of [[Deucalion]]. But it is indeed surprising
+
{{pagebreak}}
to find this practice perpetuated, even to our own times, by a race of
+
[[Indian]]s in the heart of [[America]]. On page 158 of the first volume of the
+
same work Catlin describes the great annual mysteries and religious
+
ceremonials of which this image of the ark was the centre. He says:
+
  
"On the day set apart for the commencement of the ceremonies a solitary
+
110 <center>''ATLANTIS: THE ANTEDILUVIAN WORLD.''</center>
figure is seen approaching the village.
+
  
"During the deafening din and confusion within the pickets of the
 
village the figure discovered on the prairie continued to approach with
 
a dignified step, and in a right line toward the village; all eyes were
 
upon him, and he at length made his appearance within the pickets, and
 
proceeded toward the centre of the village, where all the chiefs and
 
braves stood ready to receive him, which they did in a cordial manner by
 
shaking hands, recognizing him as an old acquaintance, and pronouncing
 
his name, Nu-mohk-muck-a-nah (the first or only man). The body of this
 
strange personage, which was chiefly naked, was painted with white clay,
 
so as to resemble at a distance a white man. He enters the medicine
 
lodge, and goes through certain mysterious ceremonies.
 
  
"During the whole of this day Nu-mohk-muck-a-nah (the first or only man)
+
swimming afloat, asking which is the way to the turtle-back, ''[[Tula]]-pin''. But there are many monsters in the way, and some men were devoured by them. But the daughter of a spirit helped them in a boat, saying, 'Come, come;' they were coming and were helped. The name of the boat or raft is ''Mokol''.... Water running off, it is drying; in the plains and the mountains, at the path of the cave, elsewhere went the powerful action or motion." Then follows Song 3, describing the condition of mankind after the Flood. Like the [[Aryan]]s, they moved into a cold country: "It freezes was there; it snows was there; it is cold was there." They move to a milder region to hunt cattle; they divided their forces into tillers and hunters. "The good and the holy were the hunters; they spread themselves north, south, east, and west." Meantime all the snakes were afraid in their huts, and the Snake-priest ''[[Nakopowa]]'' said to all, 'Let us go.' ''Eastwardly'' they go forth at Snakeland (''[[Akhokink]]''), and they went away earnestly grieving." Afterward the fathers of the [[Delaware]]s, who "were always boating and navigating," find that the Snake-people have taken possession of a fine country; and they collect together the people from north, south, east, and west, and attempt "to pass over the waters of the frozen sea to possess that land." They seem to travel in the dark of an Arctic winter until they come to a gap of open sea. They can go no farther; but some tarry at Firland, while the rest return to where they started from, "the old turtle land."
travelled through the village, stopping in front of each man's lodge,
+
and crying until the owner of the lodge came out and asked who he was,
+
and what was the matter? To which he replied by narrating the sad
+
catastrophe which had happened on the earth's surface by the overflowing
+
of the waters, saying that 'he was the only person saved from the
+
universal calamity; that he landed his big canoe on a high mountain in
+
the west, where he now resides; that he has come to open the medicine
+
lodge, which must needs receive a present of an edged tool from the
+
owner of every wigwam, that it may be sacrificed to the water; for,' he
+
says, 'if this is not done there will be another flood, and no one will
+
be saved, as it was with such tools that the big canoe was made.'
+
  
"Having visited every lodge in the village during the day, and having
+
Here we find that the land that was destroyed was the "first land;" that it was an island "beyond the great ocean." In an early age the people were happy and peaceful; they became wicked; "snake worship" was introduced, and was associated, as in [[Genesis]], with the "fall of man;" [[Nana]]-Bush became the ancestor of the new race; his name reminds us of the [[Toltec]] ''[[Nata]]'' and the [[Hebrew]] ''[[Noah]]''. After the flood came a dispersing of the people, and a separation into hunters and tillers of the soil.
received such a present from each as a hatchet, a knife, etc. (which is
+
undoubtedly always prepared ready for the occasion), be places them in
+
the medicine lodge; and, on the last day of the ceremony, they are
+
thrown into a deep place in the river--'sacrificed to the Spirit of the
+
Waters."'
+
  
Among the sacred articles kept in the great medicine lodge are four
+
Among the [[Mandan Indian]]s we not only find flood legends, but, more remarkable still, we find an ''image of the ark preserved'' from generation to generation, and a religious ceremony
sacks of water, called Eeh-teeh-ka, sewed together, each of them in the
+
----
form of a tortoise lying on its back, with a bunch of eagle feathers
+
{{pagebreak}}
attached to its tail. "These four tortoises," they told me, "contained
+
the waters from the four quarters of the world--that those waters had
+
been contained therein ever since the settling down of the waters," "I
+
did not," says Catlin, who knew nothing of an [[Atlantis]] theory, "think it
+
best to advance anything against such a ridiculous belief." Catlin tried
+
to purchase one of these water-sacks, but could not obtain it for any
+
price; he was told they were "a society property."
+
  
He then describes a dance by twelve men around the ark: "They arrange
+
''THE [[DELUGE]] LEGENDS OF [[AMERICA]].''<p align="right">111</p>
themselves according to the four cardinal points; two are painted
+
perfectly black, two are vermilion color, some were painted partially
+
white. They dance a dance called [[Bel]]-lohck-na-pie,'" with horns on their
+
heads, like those used in [[Europe]] as symbolical of [[Bel]], or Baal.
+
  
Could anything be more evident than the connection of these ceremonies
 
with the destruction of [[Atlantis]]? Here we have the image of the ark;
 
here we have a white man coming with the news that "the waters had
 
overflowed the land," and that all the people were destroyed except
 
himself; here we have the sacrifice to appease the spirit that caused
 
the Flood, just as we find the Flood terminating, in the Hebrew,
 
[[Chaldean]], and Central [[America]]n legends, with a sacrifice. Here, too, we
 
have the image of the tortoise, which we find in other flood legends of
 
the [[Indian]]s, and which is a very natural symbol for an island. As one of
 
our own poets has expressed it,
 
  
    "Very fair and full of promise
+
performed which refers plainly to the destruction of [[Atlantis]], and to the arrival of one of those who escaped from the Flood, bringing the dreadful tidings of the disaster. It must be remembered, as we will show hereafter, that many of these [[Mandan Indian]]s were white men, with hazel, gray, and blue eyes, and all shades of color of the hair from black to pure white; that they dwelt in houses in fortified towns, and manufactured earthen-ware pots in which they could boil water--an art unknown to the ordinary [[Indian]]s, who boiled water by putting heated stones into it.
    Lay the island of St. Thomas;
+
    Like a great green turtle slumbered
+
    On the sea which it encumbered."
+
  
Here we have, too, the four quarters of [[Atlantis]], divided by its four
+
I quote the very interesting account of [[George Catlin]], who visited the [[Mandans]] nearly fifty years ago, lately republished in [[London]] in the "[[North American Indians]]," a very curious and valuable work. He says (vol. i., p. 88):
rivers, as we shall see a little farther on, represented in a dance,
+
where the dancers arrange themselves according to the four cardinal
+
points of the compass; the dancers are painted to represent the black
+
and red races, while "the first and only man" represents the white race;
+
and the name of the dance is a reminiscence of Baal, the ancient god of
+
the races derived from [[Atlantis]].
+
  
But this is not all. The Mandans were evidently of the race of [[Atlantis]].
+
"In the centre of the village is an open space, or public square, 150 feet in diameter and circular in form, which is used for all public games and festivals, shows and exhibitions. The lodges around this open space front in, with their doors toward the centre; and in the middle of this stands an object of great religious veneration, on account of the importance it has in connection with the annual religious ceremonies. This object is in the form of a large hogshead, some eight or ten feet high, made of planks and hoops, containing within it some of their choicest mysteries or medicines. They call it the 'Big Canoe.'"
They have another singular legend, which we find in the account of Lewis
+
and Clarke:
+
  
"Their belief in a future state is connected with this theory of their
+
This is a representation of the ark; the ancient [[Jews]] venerated a similar image, and some of the ancient [[Greek]] States followed in processions a model of the ark of [[Deucalion]]. But it is indeed surprising to find this practice perpetuated, even to our own times, by a race of [[Indian]]s in the heart of [[America]]. On page 158 of the first volume of the same work [[Catlin]] describes the great annual mysteries and religious ceremonials of which this image of the ark was the centre. He says:
origin: The whole nation resided in one large village, underground, near
+
a subterranean lake. A grape-vine extended its roots down to their
+
habitation, and gave them a view of the light. Some of the most
+
adventurous climbed up the vine, and were delighted with the sight of
+
the earth, which they found covered with buffalo, and rich with every
+
kind of fruit. Returning with the grapes they had gathered, their
+
countrymen were so pleased with the taste of them that the whole nation
+
resolved to leave their dull residence for the charms of the upper
+
region. Men, women, and children ascended by means of the vine, but,
+
when about half the nation had reached the surface of the earth, a
+
corpulent woman, who was clambering up the vine, broke it with her
+
weight, and closed upon herself and the rest of the nation the light of
+
the sun."
+
  
This curious tradition means that the present nation dwelt in a large
+
"On the day set apart for the commencement of the ceremonies a solitary figure is seen approaching the village.
settlement underground, that is, beyond the land, in the sea; the sea
+
being represented by "the subterranean lake." At one time the people had
+
free intercourse between this "large village" and the [[America]]n
+
continent, and they founded extensive colonies on this continent;
+
whereupon some mishap cut them off from the mother country. This
+
explanation is confirmed by the fact that in the legends of the [[Iowa]]
+
[[Indian]]s, who were a branch of the Dakotas, or Sioux [[Indian]]s, and
+
relatives of the Mandans (according to Major James W. Lynd), "all the
+
tribes of [[Indian]]s were formerly one, and all dwelt together on an
+
island, or at least across a large water toward the east or sunrise.
+
They crossed this water in skin canoes, or by swimming; but they know
+
not how long they were in crossing, or whether the water was salt or
+
fresh." While the Dakotas, according to Major Lynd, who lived among them
+
for nine years, possessed legends of "huge skiffs, in which the Dakotas
+
of old floated for weeks, finally gaining dry land"--a reminiscence of
+
ships and long sea-voyages.
+
  
The Mandans celebrated their great religious festival above described in
+
"During the deafening din and confusion within the pickets
the season when the willow is first in leaf, and a dove is mixed up in
+
----
the ceremonies; and they further relate a legend that "the world was
+
{{pagebreak}}
once a great tortoise, borne on the waters, and covered with earth, and
+
that when one day, in digging the soil, a tribe of white men, who had
+
made holes in the earth to a great depth digging for badgers, at length
+
pierced the shell of the tortoise, it sank, and the water covering it
+
drowned all men with the exception of one, who saved himself in a boat;
+
and when the earth re-emerged, sent out a dove, who returned with a
+
branch of willow in its beak."
+
  
The holes dug to find badgers were a savage's recollection of mining
+
112 <center>''ATLANTIS: THE ANTEDILUVIAN WORLD.''</center>
operations; and when the great disaster came, and the island sunk in the
+
sea amid volcanic convulsions, doubtless men said it was due to the deep
+
mines, which had opened the way to the central fires. But the recurrence
+
of "white men" as the miners, and of a white man as "the last and only
+
man," and the presence of white blood in the veins of the people, all
+
point to the same conclusion--that the Mandans were colonists from
+
[[Atlantis]].
+
  
And here I might add that Catlin found the following singular
 
resemblances between the Mandan tongue and the Welsh:
 
  
    +----------------------+--------------+------------+-------------+
+
of the village the figure discovered on the prairie continued to approach with a dignified step, and in a right line toward the village; all eyes were upon him, and he at length made his appearance within the pickets, and proceeded toward the centre of the village, where all the chiefs and braves stood ready to receive him, which they did in a cordial manner by shaking hands, recognizing him as an old acquaintance, and pronouncing his name, Nu-mohk-muck-a-nah (''the first or only man''). The body of this strange personage, which was chiefly naked, was painted with white clay, so as to resemble at a distance ''a white man''. He enters the medicine lodge, and goes through certain mysterious ceremonies.
    | English.            | Mandan.      | Welsh.    | Pronounced. |
+
    +----------------------+--------------+------------+-------------+
+
    | I                    | Me.          | Mi.        | Me.        |
+
    +----------------------+--------------+------------+-------------+
+
    | You.                | Ne.          | Chwi.      | Chwe.      |
+
    +----------------------+--------------+------------+-------------+
+
    | He.                  | E.          | A.        | A.          |
+
    +----------------------+--------------+------------+-------------+
+
    | She.                | [[Ea]].          | E.        | A.          |
+
    +----------------------+--------------+------------+-------------+
+
    | It.                  | Ount.        | Hwynt.    | Hooynt.    |
+
    +----------------------+--------------+------------+-------------+
+
    | We.                  | Noo.        | Ni.        | Ne.        |
+
    +----------------------+--------------+------------+-------------+
+
    | They.                | Eonah.      | Hona, fem. | Hona.      |
+
    +----------------------+--------------+------------+-------------+
+
    | No; or there is not. | Megosh.      | Nagoes.    | Nagosh.    |
+
    +----------------------+--------------+------------+-------------+
+
    | No.                  |              | Na.        |            |
+
    +----------------------+--------------+------------+-------------+
+
    | Head.                | Pan.        | Pen.      | Pan.        |
+
    +----------------------+--------------+------------+-------------+
+
    | The Great Spirit.   | Maho Peneta. | Mawr      | Mosoor      |
+
    |                      |              | Penaethir.  | Panaether.  |
+
    +----------------------+--------------+------------+-------------+
+
  
Major Lynd found the following resemblances between the Dakota tongue
+
"During the whole of this day Nu-mohk-muck-a-nah (the first or only man) travelled through the village, stopping in front of each man's lodge, and crying until the owner of the lodge came out and asked who he was, and what was the matter? To which he replied by narrating ''the sad catastrophe which had happened on the earth's surface by the overflowing of the waters'', saying that 'he was the ''only person saved from the universal calamity''; that he landed his big canoe on a high mountain in the west, where he now resides; that he has come to open the medicine lodge, which must needs receive a present of an edged tool from the owner of every wigwam, that it may be sacrificed to the water; for,' he says, 'if this is not done there will be another flood, and no one will be saved, as it was with such tools that the big canoe was made.'
and the languages of the Old World:
+
  
COMPARISON OF DAKOTA, OR SIOUX, WITH OTHER LANGUAGES.
+
"Having visited every lodge in the village during the day, and having received such a present from each as a hatchet, a knife, etc. (which is undoubtedly always prepared ready for the occasion), he places them in the medicine lodge; and, on the last day of the ceremony, they are thrown into a deep place in the river--'sacrificed to the Spirit of the Waters."'
  
+--------+----------+---------+-----------+---------+----------+-----------+------------+----------------+
+
Among the sacred articles kept in the great medicine lodge are four sacks of water, called ''Eeh-teeh-ka'', sewed together, each of them in the form of a ''tortoise'' lying on its back, with a bunch of eagle feathers attached to its tail. "These four tortoises," they told me, "contained the waters from the four quarters of the world--that those waters had been contained therein ''ever since the settling down of the waters''," "I did
| Latin. | English. | Saxon  | Sanscrit. | [[German]]. | [[Danish]].  | Sioux.    | Other      | Primary        |
+
----
|        |          |        |          |        |          |          | Languages. | Signification. |
+
{{pagebreak}}
+--------+----------+---------+-----------+---------+----------+-----------+------------+----------------+
+
|        | See,     | Seon    |          | Sehen  | Sigt    | Sin      |            | Appearing,    |
+
|        | seen    |        |          |        |          |          |            | visible.      |
+
+--------+----------+---------+-----------+---------+----------+-----------+------------+----------------+
+
| Pinso  | Pound    | Punian  |          |        |          | Pau      | W.,       | Beating        |
+
|        |          |        |          |        |          |          | Pwynian    |                |
+
+--------+----------+---------+-----------+---------+----------+-----------+------------+----------------+
+
| Vado  | Went    | Wendan  |          |        |          | Winta    |            | Passage.      |
+
|        | Wend    |        |          |        |          |          |            |                |
+
+--------+----------+---------+-----------+---------+----------+-----------+------------+----------------+
+
|        | Town    | Tun    |          | Zaun    | Tun      | Tonwe    | Gaelic,   |                |
+
|        |          |        |          |        |          |          | Dun        |                |
+
+--------+----------+---------+-----------+---------+----------+-----------+------------+----------------+
+
| Qui    | Who      | Hwa    | Kwas      | Wir    |          | Tuwe      |            |                |
+
+--------+----------+---------+-----------+---------+----------+-----------+------------+----------------+
+
|        | Weapon  | Wepn    |          | Wapen  | Vaapen  | Wipe      |            | Sioux dimin.  |
+
|        |          |        |          |        |          |          |            | Wipena        |
+
+--------+----------+---------+-----------+---------+----------+-----------+------------+----------------+
+
| Ego    | I        | Ic      | Agam      | Ich    | Jeg      | Mish      |            |                |
+
+--------+----------+---------+-----------+---------+----------+-----------+------------+----------------+
+
| Cor    | Core    |        |          |        |          | Co        | Gr., Kear  | Centre, heart  |
+
+--------+----------+---------+-----------+---------+----------+-----------+------------+----------------+
+
|        | Eight    | Achta  | Aute      | Acht    | Otte    | Shaktogan | Gr., Okto  |                |
+
+--------+----------+---------+-----------+---------+----------+-----------+------------+----------------+
+
| Canna  | Cane    |        |          |        |          | Can      | Heb., Can  | Reed, weed,    |
+
|        |          |        |          |        |          |          | W., Cawn  | wood.          |
+
+--------+----------+---------+-----------+---------+----------+-----------+------------+----------------+
+
| Pock  | Pock    | Poc    |          | Pocke  | Pukkel  | Poka      | Dutch,     | Swelling.      |
+
|        |          |        |          |        |          |          | Poca      |                |
+
+--------+----------+---------+-----------+---------+----------+-----------+------------+----------------+
+
|        | With    | With    |          | Wider  |          | Wita      | [[Goth]].,    |                |
+
|        |          |        |          |        |          |          | Gewithan.  |                |
+
+--------+----------+---------+-----------+---------+----------+-----------+------------+----------------+
+
|        | Doughty  | Dohtig  |          | Taugen  | Digtig  | Dita      |            | Hot, brave,    |
+
|        |          |        |          |        |          | Ditaya    |            | daring.        |
+
+--------+----------+---------+-----------+---------+----------+-----------+------------+----------------+
+
|        | Tight    | Tian    |          | Dicht  | Digt    | Titan    |            | Strain.        |
+
+--------+----------+---------+-----------+---------+----------+-----------+------------+----------------+
+
| Tango  | Touch    | Taecan  |          | Ticken  | Tekkan  | Tan      |            | Touch, take.  |
+
| Tactus | Take    |        |          |        |          | Htaka    |            |                |
+
+--------+----------+---------+-----------+---------+----------+-----------+------------+----------------+
+
|        | Child    | Cild    |          | Kind    | Kuld    | Cin      |            | Progeny.      |
+
+--------+----------+---------+-----------+---------+----------+-----------+------------+----------------+
+
|        | Work    | Wercan  |          |        |          | Woccas    | Dutch,    | Labor, motion. |
+
|        |          |        |          |        |          | Hecon    | Werk      |                |
+
|        |          |        |          |        |          |          | Span.,    |                |
+
|        |          |        |          |        |          |          | Hecho      |                |
+
+--------+----------+---------+-----------+---------+----------+-----------+------------+----------------+
+
|        | Shackle  | Seoacul |          |        |          | Shka      | Ar.,      | to bind (a    |
+
|        |          |        |          |        |          |          | Schakala,  | link).        |
+
|        |          |        |          |        |          |          | Dutch,    |                |
+
|        |          |        |          |        |          |          | Schakel    |                |
+
|        |          |        |          |        |          |          | Teton,    |                |
+
|        |          |        |          |        |          |          | Shakalan  |                |
+
+--------+----------+---------+-----------+---------+----------+-----------+------------+----------------+
+
| Query  |          |        |          |        |          | Kuiva    |            |                |
+
+--------+----------+---------+-----------+---------+----------+-----------+------------+----------------+
+
| Shabby |          |        |          | Schabig | Schabbig | Shabya    |            |                |
+
+--------+----------+---------+-----------+---------+----------+-----------+------------+----------------+
+
  
According to Major Lynd, the Dakotas, or Sioux, belonged to the same
+
''THE [[DELUGE]] LEGENDS OF [[AMERICA]].''<p align="right">113</p>
race as the Mandans; hence the interest which attaches to these verbal
+
similarities.
+
  
"Among the Iroquois there is a tradition that the sea and waters
 
infringed upon the land, so that all human life was destroyed. The
 
Chickasaws assert that the world was once destroyed by water, but that
 
one family was saved, and two animals of every kind. The Sioux say there
 
was a time when there was no dry land, and all men had disappeared from
 
existence." (See Lynd's "MS. History of the Dakotas," Library of
 
Historical Society of Minnesota.)
 
  
"The Okanagaus have a god, Skyappe, and also one called Chacha, who
+
not," says [[Catlin]], who knew nothing of an [[Atlantis]] theory, "think it best to advance anything against such a ridiculous belief." [[Catlin]] tried to purchase one of these water-sacks, but could not obtain it for any price; he was told they were "''a society property''."
appear to be endowed with omniscience; but their principal divinity is
+
 
their great mythical ruler and heroine, Scomalt. Long ago, when the sun
+
He then describes a dance by ''twelve'' men around the ark: "They arrange themselves according to the ''four cardinal points''; two are painted perfectly ''black'', two are vermilion color, some were painted partially white. They dance a dance called ''Bel''-lohck-na-pie,'" with horns on their heads, like those used in [[Europe]] as symbolical of ''[[Bel]]'', or [[Baal]].
was no bigger than a star, this strong medicine-woman ruled over what
+
 
appears to have now become a lost island. At last the peace of the
+
Could anything be more evident than the connection of these ceremonies with the destruction of [[Atlantis]]? Here we have the image of the ark; here we have a white man coming with the news that "the waters had overflowed the land," and that all the people were destroyed except himself; here we have the sacrifice to appease the spirit that caused the Flood, just as we find the Flood terminating, in the [[Hebrew]], [[Chaldean]], and [[Central America]]n legends, with a sacrifice. Here, too, we have the image of the tortoise, which we find in other flood legends of the [[Indian]]s, and which is a very natural symbol for an island. As one of our own poets has expressed it,
island was destroyed by war, and the noise of battle was heard, with
+
 
which Scomalt was exceeding wroth, whereupon she rose up in her might
+
= <p style="text-indent: 30px;">
and drove her rebellious subjects to one end of the island, and broke
+
"Very fair and full of promise
off the piece of land on which they were huddled and pushed it out to
+
Lay the island of St. Thomas;
sea, to drift whither it would. This floating island was tossed to and
+
Like a great green turtle slumbered
fro and buffeted by the winds till all but two died. A man and woman
+
On the sea which it encumbered."</p>
escaped in a canoe, and arrived on the main-land; and from these the
+
 
Okanagaus are descended." (Bancroft's "Native Races," vol. iii., p. 149.)
+
Here we have, too, the four quarters of [[Atlantis]], divided by its four rivers, as we shall see a little farther on, represented in a dance, where the dancers arrange themselves according to the four cardinal points of the compass; the dancers are painted to represent the black and red races, while "the first and only man" represents the white race; and the name of the dance is a reminiscence of [[Baal]], the ancient god of the races derived from [[Atlantis]].
 +
 
 +
But this is not all. The [[Mandans]] were evidently of the race
 +
----
 +
{{pagebreak}}
 +
 
 +
114 <center>''ATLANTIS: THE ANTEDILUVIAN WORLD.''</center>
 +
 
 +
 
 +
of [[Atlantis]]. They have another singular legend, which we find in the account of [[Lewis and Clarke]]:
 +
 
 +
"Their belief in a future state is connected with this theory of their origin: The whole nation resided in one large village, underground, near a subterranean lake. A grape-vine extended its roots down to their habitation, and gave them a view of the light. Some of the most adventurous climbed up the vine, and were delighted with the sight of the earth, which they found covered with buffalo, and rich with every kind of fruit. Returning with the grapes they had gathered, their countrymen were so pleased with the taste of them that the whole nation resolved to leave their dull residence for the charms of the upper region. Men, women, and children ascended by means of the vine, but, when about half the nation had reached the surface of the earth, a corpulent woman, who was clambering up the vine, broke it with her weight, and closed upon herself and the rest of the nation the light of the sun."
 +
 
 +
This curious tradition means that the present nation dwelt in a large settlement underground, that is, beyond the land, in the sea; the sea being represented by "the subterranean lake." At one time the people had free intercourse between this "large village" and the [[American]] continent, and they founded extensive colonies on this continent; whereupon some mishap cut them off from the mother country. This explanation is confirmed by the fact that in the legends of the [[Iowa]] [[Indian]]s, who were a branch of the [[Dakota]]s, or [[Sioux Indian]]s, and relatives of the [[Mandans]] (according to Major [[James W. Lynd]]), "all the tribes of [[Indian]]s were formerly one, and all dwelt together ''on an island'', or at least across a large water ''toward the east or sunrise''. They crossed this water in skin canoes, or by swimming; but they know not how long they were in crossing, or whether the water was salt or fresh." While the [[Dakota]]s, according to Major Lynd, who lived among them for nine years, possessed legends of "huge skiffs, in which the [[Dakota]]s of old floated for weeks, finally gaining dry land"--a reminiscence of ships and long sea-voyages.
 +
----
 +
{{pagebreak}}
 +
 
 +
''THE [[DELUGE]] LEGENDS OF [[AMERICA]].''<p align="right">115</p>
 +
 
 +
 
 +
The [[Mandans]] celebrated their great religious festival above described in the season when the willow is first in leaf, and a dove is mixed up in the ceremonies; and they further relate a legend that "the world was once a great tortoise, borne on the waters, and covered with earth, and that when one day, in digging the soil, a tribe of white men, who had made holes in the earth to a great depth digging for badgers, at length pierced the shell of the tortoise, it sank, and the water covering it drowned all men with the exception of one, who saved himself in a boat; and when the earth re-emerged, sent out a dove, who returned with a branch of willow in its beak."
 +
 
 +
The holes dug to find badgers were a savage's recollection of mining operations; and when the great disaster came, and the island sunk in the sea amid volcanic convulsions, doubtless men said it was due to the deep mines, which had opened the way to the central fires. But the recurrence of "white men" as the miners, and of a white man as "the last and only man," and the presence of white blood in the veins of the people, all point to the same conclusion--that the [[Mandans]] were colonists from [[Atlantis]].
 +
 
 +
And here I might add that [[Catlin]] found the following singular resemblances between the [[Mandan]] tongue and the [[Welsh]]:
 +
 
 +
{| class="wikitable"
 +
![[English]]
 +
![[Mandan]]
 +
![[Welsh]]
 +
!Pronounced
 +
|-
 +
|I
 +
|Me
 +
|Mi
 +
|Me
 +
|-
 +
|You
 +
|Ne
 +
|Chwi
 +
|Chwe
 +
|-
 +
|He
 +
|E
 +
|A
 +
|A
 +
|-
 +
|She
 +
|Ea
 +
|E
 +
|A
 +
|-
 +
|It
 +
|Ount
 +
|Hwynt
 +
|Hooynt
 +
|-
 +
|We
 +
|Noo
 +
|Ni
 +
|Ne
 +
|-
 +
|They
 +
|Eonah
 +
|Hona, fem
 +
|Hona
 +
|-
 +
|No; or there is not
 +
|Megosh
 +
|Nagoes
 +
|Nagosh
 +
|-
 +
|No
 +
|
 +
|Na
 +
|
 +
|-
 +
|Head
 +
|[[Pan]]
 +
|Pen
 +
|[[Pan]]
 +
|-
 +
|The Great Spirit
 +
|Maho Peneta
 +
|Mawr Penaethir
 +
|Mosoor Panaether
 +
|}
 +
 
 +
Major Lynd found the following resemblances between the [[Dakota]] tongue and the languages of the Old World:
 +
----
 +
{{pagebreak}}
 +
 
 +
116 <center>''ATLANTIS: THE ANTEDILUVIAN WORLD.''</center>
 +
 
 +
 
 +
comparison OF [[DAKOTA]], OR [[SIOUX]], WITH OTHER LANGUAGES.
 +
 
 +
{| class="wikitable"
 +
![[Latin]]
 +
![[English]]
 +
![[Saxon]]
 +
![[Sanscrit]]
 +
![[German]]
 +
![[Danish]]
 +
![[Sioux]]
 +
!Other Languages
 +
!Primary Signification
 +
|-
 +
|
 +
|See, seen
 +
|Seon
 +
|
 +
|Sehen
 +
|Sigt
 +
|Sin
 +
|
 +
|Appearing, visible
 +
|-
 +
|Pinso
 +
|Pound
 +
|Punian
 +
|
 +
|
 +
|
 +
|Pau
 +
|W., Pwynian
 +
|Beating
 +
|-
 +
|Vado
 +
|Went - Wend
 +
|Wendan
 +
|
 +
|
 +
|
 +
|Winta
 +
|
 +
|Passage
 +
|-
 +
|
 +
|Town
 +
|Tun
 +
|
 +
|Zaun
 +
|Tun
 +
|Tonwe
 +
|Gaelic
 +
|
 +
|-
 +
|Qui
 +
|Who
 +
|Hwa
 +
|Kwas
 +
|Wir
 +
|
 +
|Tuwe
 +
|
 +
|
 +
|-
 +
|
 +
|Weapon
 +
|Wepn
 +
|
 +
|
 +
|Wapen
 +
|Vaapen
 +
|Wipe
 +
|[[Sioux]] dimin. Wipena
 +
|-
 +
|Ego
 +
|I
 +
|Ic
 +
|Agam
 +
|Ich
 +
|Jeg
 +
|Mish
 +
|
 +
|
 +
|-
 +
|Cor
 +
|Core
 +
|
 +
|
 +
|
 +
|
 +
|Co
 +
|Gr., Kear
 +
|Centre, heart
 +
|-
 +
|
 +
|Eight
 +
|Achta
 +
|Aute
 +
|Acht
 +
|Otte
 +
|Shaktogan
 +
|Gr., Okto
 +
|
 +
|-
 +
|Canna
 +
|Cane
 +
|
 +
|
 +
|
 +
|
 +
|Can
 +
|Arm Caneu<br>Heb., Can<br>W., Cawn
 +
|Reed, weed, wood.
 +
|-
 +
|Pock
 +
|Pock
 +
|Poc
 +
|
 +
|Pocke
 +
|Pukkel
 +
|Poka
 +
|Dutch, Poca
 +
|Swelling
 +
|-
 +
|
 +
|With
 +
|With
 +
|
 +
|Wider
 +
|
 +
|Wita
 +
|[[Goth]]., Gewithan
 +
|
 +
|-
 +
|
 +
|Doughty
 +
|Dohtig
 +
|
 +
|Taugen
 +
|Digtig
 +
|Dita<br>Ditaya
 +
|
 +
|Hot, brave, daring
 +
|-|
 +
|
 +
|Tight
 +
|Tian
 +
|
 +
|Dicht
 +
|Digt
 +
|Titan
 +
|
 +
|Strain
 +
|-
 +
|Tango<br>Tactus
 +
|Touch<br>Take
 +
|Taecan
 +
|
 +
|Ticken
 +
|Tekkan
 +
|Tan<br>Htaka
 +
|
 +
|Touch, take.
 +
|-
 +
|
 +
|Child
 +
|Cild
 +
|
 +
|Kind
 +
|Kuld
 +
|Cin
 +
|
 +
|Progeny
 +
|-
 +
|
 +
|Work
 +
|Wercan
 +
|
 +
|Wirken
 +
|
 +
|Woccas.<br>Hecon.
 +
|Dutch, Werkan<br>Span., Hecho.
 +
|Labor, motion.
 +
|-
 +
|
 +
|Shackle
 +
|Seoacul
 +
|
 +
|
 +
|
 +
|Shka
 +
|Ar., Schakala.<br>Span.,<br>Dutch, Schakel.<br>Teton, Shakalan
 +
|to bind (a link).
 +
|-
 +
|Query
 +
|
 +
|
 +
|
 +
|
 +
|Kuiva
 +
|
 +
|
 +
|
 +
|-
 +
|
 +
|Shabby
 +
|
 +
|
 +
|Schabig
 +
|Schabbig
 +
|Shabya
 +
|
 +
|
 +
|}
 +
----
 +
{{pagebreak}}
 +
 
 +
''THE [[DELUGE]] LEGENDS OF [[AMERICA]].''<p align="right">117</p>
 +
 
 +
 
 +
According to Major Lynd, the [[Dakota]]s, or [[Sioux]], belonged to the same race as the [[Mandans]]; hence the interest which attaches to these verbal similarities.
 +
 
 +
"Among the [[Iroquois]] there is a tradition that the sea and waters infringed upon the land, so that all human life was destroyed. The Chickasaws assert that the world was once destroyed by water, but that one family was saved, and two animals of every kind. The [[Sioux]] say there was a time when there was no dry land, and all men had disappeared from existence." (See Lynd's "MS. [[History of the Dakota]]s," Library of Historical Society of Minnesota.)
 +
 
 +
"The [[Okanagaus]] have a god, [[Skyappe]], and also one called [[Chacha]], who appear to be endowed with omniscience; but their principal divinity is their great mythical ruler and heroine, [[Scomalt]]. Long ago, when the sun was no bigger than a star, this strong medicine-woman ruled over what appears to have now become a ''lost island''. At last the peace of the island was destroyed by war, and the noise of battle was heard, with which [[Scomalt]] was exceeding wroth, whereupon she rose up in her might and drove her rebellious subjects to one end of the island, and broke off the piece of land on which they were huddled and pushed it out to sea, to drift whither it would. This floating island was tossed to and fro and buffeted by the winds till all but two died. A man and woman escaped in a canoe, and arrived on the main-land; and from these the
 +
[[Okanagaus]] are descended." ([[Bancroft]]'s "[[Native Races]]," vol. iii., p. 149.)
  
 
Here we have the Flood legend clearly connected with a lost island.
 
Here we have the Flood legend clearly connected with a lost island.
  
The Nicaraguans believed "that ages ago the world was destroyed by a
+
The [[Nicaraguan]]s believed "that ages ago the world was destroyed by a flood, in which the most part of mankind perished. Afterward the ''[[teote]]s'', or gods, restored the earth as at the beginning." (''Ibid''., p. 75.) The wild Apaches, "wild from their Natal hour," have a legend that "the first days of the world were happy and peaceful days;" then came a great flood, from which [[Montezuma]] and the coyote alone escaped. [[Montezuma]] became then very wicked, and attempted to build a house that would reach to heaven, but the Great
flood, in which the most part of mankind perished. Afterward the teotes,
+
----
or gods, restored the earth as at the beginning." (Ibid., p. 75.) The
+
{{pagebreak}}
wild Apaches, "wild from their natal hour," have a legend that "the
+
first days of the world were happy and peaceful days;" then came a great
+
flood, from which Montezuma and the coyote alone escaped. Montezuma
+
became then very wicked, and attempted to build a house that would reach
+
to heaven, but the Great Spirit destroyed it with thunderbolts.
+
(Bancroft's "Native Races," vol. iii., p. 76.)
+
  
The Pimas, an [[Indian]] tribe allied to the Papagos, have a peculiar flood
+
118 <center>''ATLANTIS: THE ANTEDILUVIAN WORLD.''</center>
legend. The son of the Creator was called Szeu-kha (Ze-us?). An eagle
+
prophesied the [[Deluge]] to the prophet of the people three times in
+
succession, but his warning was despised; "then in the twinkling of an
+
eye there came a peal of thunder and an awful crash, and a green mound
+
of water reared itself over the plain. It seemed to stand upright for a
+
second, then, cut incessantly by the lightning, goaded on like a great
+
beast, it flung itself upon the prophet's hut. When the morning broke
+
there was nothing to be seen alive but one man--if indeed he were a man;
+
Szeu-kha, the son of the Creator, had saved himself by floating on a
+
ball of gum or resin." This instantaneous catastrophe reminds one
+
forcibly of the destruction of [[Atlantis]]. Szeu-kha killed the eagle,
+
restored its victims to life, and repeopled the earth with them, as
+
[[Deucalion]] repeopled the earth with the stones.
+
  
CHAPTER VI.
 
  
SOME CONSIDERATION OF THE [[DELUGE]] LEGENDS.
+
Spirit destroyed it with thunderbolts.
 +
([[Bancroft]]'s "[[Native Races]]," vol. iii., p. 76.)
  
The Fountains of the Great Deep.--As [[Atlantis]] perished in a volcanic
+
The Pimas, an [[Indian]] tribe allied to the Papagos, have a peculiar flood legend. The son of the Creator was called [[Szeu-kha]] (Ze-us?). An eagle prophesied the [[Deluge]] to the prophet of the people three times in succession, but his warning was despised; "then in the twinkling of an eye there came a peal of thunder and an awful crash, and a green mound of water reared itself over the plain. It seemed to stand upright for a second, then, cut incessantly by the lightning, goaded on like a great beast, it flung itself upon the prophet's hut. When the morning broke there was nothing to be seen alive but one man--if indeed he were a man; [[Szeu-kha]], the son of the Creator, had saved himself by floating on a ball of gum or resin." This instantaneous catastrophe reminds one forcibly of the destruction of [[Atlantis]]. [[Szeu-kha]] killed the eagle, restored its victims to life, and repeopled the earth with them, as [[Deucalion]] repeopled the earth with the stones.
convulsion, it must have possessed volcanoes. This is rendered the more
+
----
probable when we remember that the ridge of land of which it was a part,
+
{{pagebreak}}
stretching from north to south, from [[Iceland]] to [[St. Helena]], contains
+
even now great volcanoes--as in [[Iceland]], the [[Azores]], the [[Canaries]],
+
etc.--and that the very sea-bed along the line of its original axis is,
+
to this day, as we have shown, the scene of great volcanic disturbances.
+
  
If, then, the mountains of [[Atlantis]] contained volcanoes, of which the
+
''SOME CONSIDERATION OF THE [[DELUGE]] LEGENDS.''<p align="right">119</p>
peaks of the [[Azores]] are the surviving representatives, it is not
+
improbable that the convulsion which drowned it in the sea was
+
accompanied by great discharges of water. We have seen that such
+
discharges occurred in the island of [[Java]], when four thousand people
+
perished. "Immense columns of hot water and boiling mud were thrown out"
+
of the volcano of [[Galung Gung]]; the water was projected from the mountain
+
"like a water-spout." When a volcanic island was created near [[Sicily]] in
+
1831, it was accompanied by "a waterspout sixty feet high."
+
  
In the island of Dominica, one of the islands constituting the Leeward
 
group of the [[West Indies]], and nearest to the site of [[Atlantis]], on the
 
4th of January, 1880, occurred a series of convulsions which reminds us
 
forcibly of the destruction of [[Plato]]'s island; and the similarity
 
extends to another particular: Dominica contains, like [[Atlantis]], we are
 
told, numerous hot and sulphur springs. I abridge the account given by
 
the New York Herald of January 28th, 1880:
 
  
"A little after 11 o'clock A.M., soon after high-mass in the [[Roman]]
 
Catholic cathedral, and while divine service was still going on in the
 
Anglican and Wesleyan chapels, all the indications of an approaching
 
thunder-storm suddenly showed themselves; the atmosphere, which just
 
previously had been cool and pleasant--slight showers falling since
 
early morning--became at once nearly stifling hot; the rumbling of
 
distant thunder was heard, and the light-blue and fleecy white of the
 
sky turned into a heavy and lowering black. Soon the thunder-peals came
 
near and loud, the lightning flashes, of a blue and red color, more
 
frequent and vivid; and the rain, first with a few heavy drops,
 
commenced to pour as if the floodgates of heaven were open. In a moment
 
it darkened, as if night had come; a strong, nearly overpowering smell
 
of sulphur announced itself; and people who happened to be out in the
 
streets felt the rain-drops falling on their heads, backs, and shoulders
 
like showers of hailstones. The cause of this was to be noted by looking
 
at the spouts, from which the water was rushing like so many cataracts
 
of molten lead, while the gutters below ran swollen streams of thick
 
gray mud, looking like nothing ever seen in them before. In the mean
 
time the Roseau River had worked itself into a state of mad fury,
 
overflowing its banks, carrying down rocks and large trees, and
 
threatening destruction to the bridges over it and the houses in its
 
neighborhood. When the storm ceased--it lasted till twelve, mid-day--the
 
roofs and walls of the buildings in town, the street pavement, the
 
door-steps and back-yards were found covered with a deposit of volcanic
 
debris, holding together like clay, dark-gray in color, and in some
 
places more than an inch thick, with small, shining metallic particles
 
on the surface, which could be easily identified as iron pyrites.
 
Scraping up some of the stuff, it required only a slight examination to
 
determine its main constituents--sandstone and magnesia, the pyrites
 
being slightly mixed, and silver showing itself in even smaller
 
quantity. This is, in fact, the composition of the volcanic mud thrown
 
up by the soufrieres at Watton Waven and in the Boiling Lake country,
 
and it is found in solution as well in the lake water. The Devil's
 
Billiard-table, within half a mile of the Boiling Lake, is composed
 
wholly of this substance, which there assumes the character of stone in
 
formation. Inquiries instituted on Monday morning revealed the fact
 
that, except on the south-east, the mud shower had not extended beyond
 
the limits of the town. On the north-west, in the direction of Fond Colo
 
and Morne Daniel, nothing but pure rain-water had fallen, and neither
 
Loubiere nor Pointe Michel had seen any signs of volcanic disturbance....
 
  
"But what happened at Pointe Mulatre enables us to spot the locale of
 
the eruption. Pointe Mulatre lies at the foot of the range of mountains
 
on the top of which the Boiling Lake frets and seethes. The only outlet
 
of the lake is a cascade which falls into one of the branches of the
 
Pointe Mulatre River, the color and temperature of which, at one time
 
and another, shows the existence or otherwise of volcanic activity in
 
the lake-country. We may observe, en passant, that the fall of the water
 
from the lake is similar in appearance to the falls on the sides of
 
Roairama, in the interior of [[British]] Guiana; there, is no continuous
 
stream, but the water overleaps its basin like a kettle boiling over,
 
and comes down in detached cascades from the top. May there not be a
 
boiling lake on the unapproachable summit of Roairama? The phenomena
 
noted at Pointe Mulatre on Sunday were similar to what we witnessed in
 
Roseau, but with every feature more strongly marked. The fall of mud was
 
heavier, covering all the fields; the atmospheric disturbance was
 
greater, and the change in the appearance of the running water about the
 
place more surprising. The Pointe Mulatre River suddenly began to run
 
volcanic mud and water; then the mud predominated, and almost buried the
 
stream under its weight, and the odor of sulphur in the air became
 
positively oppressive. Soon the fish in the water--brochet, camoo, meye,
 
crocro, mullet, down to the eel, the crawfish, the loche, the tetar, and
 
the dormer--died, and were thrown on the banks. The mud carried down by
 
the river has formed a bank at the month which nearly dams up the
 
stream, and threatens to throw it back over the low-lying lands of the
 
Pointe Mulatre estate. The reports from the Laudat section of the
 
Boiling Lake district are curious. The Bachelor and Admiral rivers, and
 
the numerous mineral springs which arise in that part of the island, are
 
all running a thick white flood, like cream milk. The face of the entire
 
country, from the Admiral River to the Solfatera Plain, has undergone
 
some portentous change, which the frightened peasants who bring the news
 
to Roseau seem unable clearly and connectedly to describe, and the
 
volcanic activity still continues."
 
  
From this account it appears that the rain of water and mud came from a
 
boiling lake on the mountains; it must have risen to a great height,
 
"like a water-spout," and then fallen in showers over the face of the
 
country. We are reminded, in this Boiling Lake of Dominica, of the Welsh
 
legend of the eruption of the [[Llyn-llion]], "the Lake of Waves," which
 
"inundated the whole country." On the top of a mountain in the county of
 
Kerry, [[Ireland]], called Mangerton, there is a deep lake known as
 
Poulle-i-feron, which signifies Hell-hole; it frequently overflows, and
 
rolls down the mountain in frightful torrents. On Slieve-donart, in the
 
territory of Mourne, in the county of Down, [[Ireland]], a lake occupies the
 
mountain-top, and its overflowings help to form rivers.
 
  
If we suppose the destruction of [[Atlantis]] to have been, in like manner,
 
accompanied by a tremendous outpour of water from one or more of its
 
volcanoes, thrown to a great height, and deluging the land, we can
 
understand the description in the [[Chaldean]] legend of "the terrible
 
water-spout," which even "the gods grew afraid of," and which "rose to
 
the sky," and which seems to have been one of the chief causes, together
 
with the earthquake, of the destruction of the country. And in this view
 
we are confirmed by the Aramaean legend of the [[Deluge]], probably derived
 
at an earlier age from the [[Chaldean]] tradition. In it we are told, "All
 
on a sudden enormous volumes of water issued from the earth, and rains
 
of extraordinary abundance began to fall; the rivers left their beds,
 
and the ocean overflowed its banks." The disturbance in Dominica
 
duplicates this description exactly: "In a moment" the water and mud
 
burst from the mountains, "the floodgates of heaven were opened," and
 
"the river overflowed its banks."
 
  
And here, again, we are reminded of the expression in [[Genesis]], "the same
+
====CHAPTER VI.====
day were all the fountains of the great deep broken up" (chap. vii.,
+
11). That this does not refer to the rain is clear from the manner in
+
which it is stated: "The same day were all the fountains of the great
+
deep broken up, and the windows of heaven were opened. And the rain was
+
upon the earth," etc. And when the work of destruction is finished, we
+
are told "the fountains also of the deep and the windows of heaven were
+
stopped." This is a reminiscence by an inland people, living where such
+
tremendous volcanic disturbances were nearly unknown, of the terrible
+
water-spout which "rose to the sky," of the [[Chaldean]] legend, and of "the
+
enormous volumes of water issuing from the earth" of the Aramaean
+
tradition. The [[Hindoo]] legend of the Flood speaks of "the marine god
+
[[Hayagriva]], who dwelt in the abyss," who produced the cataclysm. This is
+
doubtless "the archangel of the abyss" spoken of in the [[Chaldean]]
+
tradition.
+
  
The Mountains of the North.--We have in [[Plato]] the following reference to
+
=====''SOME CONSIDERATION OF THE [[DELUGE]] LEGENDS.''=====
the mountains of [[Atlantis]]:
+
  
"The whole country was described as being very lofty and precipitous on
 
the side of the sea.... The whole region of the island lies toward
 
the south, and is sheltered from the north.... The surrounding
 
mountains exceeded all that are to be seen now anywhere."
 
  
These mountains were the present [[Azores]]. One has but to contemplate
+
The Fountains of the Great Deep.--As [[Atlantis]] perished in a volcanic convulsion, it must have possessed volcanoes. This is rendered the more probable when we remember that the ridge of land of which it was a part, stretching from north to south, from [[Iceland]] to [[St. Helena]], contains even now great volcanoes--as in [[Iceland]], the [[Azores]], the [[Canaries]], etc.--and that the very sea-bed along the line of its original axis is, to this day, as we have shown, the scene of great volcanic disturbances.
their present elevation, and remember the depth to which they descend in
+
the ocean, to realize their tremendous altitude and the correctness of
+
the description given by [[Plato]].
+
  
In the [[Hindoo]] legend we find the fish-god, who represents [[Poseidon]],
+
If, then, the mountains of [[Atlantis]] contained volcanoes, of which the peaks of the [[Azores]] are the surviving representatives, it is not improbable that the convulsion which drowned it in the sea was accompanied by great discharges of water. We have seen that such discharges occurred in the island of [[Java]], when four thousand people perished. "Immense columns of hot water and boiling mud were thrown out" of the volcano of [[Galung Gung]]; the water was projected from the mountain "like a water-spout." When a volcanic island was created near [[Sicily]] in 1831, it was accompanied by "a waterspout sixty feet high."
father of [[Atlantis]], helping [[Manu]] over "the Mountain of the North." In
+
the [[Chaldean]] legend [[Khasisatra]]'s vessel is stopped by "the Mountain of
+
[[Nizir]]" until the sea goes down.
+
  
The Mud which Stopped Navigation.--We are told by [[Plato]], "[[Atlantis]]
+
In the island of [[Dominica]], one of the islands constituting the [[Leeward]] group of the [[West Indies]], and nearest to the site of [[Atlantis]], on the 4th of January, 1880, occurred a series of convulsions which reminds us forcibly of the destruction of [[Plato]]'s island; and the similarity extends to another particular: [[Dominica]] contains, like [[Atlantis]], we are told, numerous
disappeared beneath the sea, and then that sea became inaccessible, so
+
----
that navigation on it ceased, on account of the quantity of mud which
+
{{pagebreak}}
the ingulfed island left in its place." This is one of the points of
+
[[Plato]]'s story which provoked the incredulity and ridicule of the
+
ancient, and even of the modern, world. We find in the [[Chaldean]] legend
+
something of the same kind: [[Khasisatra]] says, "I looked at the sea
+
attentively, observing, and the whole of humanity had returned to mud."
+
In the "Popol Vuh" we are told that a "resinous thickness descended from
+
heaven," even as in Dominica the rain was full of "thick gray mud,"
+
accompanied by an "overpowering smell of sulphur."
+
  
The explorations of the ship [[Challenger]] show that the whole of the
+
120 <center>''ATLANTIS: THE ANTEDILUVIAN WORLD.''</center>
submerged ridge of which [[Atlantis]] is a part is to this day thickly
+
covered with volcanic debris.
+
  
We have but to remember the cities of [[Pompeii]] and [[Herculaneum]], which
 
were covered with such a mass of volcanic ashes from the eruption of
 
A.D. 79 that for seventeen centuries they remained buried at a depth of
 
from fifteen to thirty feet; a new population lived and labored above
 
them; an aqueduct was constructed over their heads; and it was only when
 
a farmer, in digging for a well, penetrated the roof of a house, that
 
they were once more brought to the light of day and the knowledge of
 
mankind.
 
  
We have seen that, in 1783, the volcanic eruption in [[Iceland]] covered the
+
hot and sulphur springs. I abridge the account given by the [[New York]] Herald of January 28th, 1880:
sea with pumice for a distance of one hundred and fifty miles, "and
+
ships were considerably impeded in their course."
+
  
The eruption in the island of [[Sumbawa]], in April, 1815, threw out such
+
"A little after 11 o'clock A.M., soon after high-mass in the [[Roman]] Catholic cathedral, and while divine service was still going on in the Anglican and Wesleyan chapels, all the indications of an approaching thunder-storm suddenly showed themselves; the atmosphere, which just previously had been cool and pleasant--slight showers falling since early morning--became at once nearly stifling hot; the rumbling of distant thunder was heard, and the light-blue and fleecy white of the sky turned into a heavy and lowering black. Soon the thunder-peals came near and loud, the lightning flashes, of a blue and red color, more frequent and vivid; and the rain, first with a few heavy drops, commenced to pour as if the floodgates of heaven were open. In a moment it darkened, as if night had come; a strong, nearly overpowering smell of sulphur announced itself; and people who happened to be out in the streets felt the rain-drops falling on their heads, backs, and shoulders like showers of hailstones. The cause of this was to be noted by looking at the spouts, from which the water was rushing like so many cataracts of molten lead, while the gutters below ran swollen streams of thick gray mud, looking like nothing ever seen in them before. In the mean time the [[Roseau River]] had worked itself into a state of mad fury, overflowing its banks, carrying down rocks and large trees, and threatening destruction to the bridges over it and the houses in its neighborhood. When the storm ceased--it lasted till twelve, mid-day--the roofs and walls of the buildings in town, the street pavement, the door-steps and back-yards were found covered with a deposit of volcanic debris, holding together like clay, dark-gray in color, and in some places more than an inch thick, with small, shining metallic particles on the surface, which could be easily identified as iron pyrites. Scraping up some of the stuff, it required only a slight examination to determine its main constituents--sandstone and magnesia, the pyrites being slightly mixed, and silver showing itself in even smaller quantity. This is, in fact, the composition of the volcanic mud thrown up by the ''soufrieres'' at [[Watton Waven]] and in the Boiling Lake country, and it is found in solution as well in the lake water. The Devil's Billiard-table,
masses of ashes as to darken the air. "The floating cinders to the west
+
----
of [[Sumatra]] formed, on the 12th of April, a mass two feet thick and
+
{{pagebreak}}
several miles in extent, through which ships with difficulty forced
+
their way."
+
  
It thus appears that the very statement of [[Plato]] which has provoked the
+
''SOME CONSIDERATION OF THE [[DELUGE]] LEGENDS.''<p align="right">121</p>
ridicule of scholars is in itself one of the corroborating features of
+
his story. It is probable that the ships of the [[Atlantean]]s, when they
+
returned after the tempest to look for their country, found the sea
+
impassable from the masses of volcanic ashes and pumice. They returned
+
terrified to the shores of [[Europe]]; and the shock inflicted by the
+
destruction of [[Atlantis]] upon the civilization of the world probably led
+
to one of those retrograde periods in the history of our race in which
+
they lost all intercourse with the Western continent.
+
  
The Preservation of a Record.--There is a singular coincidence in the
 
stories of the [[Deluge]] in another particular.
 
  
The legends of the [[Phoenician]]s, preserved by Sanchoniathon, tell us that
+
within half a mile of the Boiling Lake, is composed wholly of this substance, which there assumes the character of stone in formation. Inquiries instituted on Monday morning revealed the fact that, except on the south-east, the mud shower had not extended beyond the limits of the town. On the north-west, in the direction of [[Fond Colo]] and [[Morne Daniel]], nothing but pure rain-water had fallen, and neither [[Loubiere]] nor [[Pointe Michel]] had seen any signs of volcanic disturbance....
Taautos, or Taut, was the inventor of the alphabet and of the art of
+
writing.
+
  
Now, we find in the [[Egyptian]] legends a passage of [[Manetho]], in which
+
"But what happened at [[Pointe Mulatre]] enables us to spot the ''locale'' of the eruption. [[Pointe Mulatre]] lies at the foot of the range of mountains on the top of which the Boiling Lake frets and seethes. The only outlet of the lake is a cascade which falls into one of the branches of the [[Pointe Mulatre]] River, the color and temperature of which, at one time and another, shows the existence or otherwise of volcanic activity in the lake-country. We may observe, ''en passant'', that the fall of the water from the lake is similar in appearance to the falls on the sides of [[Roairama]], in the interior of [[British Guiana]]; there, is no continuous stream, but the water overleaps its basin like a kettle boiling over, and comes down in detached cascades from the top. May there not be a boiling lake on the unapproachable summit of [[Roairama]]? The phenomena noted at [[Pointe Mulatre]] on Sunday were similar to what we witnessed in [[Roseau]], but with every feature more strongly marked. The fall of mud was heavier, covering all the fields; the atmospheric disturbance was greater, and the change in the appearance of the running water about the place more surprising. The [[Pointe Mulatre]] River suddenly began to run volcanic mud and water; then the mud predominated, and almost buried the stream under its weight, and the odor of sulphur in the air became positively oppressive. Soon the fish in the water--brochet, camoo, meye, crocro, mullet, down to the eel, the crawfish, the loche, the tetar, and the dormer--died, and were thrown on the banks. The mud carried down by the river has formed a bank at the month which nearly dams up the stream, and threatens to throw it back over the low-lying lands of the [[Pointe Mulatre]] estate. The reports from the Laudat section of the Boiling Lake district are curious. The [[Bachelor]] and [[Admiral]] rivers, and the numerous mineral springs which arise in that part of the island, are all running a thick white flood, like cream milk. The face of the entire country,
[[Thoth]] (or [[Hermes Trismegistus]]), before the [[Deluge]], inscribed on stelae,
+
<center>6</center>
or tablets, in hieroglyphics, or sacred characters, the principles of
+
----
all knowledge. After the [[Deluge]] the second [[Thoth]] translated the contents
+
{{pagebreak}}
of these stelae into the vulgar tongue.
+
  
Josephus tells us that "The patriarch Seth, in order that wisdom and
+
122 <center>''ATLANTIS: THE ANTEDILUVIAN WORLD.''</center>
astronomical knowledge should not perish, erected, in prevision of the
+
double destruction by fire and water predicted by Adam, two columns, one
+
of brick, the other of stone, on which this knowledge was engraved, and
+
which existed in the Siriadic country."
+
  
In the [[Chaldean]] legends the god [[Ea]] ordered [[Khasisatra]] to inscribe the
+
 
divine learning, and the principles of all sciences, on tables of
+
from the [[Admiral River]] to the [[Solfatera Plain]], has undergone some portentous change, which the frightened peasants who bring the news to [[Roseau]] seem unable clearly and connectedly to describe, and the volcanic activity still continues."
terra-cotta, and bury them, before the [[Deluge]], "in the [[City of the Sun]]
+
 
at [[Sippara]]."
+
From this account it appears that the rain of water and mud came from a boiling lake on the mountains; it must have risen to a great height, "like a water-spout," and then fallen in showers over the face of the country. We are reminded, in this Boiling Lake of [[Dominica]], of the [[Welsh]] legend of the eruption of the [[Llyn-llion]], "the Lake of Waves," which "inundated the whole country." On the top of a mountain in the county of [[Kerry Ireland]], called [[Mangerton]], there is a deep lake known as [[Poulle-i-feron]], which signifies Hell-hole; it frequently overflows, and rolls down the mountain in frightful torrents. On Slieve-donart, in the territory of [[Mourne]], in the county of [[Down Ireland]], a lake occupies the mountain-top, and its overflowings help to form rivers.
 +
 
 +
If we suppose the destruction of [[Atlantis]] to have been, in like manner, accompanied by a tremendous outpour of water from one or more of its volcanoes, thrown to a great height, and deluging the land, we can understand the description in the [[Chaldean]] legend of "''the terrible water-spout''," which even "the gods grew afraid of," and which "rose to the sky," and which seems to have been one of the chief causes, together with the earthquake, of the destruction of the country. And in this view we are confirmed by the [[Aramaean]] legend of the [[Deluge]], probably derived at an earlier age from the [[Chaldean]] tradition. In it we are told, "All on a sudden ''enormous volumes of water issued from the earth'', and rains of extraordinary abundance began to fall; the rivers left their beds, and the ocean overflowed its banks." The disturbance in [[Dominica]] duplicates this description exactly: "In a moment" the water and mud burst from the mountains, "the floodgates of heaven were opened," and "the river overflowed its banks."
 +
 
 +
And here, again, we are reminded of the expression in
 +
----
 +
{{pagebreak}}
 +
 
 +
''SOME CONSIDERATION OF THE [[DELUGE]] LEGENDS.''<p align="right">123</p>
 +
 
 +
 
 +
[[Genesis 7:11]], "the same day were all the fountains of the great deep broken up". That this does not refer to the rain is clear from the manner in which it is stated: "The same day were all the fountains of the great deep broken up, and the windows of heaven were opened. And the rain was upon the earth," etc. And when the work of destruction is finished, we are told "the fountains also of the deep and the windows of heaven were stopped." This is a reminiscence by an inland people, living where such tremendous volcanic disturbances were nearly unknown, of the terrible water-spout which "rose to the sky," of the [[Chaldean]] legend, and of "the enormous volumes of water issuing from the earth" of the [[Aramaean]] tradition. The [[Hindoo]] legend of the Flood speaks of "the marine god [[Hayagriva]], who dwelt in the abyss," who produced the cataclysm. This is doubtless "the archangel of the abyss" spoken of in the [[Chaldean]] tradition.
 +
 
 +
''The Mountains of the North''.--We have in [[Plato]] the following reference to the mountains of [[Atlantis]]:
 +
 
 +
[[File:Atlantis21.jpg|center|frame]]
 +
 
 +
"The whole country was described as being very lofty and precipitous on the side of the sea.... The whole region of the island lies toward the south, and is sheltered from the north.... The surrounding mountains exceeded all that are to be seen now anywhere."
 +
 
 +
These mountains were the present [[Azores]]. One has but to contemplate their present elevation, and remember the depth to which they descend in the ocean, to realize their tremendous altitude and the correctness of the description given by [[Plato]].
 +
 
 +
In the [[Hindoo]] legend we find the fish-god, who represents [[Poseidon]], father of [[Atlantis]], helping [[Manu]] over "the Mountain of the North." In the [[Chaldean]] legend [[Khasisatra]]'s vessel is stopped by "the Mountain of [[Nizir]]" until the sea goes down.
 +
----
 +
{{pagebreak}}
 +
 
 +
124 <center>''ATLANTIS: THE ANTEDILUVIAN WORLD.''</center>
 +
 
 +
 
 +
''The Mud which Stopped Navigation''.--We are told by [[Plato]], "[[Atlantis]] disappeared beneath the sea, and then that sea became inaccessible, so that navigation on it ceased, on account of the quantity of mud which the ingulfed island left in its place." This is one of the points of [[Plato]]'s story which provoked the incredulity and ridicule of the ancient, and even of the modern, world. We find in the [[Chaldean]] legend something of the same kind: [[Khasisatra]] says, "I looked at the sea attentively, observing, and the whole of humanity had returned to mud." In the "[[Popol Vuh]]" we are told that a "resinous thickness descended from heaven," even as in [[Dominica]] the rain was full of "thick gray mud," accompanied by an "overpowering smell of sulphur."
 +
 
 +
The explorations of the ship ''[[Challenger]]'' show that the whole of the submerged ridge of which [[Atlantis]] is a part ''is to this day thickly covered with volcanic debris''.
 +
 
 +
We have but to remember the cities of [[Pompeii]] and [[Herculaneum]], which were covered with such a mass of volcanic ashes from the eruption of A.D. 79 that for seventeen centuries they remained buried at a depth of from fifteen to thirty feet; a new population lived and labored above them; an aqueduct was constructed over their heads; and it was only when a farmer, in digging for a well, penetrated the roof of a house, that they were once more brought to the light of day and the knowledge of mankind.
 +
 
 +
We have seen that, in 1783, the volcanic eruption in [[Iceland]] covered the sea with pumice for a distance of one hundred and fifty miles, "and ''ships were considerably impeded in their course''."
 +
 
 +
The eruption in the island of [[Sumbawa]], in April, 1815, threw out such masses of ashes as to darken the air. "The floating cinders to the west of [[Sumatra]] formed, on the 12th of April, a mass ''two feet thick and several miles in extent, through which ships with difficulty forced their way''."
 +
 
 +
It thus appears that the very statement of [[Plato]] which has
 +
----
 +
{{pagebreak}}
 +
 
 +
''SOME CONSIDERATION OF THE [[DELUGE]] LEGENDS.''<p align="right">125</p>
 +
 
 +
 
 +
provoked the ridicule of scholars is in itself one of the corroborating features of his story. It is probable that the ships of the [[Atlantean]]s, when they returned after the tempest to look for their country, found the sea impassable from the masses of volcanic ashes and pumice. They returned terrified to the shores of [[Europe]]; and the shock inflicted by the destruction of [[Atlantis]] upon the civilization of the world probably led to one of those retrograde periods in the history of our race in which they lost all intercourse with the Western continent.
 +
 
 +
''The Preservation of a Record''.--There is a singular coincidence in the stories of the [[Deluge]] in another particular.
 +
 
 +
The legends of the [[Phoenician]]s, preserved by [[Sanchoniathon]], tell us that [[Taautos]], or [[Taut]], was the inventor of the alphabet and of the art of writing.
 +
 
 +
Now, we find in the [[Egyptian]] legends a passage of [[Manetho]], in which [[Thoth]] (or [[Hermes Trismegistus]]), before the [[Deluge]], inscribed on stelae, or tablets, in hieroglyphics, or sacred characters, the principles of all knowledge. After the [[Deluge]] the second [[Thoth]] translated the contents of these stelae into the vulgar tongue.
 +
 
 +
[[Josephus]] tells us that "The patriarch [[Seth]], in order that wisdom and astronomical knowledge should not perish, erected, in prevision of the double destruction by fire and water predicted by Adam, two columns, one of brick, the other of stone, on which this knowledge was engraved, and which existed in the Siriadic country."
 +
 
 +
In the [[Chaldean]] legends the god [[Ea]] ordered [[Khasisatra]] to inscribe the divine learning, and the principles of all sciences, on tables of [[terra-cotta]], and bury them, before the [[Deluge]], "in the [[City of the Sun]] at [[Sippara]]."
  
 
[[Berosus]], in his version of the [[Chaldean]] flood, says:
 
[[Berosus]], in his version of the [[Chaldean]] flood, says:
  
"The deity, [[Chronos]], appeared to him ([[Xisuthros]]) in a vision, and warned
+
"The deity, [[Chronos]], appeared to him ([[Xisuthros]]) in a vision, and warned him that, upon the 15th day of the month Doesius, there would be a flood by which mankind would be destroyed. He therefore enjoined him to write a history of the beginning,
him that, upon the 15th day of the month Doesius, there would be a flood
+
----
by which mankind would be destroyed. He therefore enjoined him to write
+
{{pagebreak}}
a history of the beginning, procedure, and conclusion of all things, and
+
to bury it in the [[City of the Sun]] at [[Sippara]], and to build a vessel,"
+
etc.
+
  
The [[Hindoo]] [[Bhagavata-Purana]] tells us that the fish-god, who warned
+
126 <center>''ATLANTIS: THE ANTEDILUVIAN WORLD.''</center>
[[Satyravata]] of the coming of the Flood, directed him to place the sacred
+
Scriptures in a safe place, "in order to preserve them from [[Hayagriva]], a
+
marine [[Horse]] dwelling in the abyss."
+
  
Are we to find the original of these legends in the following passage
 
from [[Plato]]'s history of [[Atlantis]]?
 
  
"Now, the relations of their governments to one another were regulated
+
procedure, and conclusion of all things, and to bury it in the [[City of the Sun]] at [[Sippara]], and to build a vessel," etc.
by the injunctions of [[Poseidon]], as the law had handed them down. These
+
were inscribed by the first then on a column of [[orichalcum]], which was
+
situated in the middle of the island, at the Temple of [[Poseidon]], whither
+
the people were gathered together.... They received and gave
+
judgments, and at daybreak they wrote down their sentences on a golden
+
tablet, and deposited them as memorials with their robes. There were
+
many special laws which the several kings had inscribed about the
+
temples." ([[Critias]], p. 120.)
+
  
A Succession of Disasters.--The Central [[America]]n books, translated by De
+
The [[Hindoo]] [[Bhagavata-Purana]] tells us that the fish-god, who warned [[Satyravata]] of the coming of the Flood, directed him to place the sacred Scriptures in a safe place, "in order to preserve them from [[Hayagriva]], a marine [[Horse]] dwelling in the abyss."
Bourbourg, state that originally a part of the [[America]]n continent
+
 
extended far into the [[Atlantic Ocean]]. This tradition is strikingly
+
Are we to find the original of these legends in the following passage from [[Plato]]'s history of [[Atlantis]]?
confirmed by the explorations of the ship [[Challenger]], which show that
+
 
the "[[Dolphin's Ridge]]" was connected with the shore of [[South America]]
+
"Now, the relations of their governments to one another were regulated by the injunctions of [[Poseidon]], as the law had handed them down. These were inscribed by the first then on a column of [[orichalcum]], which was situated in the middle of the island, at the Temple of [[Poseidon]], whither the people were gathered together.... They received and gave judgments, and at daybreak they wrote down their sentences on a golden tablet, and deposited them as memorials with their robes. There were many special laws which the several kings had inscribed about the temples." ([[Critias]], p. 120.)
north of the mouth of the [[Amazon]]. The Central [[America]]n books tell us
+
 
that this region of the continent was destroyed by a succession of
+
''A Succession of Disasters''.--The [[Central America]]n books, translated by [[De Bourbourg]], state that originally a part of the [[American]] continent extended far into the [[Atlantic Ocean]]. This tradition is strikingly confirmed by the explorations of the ship ''[[Challenger]]'', which show that the "[[Dolphin's Ridge]]" was connected with the shore of [[South America]] north of the mouth of the [[Amazon]]. The [[Central America]]n books tell us that this region of the continent was destroyed by a succession of frightful convulsions, probably at long intervals apart; three of these catastrophes are constantly mentioned, and sometimes there is reference to one or two more.
frightful convulsions, probably at long intervals apart; three of these
+
 
catastrophes are constantly mentioned, and sometimes there is reference
+
"The land," in these convulsions, "was shaken by frightful earthquakes, and the waves of the sea combined with volcanic fires to overwhelm and ingulf it.... Each convulsion swept away portions of the land until the whole disappeared, leaving the line of coast as it now is. Most of the inhabitants,
to one or two more.
+
----
 +
{{pagebreak}}
 +
 
 +
''SOME CONSIDERATION OF THE [[DELUGE]] LEGENDS.''<p align="right">127</p>
 +
 
 +
 
 +
overtaken amid their regular employments, were destroyed; but some escaped in ships, and some fled for safety to the summits of high mountains, or to portions of the land which for a time escaped immediate destruction." ([[Baldwin]]'s "Ancient [[America]]," p. 176.)
 +
 
 +
This accords precisely with the teachings of geology. We know that the land from which [[America]] and [[Europe]] were formed once covered nearly or quite the whole space now occupied by the [[Atlantic]] between the continents; and it is reasonable to believe that it went down piecemeal, and that [[Atlantis]] was but the stump of the ancient continent, which at last perished from the same causes and in the same way.
 +
 
 +
The fact that this tradition existed among the inhabitants of [[America]] is proven by the existence of festivals, "especially one in the month ''Izcalli'', which were instituted to commemorate this frightful destruction of land and people, and in which, say the sacred books, 'princes and people humbled themselves before the divinity, and besought him to withhold a return of such terrible calamities.'"
 +
 
 +
Can we doubt the reality of events which we thus find confirmed by religious ceremonies at [[Athens]], in [[Syria]], and on the shores of [[Central America]]?
 +
 
 +
And we find this succession of great destructions of the [[Atlantic]] continent in the triads of [[Wales]], where traditions are preserved of "three terrible catastrophes." We are told by the explorations of the ship ''[[Challenger]]'' that the higher lands reach in the direction of the [[British Islands]]; and the [[Celts]] had traditions that a part of their country once extended far out into the [[Atlantic]], and was subsequently destroyed.
 +
 
 +
And the same succession of destructions is referred to in the [[Greek]] legends, where a [[Deluge]] of [[Ogyges]]--"the most ancient of the kings of [[Boeotia]] or [[Attica]], a quite mythical person, lost in the night of ages"--preceded that of [[Deucalion]].
 +
 
 +
We will find hereafter the most ancient hymns of the [[Aryan]]s praying God to ''hold the land firm''. The people of [[Atlantis]],
 +
----
 +
{{pagebreak}}
 +
 
 +
128 <center>''ATLANTIS: THE ANTEDILUVIAN WORLD.''</center>
 +
 
 +
 
 +
having seen their country thus destroyed, section by section, and judging that their own time must inevitably come, must have lived under a great and perpetual terror, which will go far to explain the origin of primeval religion, and the hold which it took upon the minds of men; and this condition of things may furnish us a solution of the legends which have come down to us of their efforts to perpetuate their learning on pillars, and also an explanation of that other legend of the [[Tower of Babel]], which, as I will show hereafter, was common to both continents, and in which they sought to build a tower high enough to escape the [[Deluge]].
 +
 
 +
All the legends of the preservation of a record prove that the united voice of antiquity taught that the antediluvians had advanced so far in civilization as to possess an alphabet and a system of writing; a conclusion which, as we will see hereafter, finds confirmation in the original identity of the alphabetical signs used in the old world and the new.
 +
----
 +
{{pagebreak}}
 +
 
 +
''CIVILIZATION AN INHERITANCE''. <p align="right">129</p>
  
"The land," in these convulsions, "was shaken by frightful earthquakes,
 
and the waves of the sea combined with volcanic fires to overwhelm and
 
ingulf it.... Each convulsion swept away portions of the land until
 
the whole disappeared, leaving the line of coast as it now is. Most of
 
the inhabitants, overtaken amid their regular employments, were
 
destroyed; but some escaped in ships, and some fled for safety to the
 
summits of high mountains, or to portions of the land which for a time
 
escaped immediate destruction." ([[Baldwin]]'s "Ancient [[America]]," p. 176.)
 
  
This accords precisely with the teachings of geology. We know that the
 
land from which [[America]] and [[Europe]] were formed once covered nearly or
 
quite the whole space now occupied by the [[Atlantic]] between the
 
continents; and it is reasonable to believe that it went down piecemeal,
 
and that [[Atlantis]] was but the stump of the ancient continent, which at
 
last perished from the same causes and in the same way.
 
  
The fact that this tradition existed among the inhabitants of [[America]] is
 
proven by the existence of festivals, "especially one in the month
 
Izcalli, which were instituted to commemorate this frightful destruction
 
of land and people, and in which, say the sacred books, 'princes and
 
people humbled themselves before the divinity, and besought him to
 
withhold a return of such terrible calamities.'"
 
  
Can we doubt the reality of events which we thus find confirmed by
 
religious ceremonies at [[Athens]], in [[Syria]], and on the shores of Central
 
[[America]]?
 
  
And we find this succession of great destructions of the [[Atlantic]]
 
continent in the triads of Wales, where traditions are preserved of
 
"three terrible catastrophes." We are told by the explorations of the
 
ship [[Challenger]] that the higher lands reach in the direction of the
 
[[British Islands]]; and the Celts had traditions that a part of their
 
country once extended far out into the [[Atlantic]], and was subsequently
 
destroyed.
 
  
And the same succession of destructions is referred to in the [[Greek]]
 
legends, where a [[Deluge]] of [[Ogyges]]--"the most ancient of the kings of
 
[[Boeotia]] or [[Attica]], a quite mythical person, lost in the night of
 
ages"--preceded that of [[Deucalion]].
 
  
We will find hereafter the most ancient hymns of the [[Aryan]]s praying God
 
to hold the land firm. The people of [[Atlantis]], having seen their country
 
thus destroyed, section by section, and judging that their own time must
 
inevitably come, must have lived under a great and perpetual terror,
 
which will go far to explain the origin of primeval religion, and the
 
hold which it took upon the minds of men; and this condition of things
 
may furnish us a solution of the legends which have come down to us of
 
their efforts to perpetuate their learning on pillars, and also an
 
explanation of that other legend of the Tower of Babel, which, as I will
 
show hereafter, was common to both continents, and in which they sought
 
to build a tower high enough to escape the [[Deluge]].
 
  
All the legends of the preservation of a record prove that the united
 
voice of antiquity taught that the antediluvians had advanced so far in
 
civilization as to possess an alphabet and a system of writing; a
 
conclusion which, as we will see hereafter, finds confirmation in the
 
original identity of the alphabetical signs used in the old world and
 
the new.
 
  
 
==PART III==
 
==PART III==
  
THE CIVILIZATION OF THE OLD WORLD AND NEW COMPARED.
+
===THE CIVILIZATION OF THE OLD WORLD AND NEW COMPARED===.
  
CHAPTER I.
+
<hr size="2" width="15%">
  
CIVILIZATION AN INHERITANCE.
+
====CHAPTER I====.
  
Material civilization might be defined to be the result of a series of
+
=====CIVILIZATION AN INHERITANCE.=====
inventions and discoveries, whereby man improves his condition, and
+
controls the forces of nature for his own advantage.
+
  
The savage man is a pitiable creature; as Menabosbu says, in the
+
Material civilization might be defined to be the result of a series of inventions and discoveries, whereby man improves his condition, and controls the forces of nature for his own advantage.
Chippeway legends, he is pursued by a "perpetual hunger;" he is exposed
+
unprotected to the blasts of winter and the heats of summer. A great
+
terror sits upon his soul; for every manifestation of nature--the storm,
+
the wind, the thunder, the lightning, the cold, the heat--all are
+
threatening and dangerous demons. The seasons bring him neither
+
seed-time nor harvest; pinched with hunger, appeasing in part the
+
everlasting craving of his stomach with seeds, berries, and creeping
+
things, he sees the animals of the forest dash by him, and he has no
+
means to arrest their flight. He is powerless and miserable in the midst
+
of plenty. Every step toward civilization is a step of conquest over
+
nature. The invention of the bow and arrow was, in its time, a far
+
greater stride forward for the human race than the steam-engine or the
+
telegraph. The savage could now reach his game--his insatiable hunger
+
could be satisfied; the very eagle, "towering in its pride of place,"
+
was not beyond the reach of this new and wonderful weapon. The discovery
+
of fire and the art of cooking was another immense step forward. The
+
savage, having nothing but wooden vessels in which to cook, covered the
+
wood with clay; the day hardened in the fire. The savage gradually
+
learned that he could dispense with the wood, and thus pottery was
+
invented. Then some one (if we are to believe the Chippeway legends, on
+
the shores of [[Lake Superior]]) found fragments of the pure copper of that
+
region, beat them into shape, and the art of metallurgy was begun; iron
+
was first worked in the same way by shaping meteoric iron into
+
spear-heads.
+
  
But it must not be supposed that these inventions followed one another
+
The savage man is a pitiable creature; as [[Menabosbu]] says, in the [[Chippeway legends]], he is pursued by a "perpetual hunger;" he is exposed unprotected to the blasts of winter and the heats of summer. A great terror sits upon his soul; for every manifestation of nature--the storm, the wind, the thunder, the lightning, the cold, the heat--all are threatening and dangerous demons. The seasons bring him neither seed-time nor harvest; pinched with hunger, appeasing in part the everlasting craving of his stomach with seeds, berries, and creeping things, he sees the animals of the forest dash by him, and he has no means to arrest their flight. He is powerless and miserable in the midst of plenty. Every step toward civilization is a step of conquest over nature. The invention of the bow and arrow was, in its time, a far greater stride forward for the human race than the steam-engine or the telegraph. The savage could now reach his game--his insatiable hunger could be
in rapid succession. Thousands, and perhaps tens of thousands, of years
+
<center>*6</center>
intervened between each step; many savage races have not to this day
+
----
achieved some of these steps. Prof. Richard Owen says, "Unprepossessed
+
{{pagebreak}}
and sober experience teaches that arts, language, literature are of slow
+
growth, the results of gradual development."
+
  
I shall undertake to show hereafter that nearly all the arts essential
+
130 <center>''ATLANTIS: THE ANTEDILUVIAN WORLD.''</center>
to civilization which we possess date back to the time of
+
[[Atlantis]]--certainly to that ancient [[Egyptian]] civilization which was
+
coeval with, and an outgrowth from, [[Atlantis]].
+
  
In six thousand years the world made no advance on the civilization
 
which it received from [[Atlantis]].
 
  
Phoenicia, [[Egypt]], [[Chaldea]], [[India]], [[Greece]], and Rome passed the torch of
+
satisfied; the very eagle, "towering in its pride of place," was not beyond the reach of this new and wonderful weapon. The discovery of fire and the art of cooking was another immense step forward. The savage, having nothing but wooden vessels in which to cook, covered the wood with clay; the clay hardened in the fire. The savage gradually learned that he could dispense with the wood, and thus pottery was invented. Then someone (if we are to believe the [[Chippeway legends]], on the shores of [[Lake Superior]]) found fragments of the pure copper of that region, beat them into shape, and the art of metallurgy was begun; iron was first worked in the same way by shaping meteoric iron into spear-heads.
civilization from one to the other; but in all that lapse of time they
+
added nothing to the arts which existed at the earliest period of
+
[[Egyptian]] history. In architecture, sculpture, painting, engraving,
+
mining, metallurgy, navigation, pottery, glass-ware, the construction of
+
canals, roads, and aqueducts, the arts of Phoenicia and [[Egypt]] extended,
+
without material change or improvement, to a period but two or three
+
hundred years ago. The present age has entered upon a new era; it has
+
added a series of wonderful inventions to the [[Atlantean]] list; it has
+
subjugated steam and electricity to the uses of man. And its work has
+
but commenced: it will continue until it lifts man to a plane as much
+
higher than the present as the present is above the barbaric condition;
+
and in the future it will be said that between the birth of civilization
+
in [[Atlantis]] and the new civilization there stretches a period of many
+
thousands of years, during which mankind did not invent, but simply
+
perpetuated.
+
  
[[Herodotus]] tells us ("Euterpe," cxlii.) that, according to the
+
But it must not be supposed that these inventions followed one another in rapid succession. Thousands, and perhaps tens of thousands, of years intervened between each step; many savage races have not to this day achieved some of these steps. Prof. [[Richard Owen]] says, "Unprepossessed and sober experience teaches that arts, language, literature are of slow growth, the results of gradual development."
information he received from the [[Egyptian]] priests, their written history
+
dated back 11,340 years before his era, or nearly 14,000 years prior to
+
this time. They introduced him into a spacious temple, and showed him
+
the statues of 341 high-priests who had in turn succeeded each other;
+
and yet the age of [[Columbus]] possessed no arts, except that of printing
+
(which was ancient in [[China]]), which was not known to the [[Egyptians]]; and
+
the civilization of [[Egypt]] at its first appearance was of a higher order
+
than at any subsequent period of its history, thus testifying that it
+
drew its greatness from a fountain higher than itself. It was in its
+
early days that [[Egypt]] worshipped one only God; in the later ages this
+
simple and sublime belief was buried under the corruptions of
+
polytheism. The greatest pyramids were built by the Fourth Dynasty, and
+
so universal was education at that time among the people that the stones
+
with which they were built retain to this day the writing of the
+
workmen. The first king was Menes.
+
  
"At the epoch of Menes," says [[Winchell]], "the [[Egyptians]] were already a
+
I shall undertake to show hereafter that nearly all the arts essential to civilization which we possess date back to the time of [[Atlantis]]--certainly to that ancient [[Egyptian]] civilization which was coeval with, and an outgrowth from, [[Atlantis]].
civilized and numerous people. [[Manetho]] tells us that Athotis, the son of
+
this first king, Menes, built the palace at Memphis; that he was a
+
physician, and left anatomical books. All these statements imply that
+
even at this early period the [[Egyptians]] were in a high state of
+
civilization." ([[Winchell]]'s "[[Preadamites]]," p. 120.) "In the time of Menes
+
the [[Egyptians]] had long been architects, sculptors, painters,
+
mythologists, and theologians." Professor Richard Owen says, "[[Egypt]] is
+
recorded to have been a civilized and governed community before the time
+
of Menes. The pastoral community of a group of nomad families, as
+
portrayed in the Pentateuch, may be admitted as an early step in
+
civilization. But how far in advance of this stage is a nation
+
administered by a kingly government, consisting of grades of society,
+
with divisions of labor, of which one kind, assigned to the priesthood,
+
was to record or chronicle the names and dynasties of the kings, the
+
duration and chief events of their reigns!" Ernest Renan points out that
+
"[[Egypt]] at the beginning appears mature, old, and entirely without
+
mythical and heroic ages, as if the country had never known youth. Its
+
civilization has no infancy, and its art no archaic period. The
+
civilization of the Old Monarchy did not begin with infancy. It was
+
already mature."
+
  
We shall attempt to show that it matured in [[Atlantis]], and that the
+
''In six thousand years the world made no advance on the civilization which it received from [[Atlantis]].''
[[Egyptian]] people were unable to maintain it at the high standard at which
+
they had received it, as depicted in the pages of [[Plato]]. What king of
+
[[Assyria]], or [[Greece]], or Rome, or even of these modern nations, has ever
+
devoted himself to the study of medicine and the writing of medical
+
books for the benefit of mankind? Their mission has been to kill, not to
+
heal the people; yet here, at the very dawn of [[Mediterranean]] history, we
+
find the son of the first king of [[Egypt]] recorded "as a physician, and as
+
having left anatomical books."
+
  
I hold it to be incontestable that, in some region of the earth,
+
[[Phoenicia]], [[Egypt]], [[Chaldea]], [[India]], [[Greece]], and [[Rome]] passed the torch of civilization from one to the other; but in all that lapse of time they added nothing to the arts which existed at the earliest period of [[Egyptian]] history. In architecture, sculpturing, painting, engraving, mining, metallurgy, navigation, pottery, glass-ware, the construction of canals, roads, and aqueducts, the arts of [[Phoenicia]] and [[Egypt]] extended, without material change or improvement, to a period but two or three hundred years ago. The present age has entered upon a new era; it has added a series of wonderful inventions to the [[Atlantean]] list;
primitive mankind must have existed during vast spaces of time, and
+
----
under most favorable circumstances, to create, invent, and discover
+
{{pagebreak}}
those arts and things which constitute civilization. When we have it
+
before our eyes that for six thousand years mankind in [[Europe]], [[Asia]], and
+
[[Africa]], even when led by great nations, and illuminated by marvellous
+
minds, did not advance one inch beyond the arts of [[Egypt]], we may
+
conceive what lapses, what aeons, of time it must have required to bring
+
savage man to that condition of refinement and civilization possessed by
+
[[Egypt]] when it first comes within the purview of history.
+
  
That illustrious Frenchman, H. A. Taine ("History of English
+
''CIVILIZATION AN INHERITANCE''. <p align="right">131</p>
Literature," p. 23), sees the unity of the [[Indo-European]] races manifest
+
in their languages, literature, and philosophies, and argues that these
+
pre-eminent traits are "the great marks of an original model," and that
+
when we meet with them "fifteen, twenty, thirty centuries before our
+
era, in an [[Aryan]], an [[Egyptian]], a [[Chinese]], they represent the work of a
+
great many ages, perhaps of several myriads of centuries.... Such is
+
the first and richest source of these master faculties from which
+
historical events take their rise; and one sees that if it be powerful
+
it is because this is no simple spring, but a kind of lake, a deep
+
reservoir, wherein other springs have, for a multitude of centuries,
+
discharged their several streams." In other words, the capacity of the
+
[[Egyptian]], [[Aryan]], [[Chaldean]], [[Chinese]], Saxon, and Celt to maintain
+
civilization is simply the result of civilized training during "myriads
+
of centuries" in some original home of the race.
+
  
I cannot believe that the great inventions were duplicated
 
spontaneously, as some would have us believe, in different countries;
 
there is no truth in the theory that men pressed by necessity will
 
always hit upon the same invention to relieve their wants. If this were
 
so, all savages would have invented the boomerang; all savages would
 
possess pottery, bows and arrows, slings, tents, and canoes; in short,
 
all races would have risen to civilization, for certainly the comforts
 
of life are as agreeable to one people as another.
 
  
Civilization is not communicable to all; many savage tribes are
+
it has subjugated steam and electricity to the uses of man. And its work has but commenced: it will continue until it lifts man to a plane as much higher than the present as the present is above the barbaric condition; and in the future it will be said that between the birth of civilization in [[Atlantis]] and the new civilization there stretches a period of many thousands of years, during which mankind did not invent, but simply perpetuated.
incapable of it. There are two great divisions of mankind, the civilized
+
and the savage; and, as we shall show, every civilized race in the world
+
has had something of civilization from the earliest ages; and as "all
+
roads lead to Rome," so all the converging lines of civilization lead to
+
[[Atlantis]]. The abyss between the civilized man and the savage is simply
+
incalculable; it represents not alone a difference in arts and methods
+
of life, but in the mental constitution, the instincts, and the
+
predispositions of the soul. The child of the civilized races in his
+
sports manufactures water-wheels, wagons, and houses of cobs; the savage
+
boy amuses himself with bows and arrows: the one belongs to a building
+
and creating race; the other to a wild, hunting stock. This abyss
+
between savagery and civilization has never been passed by any nation
+
through its own original force, and without external influences, during
+
the Historic Period; those who were savages at the dawn of history are
+
savages still; barbarian slaves may have been taught something of the
+
arts of their masters, and conquered races have shared some of the
+
advantages possessed by their conquerors; but we will seek in vain for
+
any example of a savage people developing civilization of and among
+
themselves. I may be reminded of the [[Gauls]], Goths, and Britons; but
+
these were not savages, they possessed written languages, poetry,
+
oratory, and history; they were controlled by religious ideas; they
+
believed in God and the immortality of the soul, and in a state of
+
rewards and punishments after death. Wherever the Romans came in contact
+
with [[Gauls]], or Britons, or [[German]] tribes, they found them armed with
+
weapons of iron. The Scots, according to Tacitus, used chariots and iron
+
swords in the battle of the Grampians--"enormes gladii sine mucrone."
+
The Celts of [[Gaul]] are stated by [[Diodorus Siculus]] to have used
+
iron-headed spears and c[[Oats]]-of-mail, and the [[Gauls]] who encountered the
+
[[Roman]] arms in B.C. 222 were armed with soft iron swords, as well as at
+
the time when Caesar conquered their country. Among the [[Gauls]] men would
+
lend money to be repaid in the next world, and, we need not add, that no
+
[[Christian]] people has yet reached that sublime height of faith; they
+
cultivated the ground, built houses and walled towns, wove cloth, and
+
employed wheeled vehicles; they possessed nearly all the cereals and
+
domestic animals we have, and they wrought in iron, bronze, and steel.
+
The [[Gauls]] had even invented a machine on wheels to cut their grain, thus
+
anticipating our reapers and mowers by two thousand years. The
+
difference between the civilization of the Romans under Julius Caesar
+
and the [[Gauls]] under Vercingetorix was a difference in degree and not in
+
kind. The [[Roman]] civilization was simply a development and perfection of
+
the civilization possessed by all the [[European]] populations; it was drawn
+
from the common fountain of [[Atlantis]].
+
  
If we find on both sides of the [[Atlantic]] precisely the same arts,
+
[[Herodotus]] tells us ("Euterpe," cxlii.) that, according to the information he received from the [[Egyptian]] priests, their written history dated back 11,340 years before his era, or nearly 14,000 years prior to this time. They introduced him into a spacious temple, and showed him the statues of 341 high-priests who had in turn succeeded each other; and yet the age of [[Columbus]] possessed no arts, except that of printing (which was ancient in [[China]]), which was not known to the [[Egyptians]]; and the civilization of [[Egypt]] at its first appearance was of a higher order than at any subsequent period of its history, thus testifying that it drew its greatness from a fountain higher than itself. It was in it's early days that [[Egypt]] worshipped one only God; in the later ages this simple and sublime belief was buried under the corruptions of polytheism. The greatest pyramids were built by the Fourth Dynasty, and so universal was education at that time among the people that the stones with which they were built retain to this day the writing of the workmen. The first king was [[Menes]].
sciences, religious beliefs, habits, customs, and traditions, it is
+
absurd to say that the peoples of the two continents arrived separately,
+
by precisely the same steps, at precisely the same ends. When we
+
consider the resemblance of the civilizations of the [[Mediterranean]]
+
nations to one another, no man is silly enough to pretend that Rome,
+
[[Greece]], [[Egypt]], [[Assyria]], Phoenicia, each spontaneously and separately
+
invented the arts, sciences, habits, and opinions in which they agreed;
+
but we proceed to trace out the thread of descent or connection from one
+
to another. Why should a rule of interpretation prevail, as between the
+
two sides of the [[Atlantic]], different from that which holds good as to
+
the two sides of the [[Mediterranean Sea]]? If, in the one case, similarity
+
of origin has unquestionably produced similarity of arts, customs, and
+
condition, why, in the other, should not similarity of arts, customs,
+
and condition prove similarity of origin? Is there any instance in the
+
world of two peoples, without knowledge of or intercourse with each
+
other, happening upon the same invention, whether that invention be an
+
arrow-head or a steam-engine? If it required of mankind a lapse of at
+
least six thousand years before it began anew the work of invention, and
+
took up the thread of original thought where [[Atlantis]] dropped it, what
+
probability is there of three or four separate nations all advancing at
+
the same speed to precisely the same arts and opinions? The proposition
+
is untenable.
+
  
If, then, we prove that, on both sides of the [[Atlantic]], civilizations
+
"At the epoch of [[Menes]]," says [[Winchell]], "the [[Egyptians]] were already a civilized and numerous people. [[Manetho]] tells us that [[Athotis]], the son of this first king, [[Menes]], built the palace at Memphis; that he was a physician, and left anatomical books. All these statements imply that even at this early period the [[Egyptians]] were in a high state of civilization." ([[Winchell]]'s "[[Preadamites]]," p. 120.) "In the time of [[Menes]] the [[Egyptians]] had long been architects, sculptors, painters, mythologists, and theologians." Professor [[Richard Owen]] says, "[[Egypt]] is recorded to have been a civilized and
were found substantially identical, we have demonstrated that they must
+
----
have descended one from the other, or have radiated from some common
+
{{pagebreak}}
source.
+
  
CHAPTER II
+
132 <center>''ATLANTIS: THE ANTEDILUVIAN WORLD.''</center>
  
THE IDENTITY OF THE CIVILIZATIONS OF THE OLD WORLD AND THE NEW
 
  
                        MOSAICS AT MITLA, [[Mexico]]
+
governed community ''before'' the time of [[Menes]]. The pastoral community of a group of nomad families, as portrayed in the Pentateuch, may be admitted as an early step in civilization. But how far in advance of this stage is a nation administered by a kingly government, consisting of grades of society, with divisions of labor, of which one kind, assigned to the priesthood, was to record or chronicle the names and dynasties of the kings, the duration and chief events of their reigns!" Ernest Renan points out that "[[Egypt]] at the beginning appears mature, old, and entirely without mythical and heroic ages, as if the country had never known youth. Its civilization has no infancy, and its art no archaic period. The civilization of the Old Monarchy did not begin with infancy. It was already mature."
  
Architecture.--[[Plato]] tells us that the [[Atlantean]]s possessed
+
We shall attempt to show that it matured in [[Atlantis]], and that the [[Egyptian]] people were unable to maintain it at the high standard at which they had received it, as depicted in the pages of [[Plato]]. What king of [[Assyria]], or [[Greece]], or [[Rome]], or even of these modern nations, has ever devoted himself to the study of medicine and the writing of medical books for the benefit of mankind? Their mission has been to kill, not to heal the people; yet here, at the very dawn of [[Mediterranean]] history, we find the son of the first king of [[Egypt]] recorded "as a physician, and as having left anatomical books."
architecture; that they built walls, temples, and palaces.
+
  
We need not add that this art was found in [[Egypt]] and all the civilized
+
I hold it to be incontestable that, in some region of the earth, primitive mankind must have existed during vast spaces of time, and under most favorable circumstances, to create, invent, and discover those arts and things which constitute civilization. When we have it before our eyes that for six thousand years mankind in [[Europe]], [[Asia]], and [[Africa]], even when led by great nations, and illuminated by marvellous minds, did not advance one inch beyond the arts of [[Egypt]], we may conceive what lapses, what aeons, of time it must have required to bring savage man to that condition of refinement and civilization possessed by [[Egypt]] when it first comes within the purview of history.
countries of [[Europe]], as well as in [[Peru]], [[Mexico]], and Central [[America]].
+
Among both the [[Peruvian]]s and [[Egyptians]] the walls receded inward, and the
+
doors were narrower at the top than at the threshold.
+
  
The obelisks of [[Egypt]], covered with hieroglyphics, are paralleled by the
+
That illustrious Frenchman, [[H. A. Taine]] ("[[History of English Literature]]," p. 23),
round columns of Central [[America]], and both are supposed to have
+
----
originated in Phallus-worship. "The usual symbol of the Phallus was an
+
{{pagebreak}}
erect stone, often in its rough state, sometimes sculptured." (Squier,
+
"Serpent Symbol," p. 49; Bancroft's "Native Races," vol. iii., p. 504.)
+
The worship of Priapus was found in [[Asia]], [[Egypt]], along the [[European]]
+
shore of the [[Mediterranean]], and in the forests of Central [[America]].
+
  
The mounds of [[Europe]] and [[Asia]] were made in the same way and for the same
+
''CIVILIZATION AN INHERITANCE''. <p align="right">133</p>
purposes as those of [[America]]. [[Herodotus]] describes the burial of a
+
Scythian king; he says, "After this they set to work to raise a vast
+
mound above the grave, all of them vying with each other, and seeking to
+
make it as tall as possible." "It must be confessed," says Foster
+
("Prehistoric Races," p. 193), "that these Scythic burial rites have a
+
strong resemblance to those of the Mound Builders." [[Homer]] describes the
+
erection of a great symmetrical mound over Achilles, also one over
+
Hector. Alexander the Great raised a great mound over his friend
+
Hephaestion, at a cost of more than a million dollars; and Semiramis
+
raised a similar mound over her husband. The pyramids of [[Egypt]], [[Assyria]],
+
and Phoenicia had their duplicates in [[Mexico]] and Central [[America]].
+
  
              CARVING ON THE BUDDHIST TOWER, SARNATH, INDIA
 
  
The grave-cists made of stone of the [[America]]n mounds are exactly like
+
sees the unity of the [[Indo-European]] races manifest in their languages, literature, and philosophies, and argues that these pre-eminent traits are "the great marks of an original model," and that when we meet with them "fifteen, twenty, thirty centuries before our era, in an [[Aryan]], an [[Egyptian]], a [[Chinese]], they represent the work of a great many ages, perhaps of several myriads of centuries.... Such is the first and richest source of these master faculties from which historical events take their rise; and one sees that if it be powerful it is because this is no simple spring, but a kind of lake, a deep reservoir, wherein other springs have, for a multitude of centuries, discharged their several streams." In other words, the capacity of the [[Egyptian]], [[Aryan]], [[Chaldean]], [[Chinese]], [[Saxon]], and [[Celt]] to maintain civilization is simply the result of civilized training during "myriadsof centuries" in some original home of the race.
the stone chests, or kistvaen for the dead, found in the [[British]] mounds.
+
(Fosters "Prehistoric Races," p. 109.) [[tumuli]] have been found in
+
Yorkshire enclosing wooden coffins, precisely as in the mounds of the
+
[[Mississippi]] Valley. (Ibid., p. 185.) The articles associated with the
+
dead are the same in both continents: arms, trinkets, food, clothes, and
+
funeral urns. In both the [[Mississippi]] Valley and among the [[Chaldean]]s
+
vases were constructed around the bones, the neck of the vase being too
+
small to permit the extraction of the skull. (Foster's "Prehistoric
+
Races," p. 200.)
+
  
The use of cement was known alike to the [[European]] and [[America]]n nations.
+
I cannot believe that the great inventions were duplicated spontaneously, as some would have us believe, in different countries; there is no truth in the theory that men pressed by necessity will always hit upon the same invention to relieve their wants. If this were so, all savages would have invented the boomerang; all savages would possess pottery, bows and arrows, slings, tents, and canoes; in short, all races would have risen to civilization, for certainly the comforts of life are as agreeable to one people as another.
  
The use of the arch was known on both sides of the [[Atlantic]].
+
Civilization is not communicable to all; many savage tribes are incapable of it. There are two great divisions of mankind, the civilized and the savage; and, as we shall show, every civilized race in the world has had something of civilization from the earliest ages; and as "all roads lead to [[Rome]]," so all the converging lines of civilization lead to [[Atlantis]]. The abyss between the civilized man and the savage is simply incalculable; it represents not alone a difference in arts and methods of life, but in the mental constitution, the instincts, and the predispositions of the soul. The child of the civilized races
 +
----
 +
{{pagebreak}}
 +
 
 +
134 <center>''ATLANTIS: THE ANTEDILUVIAN WORLD.''</center>
 +
 
 +
 
 +
in his sports manufactures water-wheels, wagons, and houses of cobs; the savage boy amuses himself with bows and arrows: the one belongs to a building and creating race; the other to a wild, hunting stock. This abyss between savagery and civilization has never been passed by any nation through its own original force, and without external influences, during the Historic Period; those who were savages at the dawn of history are savages still; barbarian slaves may have been taught something of the arts of their masters, and conquered races have shared some of the advantages possessed by their conquerors; but we will seek in vain for any example of a savage people developing civilization of and among themselves. I may be reminded of the [[Gauls]], [[Goths]], and [[[[Briton]]s]]; but these were not savages, they possessed written languages, poetry, oratory, and history; they were controlled by religious ideas; they believed in God and the immortality of the soul, and in a state of rewards and punishments after death. Wherever the [[Romans]] came in contact with [[Gauls]], or [[[[Briton]]s]], or [[German]] tribes, they found them armed with weapons of iron. The Scots, according to [[Tacitus]], used chariots and iron swords in the battle of the Grampians--"enormes gladii sine mucrone." The [[Celts]] of [[Gaul]] are stated by [[Diodorus Siculus]] to have used iron-headed spears and coats-of-mail, and the [[Gauls]] who encountered the [[Roman]] arms in B.C. 222 were armed with soft iron swords, as well as at the time when Caesar conquered their country. Among the [[Gauls]] men would lend money to be repaid in the next world, and, we need not add, that no [[Christian]] people has yet reached that sublime height of faith; they cultivated the ground, built houses and walled towns, wove cloth, and employed wheeled vehicles; they possessed nearly all the cereals and domestic animals we have, and they wrought in iron, bronze, and steel. The [[Gauls]] had even invented a machine on wheels to cut their grain, thus anticipating our reapers and mowers by two thousand years. The difference between the civilization of the [[Romans]] under Julius Caesar and
 +
----
 +
{{pagebreak}}
 +
 
 +
''CIVILIZATION AN INHERITANCE''. <p align="right">135</p>
 +
 
 +
 
 +
the [[Gauls]] under Vercingetorix was a difference in degree and not in kind. The [[Roman]] civilization was simply a development and perfection of the civilization possessed by all the [[European]] populations; it was drawn from the common fountain of [[Atlantis]].
 +
 
 +
If we find on both sides of the [[Atlantic]] precisely the same arts, sciences, religious beliefs, habits, customs, and traditions, it is absurd to say that the peoples of the two continents arrived separately, by precisely the same steps, at precisely the same ends. When we consider the resemblance of the civilizations of the [[Mediterranean]] nations to one another, no man is silly enough to pretend that [[Rome]], [[Greece]], [[Egypt]], [[Assyria]], [[Phoenicia]], each spontaneously and separately invented the arts, sciences, habits, and opinions in which they agreed; but we proceed to trace out the thread of descent or connection from one to another. Why should a rule of interpretation prevail, as between the two sides of the [[Atlantic]], different from that which holds good as to the two sides of the [[Mediterranean Sea]]? If, in the one case, similarity of origin has unquestionably produced similarity of arts, customs, and condition, why, in the other, should not similarity of arts, customs, and condition prove similarity of origin? Is there any instance in the world of two peoples, without knowledge of or intercourse with each other, happening upon the same invention, whether that invention be an arrow-head or a steam-engine? If it required of mankind a lapse of at least six thousand years before it began anew the work of invention, and took up the thread of original thought where [[Atlantis]] dropped it, what probability is there of three or four separate nations all advancing at the same speed to precisely the same arts and opinions? The proposition is untenable.
 +
 
 +
If, then, we prove that, on both sides of the [[Atlantic]], civilizations were found substantially identical, we have demonstrated that they must have descended one from the other, or have radiated from some common source.
 +
----
 +
{{pagebreak}}
 +
 
 +
136 <center>''ATLANTIS: THE ANTEDILUVIAN WORLD.''</center>
 +
 
 +
 
 +
 
 +
 
 +
 
 +
====CHAPTER II.====
 +
 
 +
=====''THE IDENTITY OF THE CIVILIZATIONS OF THE OLD WORLD AND THE NEW.''=====
 +
 
 +
 
 +
 
 +
''Architecture''.--[[Plato]] tells us that the [[Atlantean]]s possessed architecture; that they built walls, temples, and palaces.
 +
 
 +
We need not add that this art was found in [[Egypt]] and all the civilized countries of [[Europe]], as well as in [[Peru]], [[Mexico]], and [[Central America]]. Among both the [[Peruvian]]s and [[Egyptians]] the walls receded inward, and the doors were narrower at the top than at the threshold.
 +
 
 +
The obelisks of [[Egypt]], covered with hieroglyphics, are paralleled by the round columns of [[Central America]], and both are supposed to have originated in ''Phallus-worship''. "The usual symbol of the Phallus was an erect stone, often in its rough state, sometimes sculptured." (Squier, "[[Serpent Symbol]]," p. 49; [[Bancroft]]'s "[[Native Races]]," vol. iii., p. 504.) The worship of [[Priapus]] was found in [[Asia]], [[Egypt]], along the [[European]] shore of the [[Mediterranean]], and in the forests of [[Central America]].
 +
 
 +
The mounds of [[Europe]] and [[Asia]] were made in the same way and for the same purposes as those of [[America]]. [[Herodotus]] describes the burial of a [[Scythian]] king; he says, "After this they set to work to raise a vast mound above the grave, all of them vying with each other, and seeking to make it as tall as possible." "It must be confessed," says Foster ([[Prehistoric Races]]," p. 193), "that these [[Scythic]] burial rites have a strong resemblance to those of the [[Mound Builders]]." [[Homer]] describes the erection of a great symmetrical mound over Achilles, also one over Hector. Alexander the Great raised a
 +
{{pagebreak}}
 +
 
 +
[[File:Atlantis22.jpg|center|frame|MOSAICS AT MITLA MEXICO]]
 +
137
 +
----
 +
{{pagebreak}}
 +
BLANK PAGE
 +
138
 +
----
 +
{{pagebreak}}
 +
 
 +
''CIVILIZATIONS OF THE OLD WORLD AND THE NEW.''<p align="right">139</p>
 +
 
 +
 
 +
great mound over his friend [[Hephaestion]], at a cost of more than a million dollars; and [[Semiramis]] raised a similar mound over her husband. The pyramids of [[Egypt]], [[Assyria]], and [[Phoenicia]] had their duplicates in [[Mexico]] and [[Central America]].
 +
 
 +
The grave-cists made of stone of the [[American]] mounds are exactly like the stone chests, or ''kistvaen'' for the dead, found
 +
 
 +
[[File:4.jpg|center|frame|CARVING ON THE [[BUDDHIST TOWER]], [[SARNATH, INDIA]]
 +
 
 +
in the [[British]] mounds. (Fosters "[[Prehistoric Races]]," p. 109.) [[tumuli]] have been found in [[Yorkshire]] enclosing wooden coffins, precisely as in the mounds of the [[Mississippi Valley]]. (''''Ibid''., p. 185''.) The articles associated with the dead are the same in both continents: arms, trinkets, food, clothes, and funeral urns. In both the [[Mississippi Valley]] and among the
 +
----
 +
{{pagebreak}}
 +
 
 +
140 <center>''ATLANTIS: THE ANTEDILUVIAN WORLD.''</center>
 +
 
 +
 
 +
[[Chaldean]]s vases were constructed around the bones, the neck of the vase being too small to permit the extraction of the skull. (Foster's "[[Prehistoric Races]]," p. 200.)
 +
 
 +
The use of ''cement'' was known alike to the [[European]] and [[American]] nations.
 +
 
 +
The use of the ''arch'' was known on both sides of the [[Atlantic]].
  
 
The manufacture of bricks was known in both the Old and New Worlds.
 
The manufacture of bricks was known in both the Old and New Worlds.
  
The style of ornamentation in architecture was much the same on both
+
The style of ornamentation in architecture was much the same on both hemispheres, as shown in the preceding designs, pages 137, 139.
hemispheres, as shown in the preceding designs, pages 137, 139.
+
  
Metallurgy.--The [[Atlantean]]s mined ores, and worked in metals; they used
+
''Metallurgy''.--The [[Atlantean]]s mined ores, and worked in metals; they used copper, tin, bronze, gold, and silver, and probably iron.
copper, tin, bronze, gold, and silver, and probably iron.
+
  
The [[America]]n nations possessed all these metals. The age of bronze, or
+
The [[American]] nations possessed all these metals. The age of bronze, or of copper combined with tin, was preceded in [[America]], ''and nowhere else'', by a simpler age of copper; and, therefore, the working of metals probably originated in [[America]], or in some region to which it was tributary. The [[Mexican]]s manufactured bronze, and the [[Inca]]s mined iron near Lake Titicaca; and the civilization of this latter region, as we will show, probably dated back to [[Atlantean]] times. The [[Peruvian]]s called gold the tears of the sun: it was sacred to the sun, as silver was to the moon.
of copper combined with tin, was preceded in [[America]], and nowhere else,
+
by a simpler age of copper; and, therefore, the working of metals
+
probably originated in [[America]], or in some region to which it was
+
tributary. The [[Mexican]]s manufactured bronze, and the Incas mined iron
+
near Lake Titicaca; and the civilization of this latter region, as we
+
will show, probably dated back to [[Atlantean]] times. The [[Peruvian]]s called
+
gold the tears of the sun: it was sacred to the sun, as silver was to
+
the moon.
+
  
Sculpture.--The [[Atlantean]]s possessed this art; so did the [[America]]n and
+
''Sculpture''.--The [[Atlantean]]s possessed this art; so did the [[American]] and
 
[[Mediterranean]] nations.
 
[[Mediterranean]] nations.
  
Dr. Arthur Schott ("Smith. Rep.," 1869, p. 391), in describing the "Cara
+
Dr. [[Arthur Schott]] ("Smith. Rep.," 1869, p. 391), in describing the "[[Cara Gigantesca[[," or gigantic face, a monument of [[Yzamal]], in [[Yucatan]], says, "Behind and on both sides, from under the mitre, a short veil falls upon the shoulders, so as to protect the back of the head and the neck. This particular appendage vividly calls to mind the same feature in the symbolic adornments of [[Egyptian]] and [[Hindoo]] priests, and even those of the [[Hebrew]] hierarchy." Dr. [[Schott]] sees in the orbicular wheel-like plates of this statue the wheel symbol of [[Kronos]]
Gigantesca," or gigantic face, a monument of Yzamal, in [[Yucatan]], says,
+
----
"Behind and on both sides, from under the mitre, a short veil falls upon
+
{{pagebreak}}
the shoulders, so as to protect the back of the head and the neck. This
+
particular appendage vividly calls to mind the same feature in the
+
symbolic adornments of [[Egyptian]] and [[Hindoo]] priests, and even those of
+
the Hebrew hierarchy." Dr. Schott sees in the orbicular wheel-like
+
plates of this statue the wheel symbol of Kronos and [[Saturn]]; and, in
+
turn, it may be supposed that the wheel of Kronos was simply the cross
+
of [[Atlantis]], surrounded by its encircling ring.
+
  
Painting.--This art was known on both sides of the [[Atlantic]]. The
+
''CIVILIZATIONS OF THE OLD WORLD AND THE NEW.''<p align="right">141</p>
paintings upon the walls of some of the temples of Central [[America]]
+
reveal a state of the art as high as that of [[Egypt]].
+
  
Engraving.--[[Plato]] tells us that the [[Atlantean]]s engraved upon pillars.
 
The [[America]]n nations also had this art in common with [[Egypt]], Phoenicia,
 
and [[Assyria]].
 
  
Agriculture.--The people of [[Atlantis]] were pre-eminently an agricultural
+
and [[Saturn]]; and, in turn, it may be supposed that the wheel of [[Kronos]] was simply the cross of [[Atlantis]], surrounded by its encircling ring.
people; so were the civilized nations of [[America]] and the [[Egyptians]]. In
+
[[Egypt]] the king put his hand to the plough at an annual festival, thus
+
dignifying and consecrating the occupation of husbandry. In [[Peru]]
+
precisely the same custom prevailed. In both the plough was known; in
+
[[Egypt]] it was drawn by oxen, and in [[Peru]] by men. It was drawn by men in
+
the North of [[Europe]] down to a comparatively recent period.
+
  
Public Works.--The [[America]]n nations built public works as great as or
+
''Painting''.--This art was known on both sides of the [[Atlantic]]. The paintings upon the walls of some of the temples of [[Central America]] reveal a state of the art as high as that of [[Egypt]].
greater than any known in [[Europe]]. The [[Peruvian]]s had public roads, one
+
thousand five hundred to two thousand miles long, made so thoroughly as
+
to elicit the astonishment of the Spaniards. At every few miles taverns
+
or hotels were established for the accommodation of travellers. [[Humboldt]]
+
pronounced these [[Peruvian]] roads "among the most useful and stupendous
+
works ever executed by man." They built aqueducts for purposes of
+
irrigation some of which were five hundred miles long. They constructed
+
magnificent bridges of stone, and had even invented suspension bridges
+
thousands of years before they were introduced into [[Europe]]. They had,
+
both in [[Peru]] and [[Mexico]], a system of posts, by means of which news was
+
transmitted hundreds of miles in a day, precisely like those known among
+
the [[Persians]] in the time of [[Herodotus]], and subsequently among the
+
Romans. Stones similar to mile-stones were placed along the roads in
+
[[Peru]]. (See [[Prescott]]'s's "[[Peru]],")
+
  
Navigation.--Sailing vessels were known to the [[Peruvian]]s and the Central
+
''Engraving''.--[[Plato]] tells us that the [[Atlantean]]s engraved upon pillars. The [[American]] nations also had this art in common with [[Egypt]], [[Phoenicia]], and [[Assyria]].
[[America]]ns. [[Columbus]] met, in 1502, at an island near Honduras, a party of
+
the Mayas in a large vessel, equipped with sails, and loaded with a
+
variety of textile fabrics of divers colors.
+
  
                  ANCIENT [IRISH]] VASE OF THE [[BRONZE AGE]]
+
''Agriculture''.--The people of [[Atlantis]] were pre-eminently an agricultural people; so were the civilized nations of [[America]] and the [[Egyptians]]. In [[Egypt]] the king put his hand to the plough at an annual festival, thus dignifying and consecrating the occupation of husbandry. In [[Peru]] precisely the same custom prevailed. In both the plough was known; in [[Egypt]] it was drawn by oxen, and in [[Peru]] by men. It was drawn by men in the North of [[Europe]] down to a comparatively recent period.
  
[[Manu]]factures.--The [[America]]n nations manufactured woollen and [[Cotton]]
+
''Public Works''.--The [[American]] nations built public works as great as or greater than any known in [[Europe]]. The [[Peruvian]]s had public roads, one thousand five hundred to two thousand miles long, made so thoroughly as to elicit the astonishment of the [[Spaniards]]. At every few miles taverns or hotels were established for the accommodation of travellers. [[Humboldt]] pronounced these [[Peruvian]] roads "among the most useful and stupendous works ever executed by man." They built aqueducts for purposes of irrigation some of which were five hundred miles long. They constructed magnificent bridges of stone, and had even invented suspension bridges thousands of years before they were introduced into [[Europe]]. They had, both in [[Peru]] and [[Mexico]], a system of posts, by means of which news was transmitted hundreds of miles in a day, precisely like those known among the [[Persians]] in the time of [[Herodotus]], and subsequently among the [[Romans]].
goods; they made pottery as beautiful as the wares of [[Egypt]]; they
+
----
manufactured glass; they engraved gems and precious stones. The
+
{{pagebreak}}
[[Peruvian]]s had such immense numbers of vessels and ornaments of gold that
+
the Inca paid with them a ransom for himself to Pizarro of the value of
+
fifteen million dollars.
+
  
Music.--It has been pointed out that there is great resemblance between
+
142 <center>''ATLANTIS: THE ANTEDILUVIAN WORLD.''</center>
the five-toned music of the Highland Scotch and that of the [[Chinese]] and
+
other Eastern nations. ("Anthropology," p. 292.)
+
  
Weapons.--The weapons of the New World were identically the same as
 
those of the Old World; they consisted of bows and arrows, spears,
 
darts, short swords, battle-axes, and slings; and both peoples used
 
shields or bucklers, and casques of wood or hide covered with metal. If
 
these weapons had been derived from separate sources of invention, one
 
country or the other would have possessed implements not known to the
 
other, like the blow-pipe, the boomerang, etc. Absolute identity in so
 
many weapons strongly argues identity of origin.
 
  
Religion.--The religion of the [[Atlantean]]s, as [[Plato]] tells us, was pure
+
Stones similar to mile-stones were placed along the roads in [[Peru]]. (See [[Prescott]]'s "[[Peru]],")
and simple; they made no regular sacrifices but fruits and flowers; they
+
worshipped the sun.
+
  
In [[Peru]] a single deity was worshipped, and the sun, his most glorious
+
''Navigation''.--Sailing vessels were known to the [[Peruvian]]s and the Central [[American]]s. [[Columbus]] met, in 1502, at an island near [[Honduras]], a party of the [[Mayas]] in a large vessel, equipped with sails, and loaded with a variety of textile fabrics of divers colors.
work, was honored as his representative. Quetzalcoatl, the founder of
+
the [[Aztecs]], condemned all sacrifice but that of fruits and flowers. The
+
first religion of [[Egypt]] was pure and simple; its sacrifices were fruits
+
and flowers; temples were erected to the sun, Ra, throughout [[Egypt]]. In
+
[[Peru]] the great festival of the sun was called Ra-mi. The [[Phoenician]]s
+
worshipped Baal and Moloch; the one represented the beneficent, and the
+
other the injurious powers of the sun.
+
  
Religious Beliefs.--The Guanches of the [[Canary Islands]], who were
+
''Manufactures''.--The [[American]] nations manufactured woollen and [[Cotton]] goods; they made pottery as beautiful as the
probably a fragment of the old [[Atlantean]] population, believed in the
+
immortality of the soul and the resurrection of the body, and preserved
+
their dead as mummies. The [[Egyptians]] believed in the immortality of the
+
soul and the resurrection of the body, and preserved the bodies of the
+
dead by embalming them. The [[Peruvian]]s believed in the immortality of the
+
soul and the resurrection of the body, and they too preserved the bodies
+
of their dead by embalming them. "A few mummies in remarkable
+
preservation have been found among the [[Chinook]]s and Flatheads."
+
(Schoolcraft, vol. v., p. 693.) The embalmment of the body was also
+
practised in Central [[America]] and among the [[Aztecs]]. The [[Aztecs]], like the
+
[[Egyptians]], mummified their dead by taking out the bowels and replacing
+
them with aromatic substances. (Dorman, "Origin Prim. Superst.," p.
+
173.) The bodies of the kings of the [[Virginia]] [[Indian]]s were preserved by
+
embalming. (Beverly, p. 47.)
+
  
Here are different races, separated by immense distances of land and
+
[[File:Atlantis24.jpg|center|frame|ANCIENT [[IRISH]] VASE OF THE [[BRONZE AGE.]]
ocean, uniting in the same beliefs, and in the same practical and
+
logical application of those beliefs.
+
  
The use of confession and penance was known in the religious ceremonies
+
wares of [[Egypt]]; they manufactured glass; they engraved gems and precious stones. The [[Peruvian]]s had such immense numbers of vessels and ornaments of gold that the [[Inca]] paid with them a ransom for himself to Pizarro of the value of fifteen million dollars.
of some of the [[America]]n nations. Baptism was a religious ceremony with
+
them, and the bodies of the dead were sprinkled with water.
+
  
Vestal virgins were found in organized communities on both sides of the
+
''Music''.--It has been pointed out that there is great resemblance between the five-toned music of the Highland Scotch
[[Atlantic]]; they were in each case pledged to celibacy, and devoted to
+
----
death if they violated their vows. In both hemispheres the recreant were
+
{{pagebreak}}
destroyed by being buried alive. The [[Peruvian]]s, [[Mexican]]s, Central
+
[[America]]ns, [[Egyptians]], [[Phoenician]]s, and [[Hebrews]] each had a powerful
+
hereditary priesthood.
+
  
The [[Phoenician]]s believed in an evil spirit called Zebub; the [[Peruvian]]s
+
''CIVILIZATIONS OF THE OLD WORLD AND THE NEW.''<p align="right">143</p>
had a devil called Cupay. The [[Peruvian]]s burnt incense in their temples.
+
The [[Peruvian]]s, when they sacrificed animals, examined their entrails,
+
and from these prognosticated the future.
+
  
I need not add that all these nations preserved traditions of the
 
[[Deluge]]; and all of them possessed systems of writing.
 
  
The [[Egyptian]] priest of [[Sais]] told [[Solon]] that the myth of [[Phaethon]], the
+
and that of the [[Chinese]] and other Eastern nations. ("[[Anthropology]]," p. 292.)
son of [[Helios]], having attempted to drive the chariot of the sun, and
+
thereby burning up the earth, referred to "a declination of the bodies
+
moving round the earth and in the heavens" (comets), which caused a
+
"great conflagration upon the earth," from which those only escaped who
+
lived near rivers and seas. The "Codex Chimalpopoca"--a Nahua, Central
+
[[America]]n record--tells us that the third era of the world, or "third
+
sun," is called, Quia Tonatiuh, or sun of rain, "because in this age
+
there fell a rain of fire, all which existed burned, and there fell a
+
rain of gravel;" the rocks "boiled with tumult, and there also arose the
+
rocks of vermilion color." In other words, the traditions of these
+
people go back to a great cataclysm of fire, when the earth possibly
+
encountered, as in the [[Egyptian]] story, one of "the bodies moving round
+
the earth and in the heavens;" they had also memories of "the Drift
+
Period," and of the outburst of [[Pluto]]nic rocks. If man has existed on
+
the earth as long as science asserts, he must have passed through many
+
of the great catastrophes which are written upon the face of the planet;
+
and it is very natural that in myths and legends he should preserve some
+
recollection of events so appalling and destructive.
+
  
Among the early [[Greek]]s Pan was the ancient god; his wife was Maia. The
+
''Weapons''.--The weapons of the New World were identically the same as those of the Old World; they consisted of bows and arrows, spears, darts, short swords, battle-axes, and slings; and both peoples used shields or bucklers, and casques of wood or hide covered with metal. If these weapons had been derived from separate sources of invention, one country or the other would have possessed implements not known to the other, like the blow-pipe, the boomerang, etc. Absolute identity in so many weapons strongly argues identity of origin.
Abbe Brasseur de Bourbourg calls attention to the fact that Pan was
+
adored in all parts of [[Mexico]] and Central [[America]]; and at Panuco, or
+
Panca, literally Panopolis, the Spaniards found, upon their entrance
+
into [[Mexico]], superb temples and images of Pan. (Brasseur's Introduction
+
in [[Landa]]'s "Relacion.") The names of both Pan and Maya enter extensively
+
into the Maya vocabulary, Maia being the same as Maya, the principal
+
name of the peninsula; and pan, added to Maya, makes the name of the
+
ancient capital Mayapan. In the Nahua language pan, or pani, signifies
+
"equality to that which is above," and Pentecatl was the progenitor of
+
all beings. ("[[North America]]ns of Antiquity," p. 467.)
+
  
The ancient [[Mexican]]s believed that the sun-god would destroy the world
+
[[File:Atlantis25.jpg|center|frame|ANCIENT VASE FROM THE MOUNDS OF THE UNITED STATES.]]
in the last night of the fifty-second year, and that he would never come
+
back. They offered sacrifices to him at that time to propitiate him;
+
they extinguished all the fires in the kingdom; they broke all their
+
household furniture; they bung black masks before their faces; they
+
prayed and fasted; and on the evening of the last night they formed a
+
great procession to a neighboring mountain. A human being was sacrificed
+
exactly at midnight; a block of wood was laid at once on the body, and
+
fire was then produced by rapidly revolving another piece of wood upon
+
it; a spark was carried to a funeral pile, whose rising flame proclaimed
+
to the anxious people the promise of the god not to destroy the world
+
for another fifty-two years. Precisely the same custom obtained among
+
the nations of [[Asia Minor]] and other parts of the continent of [[Asia]],
+
wherever sun-worship prevailed, at the periodical reproduction of the
+
sacred fire, but not with the same bloody rites as in [[Mexico]].
+
(Valentini, "Maya Archaeology," p. 21.)
+
  
To this day the Brahman of [[India]] "churns" his sacred fire out of a board
+
''Religion''.--The religion of the [[Atlantean]]s, as [[Plato]] tells us, was pure and simple; they made no regular sacrifices but fruits and flowers; they worshipped the sun.
by boring into it with a stick; the Romans renewed their sacred fire in
+
the same way; and in [[Sweden]] even now a "need-fire is kindled in this
+
manner when cholera or other pestilence is about." (Tylor's
+
"Anthropology," p. 262.)
+
  
A belief in ghosts is found on both continents. The [[America]]n [[Indian]]s
+
In [[Peru]] a single deity was worshipped, and the sun, his most glorious work, was honored as his representative. [[Quetzalcoatl]], the founder of the [[Aztecs]], condemned all sacrifice but that of fruits and flowers. The first religion of [[Egypt]] was pure and simple; its sacrifices were fruits and flowers; temples were erected to the sun, ''[[Ra]]'', throughout [[Egypt]]. In [[Peru]] the great festival of the sun was called ''[[Ra-mi]]''. The [[Phoenician]]s worshipped [[Baal]] and [[Moloch]]; the one represented the beneficent, and the other the injurious powers of the sun.
think that the spirits of the dead retain the form and features which
+
they wore while living; that there is a hell and a heaven; that hell is
+
below the earth, and heaven above the clouds; that the souls of the
+
wicked sometimes wander the face of the earth, appearing occasionally to
+
mortals. The story of Tantalus is found among the Chippewayans, who
+
believed that bad souls stand up to their chins in water in sight of the
+
spirit-land, which they can never enter. The dead passed to heaven
+
across a stream of water by means of a narrow and slippery bridge, from
+
which many were lost. The Zunis set apart a day in each year which they
+
spent among the graves of their dead, communing with their spirits, and
+
bringing them presents--a kind of All-souls-day. (Dorman, "Prim.
+
Superst.," p. 35.) The Stygian flood, and Scylla and Charybdis, are
+
found among the legends of the Caribs. (Ibid., p. 37.) Even the boat of
+
Charon reappears in the traditions of the Chippewayans.
+
  
The Oriental belief in the transmigration of souls is found in every
+
''Religious Beliefs''.--The [[Guanches]] of the [[Canary Islands]], who were probably a fragment of the old [[Atlantean]] population, believed in the immortality of the soul and the resurrection of
[[America]]n tribe. The souls of men passed into animals or other men.
+
----
(Schoolcraft, vol. i., p. 33.) The souls of the wicked passed into toads
+
{{pagebreak}}
and wild beasts. (Dorman, "Prim. Superst.," p. 50.)
+
  
Among both the [[Germans]] and the [[America]]n [[Indian]]s lycanthropy, or the
+
144 <center>''ATLANTIS: THE ANTEDILUVIAN WORLD.''</center>
metamorphosis of men into wolves, was believed in. In [[British]] Columbia
+
the men-wolves have often been seen seated around a fire, with their
+
wolf-hides hung upon sticks to dry! The [[Irish]] legend of hunters pursuing
+
an animal which suddenly disappears, whereupon a human being appears in
+
its place is found among all the [[America]]n tribes.
+
  
That timid and harmless animal, the hare, was, singularly enough, an
 
object of superstitious reverence and fear in [[Europe]], [[Asia]], and [[America]].
 
The ancient [[Irish]] killed all the hares they found on May-day among their
 
cattle, believing them to be witches. Caesar gives an account of the
 
horror in which this animal was held by the Britons. The Calmucks
 
regarded the rabbit with fear and reverence. Divine honors were paid to
 
the hare in [[Mexico]]. Wabasso was changed into a white rabbit, and
 
canonized in that form.
 
  
The white bull, Apis, of the [[Egyptians]], reappears in the Sacred white
+
the body, and preserved their dead as mummies. The [[Egyptians]] believed in the immortality of the soul and the resurrection of the body, and preserved the bodies of the dead by embalming them. The [[Peruvian]]s believed in the immortality of the soul and the resurrection of the body, and they too preserved the bodies of their dead by embalming them. "A few mummies in remarkable preservation have been found among the [[Chinook]]s and [[Flatheads]]." ([[Schoolcraft]], vol. v., p. 693.) The embalmment of the body was also practised in [[Central America]] and among the [[Aztecs]]. The [[Aztecs]], like the [[Egyptians]], mummified their dead by taking out the bowels and replacing them with aromatic substances. (Dorman, "[[Origin Prim. Superst]].," p. 173.) The bodies of the kings of the [[Virginia Indian]]s were preserved by embalming. (Beverly, p. 47.)
buffalo of the Dakotas, which was supposed to possess supernatural
+
power, and after death became a god. The white doe of [[European]] legend
+
had its representative in the white deer of the Housatonic Valley, whose
+
death brought misery to the tribe. The transmission of spirits by the
+
laying on of hands, and the exorcism of demons, were part of the
+
religion of the [[America]]n tribes.
+
  
The witches of [[Scandinavia]], who produced tempests by their incantations,
+
Here are different races, separated by immense distances of land and ocean, uniting in the same beliefs, and in the same practical and logical application of those beliefs.
are duplicated in [[America]]. A Cree sorcerer sold three days of fair
+
weather for one pound of [[Tobacco]]! The [[Indian]] sorcerers around Freshwater
+
Bay kept the winds in leather bags, and disposed of them as they pleased.
+
  
Among the [[America]]n [[Indian]]s it is believed that those who are insane or
+
The use of confession and penance was known in the religious ceremonies of some of the [[American]] nations. Baptism was a religious ceremony with them, and the bodies of the dead were sprinkled with water.
epileptic are "possessed of devils." (Tylor, "Prim. Cult.," vol. ii.,
+
pp. 123-126.) Sickness is caused by evil spirits entering into the sick
+
person. (Eastman's "Sioux.") The spirits of animals are much feared, and
+
their departure out of the body of the invalid is a cause of
+
thanksgiving. Thus an Omaha, after an eructation, says, "Thank you,
+
animal." (Dorman, "Prim. Superst.," p. 55.) The confession of their sins
+
was with a view to satisfy the evil spirit and induce him to leave them.
+
(Ibid., p. 57.)
+
  
In both continents burnt-offerings were sacrificed to the gods. In both
+
Vestal virgins were found in organized communities on both sides of the [[Atlantic]]; they were in each case pledged to celibacy, and devoted to death if they violated their vows. In both hemispheres the recreant were destroyed by being buried alive. The [[Peruvian]]s, [[Mexican]]s, Central [[American]]s, [[Egyptians]], [[Phoenician]]s, and [[Hebrews]] each had a powerful hereditary priesthood.
continents the priests divined the future from the condition of the
+
internal organs of the man or animal sacrificed. (Ibid., pp. 214, 226.)
+
In both continents the future was revealed by the flight of birds and by
+
dreams. In [[Peru]] and [[Mexico]] there were colleges of augurs, as in Rome,
+
who practised divination by watching the movements and songs of birds.
+
(Ibid., p. 261.)
+
  
Animals were worshipped in Central [[America]] and on the banks of the [[Nile]].
+
The [[Phoenician]]s believed in an evil spirit called [[Zebub]]; the [[Peruvian]]s had a devil called [[Cupay]]. The [[Peruvian]]s burnt incense in their temples. The [[Peruvian]]s, when they sacrificed animals, examined their entrails, and from these prognosticated the future.
(Ibid., p. 259.)
+
  
The Ojibbeways believed that the barking of a fox was ominous of ill.
+
I need not add that all these nations preserved traditions of the [[Deluge]]; and all of them possessed systems of writing.
(Ibid., p. 225). The peasantry of Western [[Europe]] have the same belief as
+
----
to the howling of a dog.
+
{{pagebreak}}
  
The belief in satyrs, and other creatures half man and half animal,
+
''CIVILIZATIONS OF THE OLD WORLD AND THE NEW.''<p align="right">145</p>
survived in [[America]]. The Kickapoos are [[Darwin]]ians. "They think their
+
ancestors had tails, and when they lost them the impudent fox sent every
+
morning to ask how their tails were, and the bear shook his fat sides at
+
the joke." (Ibid., p. 232.) Among the natives of [[Brazil]] the father cut a
+
stick at the wedding of his daughter; "this was done to cut off the
+
tails of any future grandchildren." (Tylor, vol. i., p. 384.)
+
  
Jove, with the thunder-bolts in his hand, is duplicated in the [[Mexican]]
 
god of thunder, Mixcoatl, who is represented holding a bundle of arrows.
 
"He rode upon a tornado, and scattered the lightnings." (Dorman, "Prim.
 
Superst.," p. 98.)
 
  
Dionysus, or Bacchus, is represented by the [[Mexican]] god Texcatzoncatl,
+
The [[Egyptian]] priest of [[Sais]] told [[Solon]] that the myth of [[Phaethon]], the son of [[Helios]], having attempted to drive the chariot of the sun, and thereby burning up the earth, referred to "a declination of the bodies moving round the earth and in the heavens" (comets), which caused a "great conflagration upon the earth," from which those only escaped who lived near rivers and seas. The "[[Codex Chimalpopoca]]"--a [[Nahua]], Central [[American]] record--tells us that the third era of the world, or "third sun," is called, ''[[Quia Tonatiuh]]'', or sun of rain, "because in this age there fell a rain of fire, all which existed burned, and there fell a rain of gravel;" the rocks "boiled with tumult, and there also arose the rocks of vermilion color." In other words, the traditions of these people go back to a great cataclysm of fire, when the earth possibly encountered, as in the [[Egyptian]] story, one of "the bodies moving round the earth and in the heavens;" they had also memories of "the Drift Period," and of the outburst of [[Plutonic rocks]]. If man has existed on the earth as long as science asserts, he must have passed through many of the great catastrophes which are written upon the face of the planet; and it is very natural that in myths and legends he should preserve some recollection of events so appalling and destructive.
the god of wine. (Bancroft, vol. iii., p. 418.)
+
  
[[Atlas]] reappears in Chibchacum, the deity of the Chibchas; he bears the
+
Among the early [[Greek]]s [[Pan]] was the ancient god; his wife was [[Maia]]. The [[Abbe [[Brasseur]] De Bourbourg]] calls attention to the fact that [[Pan]] was adored in all parts of [[Mexico]] and [[Central America]]; and at ''Panuco'', or ''Panca'', literally ''[[Panopolis]]'', the [[Spaniards]] found, upon their entrance into [[Mexico]], superb temples and images of [[Pan]]. ([[Brasseur]]'s Introduction in [[Landa]]'s "Relacion.") The names of both [[Pan]] and [[Maya]] enter extensively into the [[Maya]] vocabulary, ''[[Maia]]'' being the same as [[Maya]], the principal name of the peninsula; and ''[[Pan]]'', added to ''[[Maya]]'', makes the name of the ancient capital [[Mayapan]]. In the [[Nahua]] language ''[[Pan]]'', or ''pani'', signifies "equality to that which is above," and [[Pentecatl]] was the progenitor of all beings. ("[[North Americans of Antiquity]]," p. 467.)
world on his shoulders, and when be shifts the burden from one shoulder
+
<center>7</center>
to another severe earthquakes are produced. (Bollaert, pp. 12, 13.)
+
----
 +
{{pagebreak}}
  
[[Deucalion]] repeopling the world is repeated in Xololt, who, after the
+
146 <center>''ATLANTIS: THE ANTEDILUVIAN WORLD.''</center>
destruction of the world, descended to Mictlan, the realm of the dead,
+
and brought thence a bone of the perished race. This, sprinkled with
+
blood, grew into a youth, the father of the present race. The Quiche
+
hero-gods, Hunaphu and Xblanque, died; their bodies were burnt, their
+
bones ground to powder and thrown into the waters, whereupon they
+
changed into handsome youths, with the same features as before. (Dorman,
+
"Prim. Superst.," p. 193.)
+
  
Witches and warlocks, mermaids and mermen, are part of the mythology of
 
the [[America]]n tribes, as they were of the [[European]] races. (Ibid., p. 79.)
 
The mermaid of the Ottawas was "woman to the waist and fair;" thence
 
fish-like. (Ibid., p. 278.)
 
  
The snake-locks of Medusa are represented in the snake-locks of
+
The ancient [[Mexican]]s believed that the sun-god would destroy the world in the last night of the fifty-second year, and that he would never come back. They offered sacrifices to him at that time to propitiate him; they extinguished all the fires in the kingdom; they broke all their household furniture; they bung black masks before their faces; they prayed and fasted; and on the evening of the last night they formed a great procession to a neighbouring mountain. A human being was sacrificed exactly at midnight; a block of wood was laid at once on the body, and fire was then produced by rapidly revolving another piece of wood upon it; a spark was carried to a funeral pile, whose rising flame proclaimed to the anxious people the promise of the god not to destroy the world for another fifty-two years. Precisely the same custom obtained among the nations of [[Asia Minor]] and other parts of the continent of [[Asia]], wherever sun-worship prevailed, at the periodical reproduction of the sacred fire, but not with the same bloody rites as in [[Mexico]]. ([[Valentini]], "[[Maya Archaeology]]," p. 21.)
At-otarho, an ancient culture-hero of the Iroquois.
+
  
A belief in the incarnation of gods in men, and the physical translation
+
To this day the [[Brahman]] of [[India]] "churns" his sacred fire out of a board by boring into it with a stick; the [[Romans]] renewed their sacred fire in the same way; and in [[Sweden]] even now a "need-fire is kindled in this manner when cholera or other pestilence is about." (Tylor's "Anthropology," p. 262.)
of heroes to heaven, is part of the mythology of the [[Hindoo]]s and the
+
[[America]]n races. Hiawatha, we are told, rose to heaven in the presence of
+
the multitude, and vanished from sight in the midst of sweet music.
+
  
The vocal statues and oracles of [[Egypt]] and [[Greece]] were duplicated in
+
A belief in ghosts is found on both continents. The [[American Indian]]s think that the spirits of the dead retain the form and features which they were while living; that there is a hell and a heaven; that hell is below the earth, and heaven above the clouds; that the souls of the wicked sometimes wander the face of the earth, appearing occasionally to mortals. The story of [[Tantalus]] is found among the [[Chippewayans]], who believed that bad souls stand up to their chins in water in sight of the spirit-land, which they can never enter. The dead passed to heaven across a stream of water by means of a narrow and slippery bridge, from which many were lost. The [[Zunis]] set apart
[[America]]. In [[Peru]], in the valley of Rimac, there was an idol which
+
----
answered questions and became famous as an oracle. (Dorman, "Prim.
+
{{pagebreak}}
Superst.," p. 124.)
+
 
 +
''CIVILIZATIONS OF THE OLD WORLD AND THE NEW.''<p align="right">147</p>
 +
 
 +
 
 +
a day in each year which they spent among the graves of their dead, communing with their spirits, and bringing them presents--a kind of All-souls-day. (Dorman, "Prim. Superst.," p. 35.) The [[Stygian flood]], and [[Scylla]] and [[Charybdis]], are found among the legends of the [[Caribs]]. (''Ibid''., p. 37.) Even the boat of [[Charon]] reappears in the traditions of the [[Chippewayans]].
 +
 
 +
The Oriental belief in the transmigration of souls is found in every [[American]] tribe. The souls of men passed into animals or other men. ([[Schoolcraft]], vol. i., p. 33.) The souls of the wicked passed into toads and wild beasts. (Dorman, "Prim. Superst.," p. 50.)
 +
 
 +
Among both the [[Germans]] and the [[American Indian]]s lycanthropy, or the metamorphosis of men into wolves, was believed in. In [[British]] Columbia the men-wolves have often been seen seated around a fire, with their wolf-hides hung upon sticks to dry! The [[Irish]] legend of hunters pursuing an animal which suddenly disappears, whereupon a human being appears in its place is found among all the [[American]] tribes.
 +
 
 +
That timid and harmless animal, the hare, was, singularly enough, an object of superstitious reverence and fear in [[Europe]], [[Asia]], and [[America]]. The ancient [[Irish]] killed all the hares they found on May-day among their cattle, believing them to be witches. Caesar gives an account of the horror in which this animal was held by the [[[[Briton]]s]]. The [[Calmucks]] regarded the rabbit with fear and reverence. Divine honors were paid to the hare in [[Mexico]]. [[Wabasso]] was changed into a white rabbit, and canonized in that form.
 +
 
 +
The white bull, ''[[Apis]]'', of the [[Egyptians]], reappears in the Sacred white buffalo of the [[Dakota]]s, which was supposed to possess supernatural power, and after death became a god. The white doe of [[European]] legend had its representative in the white deer of the [[Housatonic Valley]], whose death brought misery to the tribe. The transmission of spirits by the laying on of hands, and the exorcism of demons, were part of the religion of the [[American]] tribes.
 +
----
 +
{{pagebreak}}
 +
 
 +
148 <center>''ATLANTIS: THE ANTEDILUVIAN WORLD.''</center>
 +
 
 +
 
 +
The witches of [[Scandinavia]], who produced tempests by their incantations, are duplicated in [[America]]. A Cree sorcerer sold three days of fair weather for one pound of [[Tobacco]]! The [[Indian]] sorcerers around Freshwater Bay kept the winds in leather bags, and disposed of them as they pleased.
 +
 
 +
Among the [[American Indian]]s it is believed that those who are insane or epileptic are "possessed of devils." (Tylor, "Prim. Cult.," vol. ii., pp. 123-126.) Sickness is caused by evil spirits entering into the sick person. (Eastman's "[[Sioux]].") The spirits of animals are much feared, and their departure out of the body of the invalid is a cause of thanksgiving. Thus an Omaha, after an eructation, says, "Thank you, animal." (Dorman, "Prim. Superst.," p. 55.) The confession of their sins was with a view to satisfy the evil spirit and induce him to leave them. (''Ibid''., p. 57.)
 +
 
 +
In both continents burnt-offerings were sacrificed to the gods. In both continents the priests divined the future from the condition of the internal organs of the man or animal sacrificed. (''Ibid''., pp. 214, 226.) In both continents the future was revealed by the flight of birds and by dreams. In [[Peru]] and [[Mexico]] there were colleges of [[augurs]], as in [[Rome]], who practised divination by watching the movements and songs of birds. (''Ibid''., p. 261.)
 +
 
 +
Animals were worshipped in [[Central America]] and on the banks of the [[Nile]]. (''Ibid''., p. 259.)
 +
 
 +
The [[[[Ojibbeway]]s]] believed that the barking of a fox was ominous of ill. (''Ibid''., p. 225). The peasantry of Western [[Europe]] have the same belief as to the howling of a dog.
 +
 
 +
The belief in satyrs, and other creatures half man and half animal, survived in [[America]]. The [[Kickapoos]] are [[Darwinians]]. "They think their ancestors had tails, and when they lost them the impudent fox sent every morning to ask how their tails were, and the bear shook his fat sides at the joke." (''Ibid''., p. 232.) Among the natives of [[Brazil]] the father cut a stick at the wedding of his daughter; "this was done to
 +
----
 +
{{pagebreak}}
 +
 
 +
''CIVILIZATIONS OF THE OLD WORLD AND THE NEW.''<p align="right">149</p>
 +
 
 +
 
 +
cut off the tails of any future grandchildren." (Tylor, vol. i., p. 384.)
 +
 
 +
[[Jove]], with the thunder-bolts in his hand, is duplicated in the [[Mexican]] god of thunder, [[Mixcoatl]], who is represented holding a bundle of arrows. "He rode upon a tornado, and scattered the lightnings." (Dorman, "Prim. Superst.," p. 98.)
 +
 
 +
[[Dionysus]], or [[Bacchus]], is represented by the [[Mexican]] god [[Texcatzoncatl]], the god of wine. ([[Bancroft]], vol. iii., p. 418.)
 +
 
 +
[[Atlas]] reappears in [[Chibchacum]], the deity of the [[Chibchas]]; he bears the world on his shoulders, and when be shifts the burden from one shoulder to another severe earthquakes are produced. (Bollaert, pp. 12, 13.)
 +
 
 +
[[Deucalion]] repeopling the world is repeated in [[Xololt]], who, after the destruction of the world, descended to [[Mictlan]], the realm of the dead, and brought thence a bone of the perished race. This, sprinkled with blood, grew into a youth, the father of the present race. The [[Quiche]] hero-gods, [[Hunaphu]] and [[Xblanque]], died; their bodies were burnt, their bones ground to powder and thrown into the waters, whereupon they changed into handsome youths, with the same features as before. (Dorman, "Prim. Superst.," p. 193.)
 +
 
 +
Witches and warlocks, mermaids and mermen, are part of the mythology of the [[American]] tribes, as they were of the [[European]] races. (''Ibid''., p. 79.) The mermaid of the Ottawas was "woman to the waist and fair;" thence fish-like. (''Ibid''., p. 278.)
 +
 
 +
The snake-locks of [[Medusa]] are represented in the snake-locks of [[At-otarho]], an ancient culture-hero of the [[Iroquois]].
 +
 
 +
A belief in the incarnation of gods in men, and the physical translation of heroes to heaven, is part of the mythology of the [[Hindoo]]s and the [[American]] races. [[Hiawatha]], we are told, rose to heaven in the presence of the multitude, and vanished from sight in the midst of sweet music.
 +
 
 +
The vocal statues and oracles of [[Egypt]] and [[Greece]] were duplicated in [[America]]. In [[Peru]], in the valley of [[Rimac]], there
 +
----
 +
{{pagebreak}}
 +
 
 +
150 <center>''ATLANTIS: THE ANTEDILUVIAN WORLD.''</center>
 +
 
 +
 
 +
was an idol which answered questions and became famous as an oracle. (Dorman, "Prim. Superst.," p. 124.)
  
 
The [[Peruvian]]s believed that men were sometimes metamorphosed into stones.
 
The [[Peruvian]]s believed that men were sometimes metamorphosed into stones.
  
The Oneidas claimed descent from a stone, as the [[Greek]]s from the stones
+
The [[Oneidas]] claimed descent from a stone, as the [[Greek]]s from the stones of [[Deucalion]]. (''Ibid''., p. 132.)
of [[Deucalion]]. (Ibid., p. 132.)
+
  
Witchcraft is an article of faith among all the [[America]]n races. Among
+
Witchcraft is an article of faith among all the [[American]] races. Among the [[Illinois Indian]]s "they made small images to represent those whose days they have a mind to shorten, and which they stab to the heart," whereupon the person represented is expected to die. ([[Charlevoix]], vol. ii., p. 166.) The witches of [[Europe]] made figures of wax of their enemies, and gradually melted them at the fire, and as they diminished the victim was supposed to sicken and die.
the [[Illinois]] [[Indian]]s "they made small images to represent those whose
+
days they have a mind to shorten, and which they stab to the heart,"
+
whereupon the person represented is expected to die. (Charlevoix, vol.
+
ii., p. 166.) The witches of [[Europe]] made figures of wax of their
+
enemies, and gradually melted them at the fire, and as they diminished
+
the victim was supposed to sicken and die.
+
  
A writer in the Popular Science Monthly (April, 1881, p. 828) points out
+
A writer in the ''[[Popular Science Monthly]]'' (April, 1881, p. 828) points out the fact that there is an absolute identity between the folk-lore of the [[negroes]] on the plantations of the South and the myths and stories of certain tribes of [[Indian]]s in [[South America]], as revealed by Mr. [[Herbert Smith]]'s "[[Brazil, the Amazons, and the Coast]]." ([[New York]]: Scribner, 1879.) Mr. Harris, the author of a work on the folklore of the [[negroes]], asks this question, "When did the [[negro]] or the [[North American Indian]] come in contact with the tribes of [[South America]]?"
the fact that there is an absolute identity between the folk-lore of the
+
[[negroes]] on the plantations of the South and the myths and stories of
+
certain tribes of [[Indian]]s in [[South America]], as revealed by Mr. Herbert
+
Smith's "[[Brazil]], the [[Amazon]]s, and the Coast." (New York: Scribner,
+
1879.) Mr. Harris, the author of a work on the folk-lore of the [[negroes]],
+
asks this question, "When did the negro or the [[North America]]n [[Indian]]
+
come in contact with the tribes of [[South America]]?"
+
  
Customs.--Both peoples manufactured a fermented, intoxicating drink, the
+
''Customs''.--Both peoples manufactured a fermented, intoxicating drink, the one deriving it from [[Barley]], the other from [[Maize]]. Both drank toasts. Both had the institution of marriage, an important part of the ceremony consisting in the joining of hands; both recognized divorce, and the [[Peruvian]]s and [[Mexican]]s established special courts to decide cases of this kind. Both the [[American]]s and [[Europeans]] erected arches, and had triumphal processions for their victorious kings, and both strewed the ground before them with leaves and flowers. Both celebrated important events with bonfires and illuminations; both used banners, both invoked blessings.
one deriving it from [[Barley]], the other from [[Maize]]. Both drank toasts.
+
----
Both had the institution of marriage, an important part of the ceremony
+
{{pagebreak}}
consisting in the joining of hands; both recognized divorce, and the
+
[[Peruvian]]s and [[Mexican]]s established special courts to decide cases of
+
this kind. Both the [[America]]ns and [[Europeans]] erected arches, and had
+
triumphal processions for their victorious kings, and both strewed the
+
ground before them with leaves and flowers. Both celebrated important
+
events with bonfires and illuminations; both used banners, both invoked
+
blessings. The [[Phoenician]]s, [[Hebrews]], and [[Egyptians]] practised
+
circumcision. Palacio relates that at Azori, in Honduras, the natives
+
circumcised boys before an idol called Icelca. ("Carta," p. 84.) Lord
+
Kingsborough tells us the Central [[America]]ns used the same rite, and
+
McKenzie (quoted by Retzius) says he saw the ceremony performed by the
+
Chippeways. Both had bards and minstrels, who on great festivals sung
+
the deeds of kings and heroes. Both the [[Egyptians]] and the [[Peruvian]]s held
+
agricultural fairs; both took a census of the people. Among both the
+
land was divided per capita among the people; in Judea a new division
+
was made every fifty years. The [[Peruvian]]s renewed every year all the
+
fires of the kingdom from the Temple of the Sun, the new fire being
+
kindled from concave mirrors by the sun's rays. The Romans under Numa
+
had precisely the same custom. The [[Peruvian]]s had theatrical plays. They
+
chewed the leaves of the coca mixed with lime, as the [[Hindoo]] to-day
+
chews the leaves of the betel mixed with lime. Both the [[America]]n and
+
[[European]] nations were divided into castes; both practised
+
planet-worship; both used scales and weights and mirrors. The [[Peruvian]]s,
+
[[Egyptians]], and [[Chaldean]]s divided the year into twelve months, and the
+
months into lesser divisions of weeks. Both inserted additional days, so
+
as to give the year three hundred and sixty-five days. The [[Mexican]]s
+
added five intercalary days; and the [[Egyptians]], in the time of Amunoph
+
I., had already the same practice.
+
  
[[Humboldt]], whose high authority cannot be questioned, by an elaborate
+
''CIVILIZATIONS OF THE OLD WORLD AND THE NEW.''<p align="right">151</p>
discussion ("Vues des Cordilleras," p. 148 et. seq., ed. 1870), has
+
shown the relative likeness of the Nahua calendar to that of [[Asia]]. He
+
cites the fact that the [[Chinese]], [[Japanese]], Calmucks, [[Mongol]]s, Mantchou,
+
and other hordes of Tartars have cycles of sixty years' duration,
+
divided into five brief periods of twelve years each. The method of
+
citing a date by means of signs and numbers is quite similar with
+
[[Asiatic]]s and [[Mexican]]s. He further shows satisfactorily that the majority
+
of the names of the twenty days employed by the [[Aztecs]] are those of a
+
zodiac used since the most remote antiquity among the peoples of Eastern
+
[[Asia]].
+
  
Cabera thinks he finds analogies between the [[Mexican]] and [[Egyptian]]
 
calendars. Adopting the view of several writers that the [[Mexican]] year
 
began on the 26th of February, he finds the date to correspond with the
 
beginning of the [[Egyptian]] year.
 
  
The [[America]]n nations believed in four great primeval ages, as the [[Hindoo]]
+
The [[Phoenician]]s, [[Hebrews]], and [[Egyptians]] practised circumcision. [[Palacio]] relates that at [[Azori]], in [[Honduras]], the natives circumcised boys before an idol called [[Icelca]]. ("Carta," p. 84.) Lord Kingsborough tells us the [[Central Americans]] used the same rite, and [[McKenzie]] (quoted by [[Retzius]]) says he saw the ceremony performed by the [[Chippeways]]. Both had [[bards]] and minstrels, who on great festivals sung the deeds of kings and heroes. Both the [[Egyptians]] and the [[Peruvian]]s held agricultural fairs; both took a census of the people. Among both the land was divided ''per capita'' among the people; in [[Judea]] a new division was made every fifty years. The [[Peruvian]]s renewed every year all the fires of the kingdom from the Temple of the Sun, the new fire being kindled from concave mirrors by the sun's rays. The [[Romans]] under [[Numa]] had precisely the same custom. The [[Peruvian]]s had theatrical plays. They chewed the leaves of the coca mixed with lime, as the [[Hindoo]] to-day chews the leaves of the betel mixed with lime. Both the [[American]] and [[European]] nations were divided into castes; both practised planet-worship; both used scales and weights and mirrors. The [[Peruvian]]s, [[Egyptians]], and [[Chaldean]]s divided the year into twelve months, and the months into lesser divisions of weeks. Both inserted additional days, so as to give the year three hundred and sixty-five days. The [[Mexican]]s added five intercalary days; and the [[Egyptians]], in the time of [[Amunoph I]]., had already the same practice.
does to this day.
+
  
"In the [[Greek]]s of [[Homer]]," says Volney, "I find the customs, discourse,
+
[[Humboldt]], whose high authority cannot be questioned, by an elaborate discussion ("Vues des Cordilleras," p. 148 et. seq., ed. 1870), has shown the relative likeness of the [[Nahua]] calendar to that of [[Asia]]. He cites the fact that the [[Chinese]], [[Japanese]], [[Calmucks]], [[Mongol]]s, [[Mantchou]], and other hordes of [[Tartars]] have cycles of sixty years' duration, divided into five brief periods of twelve years each. The method of citing a date by means of signs and numbers is quite similar with [[Asiatic]]s and [[Mexican]]s. He further shows satisfactorily that ''the majority of the names of the twenty days employed by the [[Aztecs]] are''
and manners of the Iroquois, Delawares, and Miamis. The tragedies of
+
----
Sophocles and Euripides paint to me almost literally the sentiments of
+
{{pagebreak}}
the red men respecting necessity, fatality, the miseries of human life,
+
and the rigor of blind destiny." (Volney's "View of the [[United States]].")
+
  
The [[Mexican]]s represent an eclipse of the moon as the moon being devoured
+
152 <center>''ATLANTIS: THE ANTEDILUVIAN WORLD.''</center>
by a dragon; and the [[Hindoo]]s have precisely the same figure; and both
+
nations continued to use this expression long after they had discovered
+
the real meaning of an eclipse.
+
  
The Tartars believe that if they cut with an axe near a fire, or stick a
 
knife into a burning stick, or touch the fire with a knife, they will
 
"cut the top off the fire." The Sioux [[Indian]]s will not stick an awl or a
 
needle into a stick of wood on the fire, or chop on it with an axe or a
 
knife.
 
  
Cremation was extensively practised in the New World. The dead were
+
''those of a zodiac used since the most remote antiquity among the peoples of Eastern [[Asia]].''
burnt, and their ashes collected and placed in vases and urns, as in
+
[[Europe]]. Wooden statues of the dead were made.
+
  
There is a very curious and apparently inexplicable custom, called the
+
[[Cabera]] thinks he finds analogies between the [[Mexican]] and [[Egyptian]] calendars. Adopting the view of several writers that the [[Mexican]] year began on the 26th of February, he finds the date to correspond with the beginning of the [[Egyptian]] year.
"Couvade," which extends from [[China]] to the [[Mississippi]] Valley; it
+
demands "that, when a child is born, the father must take to his bed,
+
while the mother attends to all the duties of the household." Marco Polo
+
found the custom among the [[Chinese]] in the thirteenth century.
+
  
The widow tells Hudibras--
+
The [[American]] nations believed in four great primeval ages, as the [[Hindoo]] does to this day.
  
    "Chineses thus are said
+
"In the [[Greek]]s of [[Homer]]," says [[Volney]], "I find the customs, discourse, and manners of the [[Iroquois]], [[Delaware]]s, and [[Miamis]]. The tragedies of [[Sophocles]] and [[Euripides]] paint to me almost literally the sentiments of the ''red men'' respecting necessity, fatality, the miseries of human life, and the rigor of blind destiny." ([[Volney]]'s "View of the [[United States]].")
    To lie-in in their ladies' stead."
+
  
The practice remarked by Marco Polo continues to this day among the
+
The [[Mexican]]s represent an eclipse of the moon as the moon being devoured by a dragon; and the [[Hindoo]]s have precisely the same figure; and both nations continued to use this expression long after they had discovered the real meaning of an eclipse.
hill-tribes of [[China]]. "The father of a new-born child, as soon as the
+
mother has become strong enough to leave her couch, gets into bed
+
himself, and there receives the congratulations of his acquaintances."
+
([[Max Mueller]]'s "Chips from a [[German]] Workshop," vol. ii., p. 272.) Strabo
+
(vol. iii., pp. 4, 17) mentions that, among the Iberians of the North of
+
[[Spain]], the women, after the birth of a child, tend their husbands,
+
putting them to bed instead of going themselves. The same custom existed
+
among the Basques only a few years ago. "In Biscay," says M. F. Michel,
+
"the women rise immediately after childbirth and attend to the duties of
+
the household, while the husband goes to bed, taking the baby with him,
+
and thus receives the neighbors' compliments." The same custom was found
+
in [[France]], and is said to exist to this day in some cantons of Bearn.
+
[[Diodorus Siculus]] tells us that among the Corsicans the wife was
+
neglected, and the husband put to bed and treated as the patient.
+
Apollonius Rhodius says that among the Tibereni, at the south of the
+
[[Black Sea]], "when a child was born the father lay groaning, with his head
+
tied up, while the mother tended him with food and prepared his baths."
+
The same absurd custom extends throughout the tribes of North and South
+
[[America]]. Among the Caribs in the [[West Indies]] (and the Caribs, Brasseur
+
de Bourbourg says, were the same as the ancient Carians of the
+
[[Mediterranean Sea]]) the man takes to his bed as soon as a child is born,
+
and kills no animals. And herein we find an explanation of a custom
+
otherwise inexplicable. Among the [[America]]n [[Indian]]s it is believed that,
+
if the father kills an animal during the infancy of the child, the
+
spirit of the animal will revenge itself by inflicting some disease upon
+
the helpless little one. "For six months the Carib father must not eat
+
birds or fish, for what ever animals he eats will impress their likeness
+
on the child, or produce disease by entering its body." (Dorman, "Prim.
+
Superst.," p. 58.) Among the Abipones the husband goes to bed, fasts a
+
number of days, "and you would think," says Dobrizboffer, "that it was
+
he that had had the child." The [[Brazil]]ian father takes to his hammock
+
during and after the birth of the child, and for fifteen days eats no
+
meat and hunts no game. Among the Esquimaux the husbands forbear hunting
+
during the lying-in of their wives and for some time thereafter.
+
  
Here, then, we have a very extraordinary and unnatural custom, existing
+
The [[Tartars]] believe that if they cut with an axe near a fire, or stick a knife into a burning stick, or touch the fire with a knife, they will "cut the top off the fire." The [[Sioux Indian]]s will not stick an awl or a needle into a stick of wood on the fire, or chop on it with an axe or a knife.
to this day on both sides of the [[Atlantic]], reaching back to a vast
+
antiquity, and finding its explanation only in the superstition of the
+
[[America]]n races. A practice so absurd could scarcely have originated
+
separately in the two continents; its existence is a very strong proof
+
of unity of origin of the races on the opposite sides of the [[Atlantic]];
+
and the fact that the custom and the reason for it are both found in
+
[[America]], while the custom remains in [[Europe]] without the reason, would
+
imply that the [[America]]n population was the older of the two.
+
  
The [[Indian]] practice of depositing weapons and food with the dead was
+
Cremation was extensively practised in the New World. The dead were burnt, and their ashes collected and placed in vases and urns, as in [[Europe]]. Wooden statues of the dead were made.
universal in ancient [[Europe]], and in [[German]] villages nowadays a needle
+
and thread is placed in the coffin for the dead to mend their torn
+
clothes with; "while all over [[Europe]] the dead man had a piece of money
+
put in his hand to pay his way with." ("Anthropology," p. 347.)
+
  
The [[America]]n [[Indian]] leaves food with the dead; the Russian peasant puts
+
There is a very curious and apparently inexplicable custom, called the "[[Couvade]]," which extends from [[China]] to the [[Mississippi Valley]]; it  demands "that, when a child is born, the father must take to his bed, while the mother attends to all the duties of the household." [[Marco Polo]] found the custom among the [[Chinese]] in the thirteenth century.
crumbs of bread behind the saints' pictures on the little iron shelf,
+
----
and believes that the souls of his forefathers creep in and out and eat
+
{{pagebreak}}
them. At the cemetery of Pere-la-Chaise, Paris, on All-souls-day, they
+
"still put cakes and sweetmeats on the graves; and in [[Brittany]] the
+
peasants that night do not forget to make up the fire and leave the
+
fragments of the supper on the table for the souls of the dead." (Ibid.,
+
p. 351.)
+
  
The [[Indian]] prays to the spirits of his forefathers; the [[Chinese]] religion
+
''CIVILIZATIONS OF THE OLD WORLD AND THE NEW.''<p align="right">153</p>
is largely "ancestor-worship;" and the rites paid to the dead ancestors,
+
or lares, held the [[Roman]] family together." ("Anthropology," p. 351.)
+
  
We find the [[Indian]] practice of burying the dead in a sitting posture in
 
use among the Nasamonians, tribe of [[Libya]]ns. [[Herodotus]], speaking of the
 
wandering tribes of Northern [[Africa]], says, "They bury their dead
 
according to the fashion of the [[Greek]]s.... They bury them sitting,
 
and are right careful, when the sick man is at the point of giving up
 
the ghost, to make him sit, and not let him die lying down."
 
  
The dead bodies of the caciques of Bogota were protected from
+
The widow tells [[Hudibras]]--
desecration by diverting the course of a river and making the grave in
+
its bed, and then letting the stream return to its natural course.
+
Alaric, the leader of the Goths, was secretly buried in the same way.
+
(Dorman, "Prim. Superst.," p. 195.)
+
  
Among the [[America]]n tribes no man is permitted to marry a wife of the
+
"Chineses thus are said<br>
same clan-name or totem as himself. In [[India]] a Brahman is not allowed to
+
To lie-in in their ladies' stead."</br>
marry a wife whose clan-name (her "cow-stall," as they say) is the same
+
as his own; nor may a Chinaman take a wife of his own surname.
+
("Anthropology," p. 403.) "Throughout [[India]] the hill-tribes are divided
+
into septs or clans, and a man may not marry a woman belonging to his
+
own clan. The Calmucks of Tartary are divided into hordes, and a man may
+
not marry a girl of his own horde. The same custom prevails among the
+
Circassians and the Samoyeds of Siberia. The Ostyaks and Yakuts regard
+
it as a crime to marry a woman of the same family, or even of the same
+
name." (Sir John Lubbock, "Smith. Rep.," p. 347, 1869.)
+
  
Sutteeism--the burning of the widow upon the funeral-pile of the
+
The practice remarked by [[Marco Polo]] continues to this day among the hill-tribes of [[China]]. "The father of a new-born child, as soon as the mother has become strong enough to leave her couch, gets into bed himself, and there receives the congratulations of his acquaintances." ([[Max Mueller]]'s "[[Chips from a [[German]] Workshop]]," vol. ii., p. 272.) [[Strabo]] (vol. iii., pp. 4, 17) mentions that, among the [[Iberians]] of the North of [[Spain]], the women, after the birth of a child, tend their husbands, putting them to bed instead of going themselves. The same custom existed among the [[Basques]] only a few years ago. "In Biscay," says [[M. F. Michel]], "the women rise immediately after childbirth and attend to the duties of the household, while the husband goes to bed, taking the baby with him, and thus receives the neighbors' compliments." The same custom was found in [[France]], and is said to ''exist to this day in some cantons of [[Bearn]]''. [[Diodorus Siculus]] tells us that among the [[Corsicans]] the wife was neglected, and the husband put to bed and treated as the patient. [[Apollonius Rhodius]] says that among the [[Tibereni]], at the south of the [[Black Sea]], "when a child was born the father lay groaning, with his head tied up, while the mother tended him with food and prepared his baths." The same absurd custom extends throughout the tribes of North and South [[America]]. Among the [[Caribs]] in the [[West Indies]] (and the [[Caribs]], [[Brasseur De Bourbourg]] says, were the same as the ancient [[Carians]] of the [[Mediterranean Sea]]) the man takes to his bed as soon as a child is born, and kills no animals. And herein we find an explanation of a custom otherwise inexplicable. Among the [[American Indian]]s it is believed that, if the father kills an animal during the infancy of the child, the spirit of the animal will revenge itself by inflicting some disease upon the helpless little one. "For six months the [[Carib]] father must not eat birds or fish, for what
husband--was extensively practised in [[America]] (West's "Journal," p.
+
<center>7*</center>
141); as was also the practice of sacrificing warriors, servants, and
+
----
animals at the funeral of a great chief (Dorman, pp. 210-211.) Beautiful
+
{{pagebreak}}
girls were sacrificed to appease the anger of the gods, as among the
+
[[Mediterranean]] races. (Bancroft, vol. iii., p. 471.) Fathers offered up
+
their children for a like purpose, as among the Carthaginians.
+
  
The poisoned arrows of [[America]] had their representatives in [[Europe]].
+
154 <center>''ATLANTIS: THE ANTEDILUVIAN WORLD.''</center>
Odysseus went to Ephyra for the man-slaying drug with which to smear his
+
bronze-tipped arrows. (Tylor's "Anthropology," p. 237.)
+
  
"The bark canoe of [[America]] was not unknown in [[Asia]] and [[Africa]]" (Ibid.,
 
p. 254), while the skin canoes of our [[Indian]]s and the Esquimaux were
 
found on the shores of the Thames and the [[Euphrates]]. In [[Peru]] and on the
 
[[Euphrates]] commerce was carried on upon rafts supported by inflated
 
skins. They are still used on the [[Tigris]].
 
  
The [[Indian]] boils his meat by dropping red-hot stones into a water-vessel
+
ever animals he eats will impress their likeness on the child, or produce disease by entering its body." (Dorman, "Prim. Superst.," p. 58.) Among the [[Abipones]] the husband goes to bed, fasts a number of days, "and you would think," says [[Dobrizboffer]], "that it was he that had had the child." The [[Brazilian]] father takes to his hammock during and after the birth of the child, and for fifteen days eats no meat and hunts no game. Among the [[Esquimaux]] the husbands forbear hunting during the lying-in of their wives and for some time thereafter.
made of hide; and Linnaeus found the Both land people brewing beer in
+
this way--"and to this day the rude Carinthian boor drinks such
+
stone-beer, as it is called." (Ibid., p. 266.)
+
  
In the buffalo dance of the Mandan [[Indian]]s the dancers covered their
+
Here, then, we have a very extraordinary and unnatural custom, existing to this day on both sides of the [[Atlantic]], reaching back to a vast antiquity, and finding its explanation only in the superstition of the [[American]] races. A practice so absurd could scarcely have originated separately in the two continents; its existence is a very strong proof of unity of origin of the races on the opposite sides of the [[Atlantic]]; and the fact that the custom and the reason for it are both found in [[America]], while the custom remains in [[Europe]] without the reason, would imply that the [[American]] population was the older of the two.
heads with a mask made of the head and horns of the buffalo. To-day in
+
the temples of [[India]], or among the lamas of Thibet, the priests dance
+
the demons out, or the new year in, arrayed in animal masks (Ibid., p.
+
297 ); and the "mummers" at Yule-tide, in [[England]], are a survival of the
+
same custom. (Ibid., p. 298.) The [[North America]]n dog and bear dances,
+
wherein the dancers acted the part of those animals, had their prototype
+
in the [[Greek]] dances at the festivals of Dionysia. (Ibid., p. 298.)
+
  
Tattooing was practised in both continents. Among the [[Indian]]s it was
+
The [[Indian]] practice of depositing weapons and food with the dead was universal in ancient [[Europe]], and in [[German]] villages nowadays a needle and thread is placed in the coffin for the dead to mend their torn clothes with; "while all over [[Europe]] the dead man had a piece of money put in his hand to pay his way with." ("Anthropology," p. 347.)
fetichistic in its origin; "every [[Indian]] had the image of an animal
+
tattooed on his breast or arm, to charm away evil spirits." (Dorman,
+
"Prim. Superst.," p. 156.) The sailors of [[Europe]] and [[America]] preserve to
+
this day a custom which was once universal among the ancient races.
+
Banners, flags, and armorial bearings are supposed to be survivals of
+
the old totemic tattooing. The Arab woman still tattoos her face, arms,
+
and ankles. The war-paint of the [[America]]n savage reappeared in the woad
+
with which the ancient Briton stained his body; and Tylor suggests that
+
the painted stripes on the circus clown are a survival of a custom once
+
universal. (Tylor's "Anthropology," p. 327.)
+
  
In [[America]], as in the Old World, the temples of worship were built over
+
The [[American Indian]] leaves food with the dead; the Russian peasant puts crumbs of bread behind the saints' pictures on the little iron shelf, and believes that the souls of his forefathers creep in and out and eat them. At the cemetery of Pere-la-Chaise, [[Paris]], on All-souls-day, they "still put cakes and sweetmeats on the graves; and in [[Brittany]] the peasants that night do not forget to make up the fire and leave the fragments of the supper on the table for the souls of the dead." (''Ibid''., p. 351.)
the dead., (Dorman, "Prim. Superst.," p. 178.) Says Prudentius, the
+
----
[[Roman]] bard, "there were as many temples of gods as sepulchres."
+
{{pagebreak}}
  
The Etruscan belief that evil spirits strove for the possession of the
+
''CIVILIZATIONS OF THE OLD WORLD AND THE NEW.''<p align="right">155</p>
dead was found among the Mosquito [[Indian]]s. (Bancroft, "Native Races,"
+
vol. i., p. 744.)
+
  
The belief in fairies, which forms so large a part of the folklore of
 
Western [[Europe]], is found among the [[America]]n races. The Ojibbeways see
 
thousands of fairies dancing in a sunbeam; during a rain myriads of them
 
bide in the flowers. When disturbed they disappear underground. They
 
have their dances, like the [[Irish]] fairies; and, like them, they kill the
 
domestic animals of those who offend them. The Dakotas also believe in
 
fairies. The Otoes located the "little people" in a mound at the mouth
 
of Whitestone River; they were eighteen inches high, with very large
 
heads; they were armed with bows and arrows, and killed those who
 
approached their residence. (See Dorman's "Origin of Primitive
 
Superstitions," p. 23.) "The Shoshone legends people the mountains of
 
Montana with little imps, called Nirumbees, two feet long, naked, and
 
with a tail." They stole the children of the [[Indian]]s, and left in their
 
stead the young of their own baneful race, who resembled the stolen
 
children so much that the mothers were deceived and suckled them,
 
whereupon they died. This greatly resembles the [[European]] belief in
 
"changelings." (Ibid., p. 24.)
 
  
In both continents we find tree-worship. In [[Mexico]] and Central [[America]]
+
The [[Indian]] prays to the spirits of his forefathers; the [[Chinese]] religion is largely "ancestor-worship;" and the rites paid to the dead ancestors, or lares, held the [[Roman]] family together." ("Anthropology," p. 351.)
cypresses and palms were planted near the temples, generally in groups
+
of threes; they were tended with great care, and received offerings of
+
incense and gifts. The same custom prevailed among the Romans--the
+
cypress was dedicated to [[Pluto]], and the palm to Victory.
+
  
Not only infant baptism by water was found both in the old [[Babylonian]]
+
We find the [[Indian]] practice of burying the dead in a sitting posture in use among the [[Nasamonian]]s, tribe of [[Libyans]]. [[Herodotus]], speaking of the wandering tribes of [[Northern Africa]], says, "They bury their dead according to the fashion of the [[Greek]]s.... They bury them sitting, and are right careful, when the sick man is at the point of giving up the ghost, to make him sit, and not let him die lying down."
religion and among the [[Mexican]]s, but an offering of cakes, which is
+
recorded by the prophet Jeremiah as part of the worship of the
+
[[Babylonian]] goddess-mother, "the Queen of Heaven," was also found in the
+
ritual of the [[Aztecs]]. ("Builders of Babel," p. 78.)
+
  
In Babylonia, [[China]], and [[Mexico]] the caste at the bottom of the social
+
The dead bodies of the [[caciques]] of [[Bogota]] were protected from desecration by diverting the course of a river and making the grave in its bed, and then letting the stream return to its natural course. [[Alaric]], the leader of the [[Goths]], was secretly buried in the same way. (Dorman, "Prim. Superst.," p. 195.)
scale lived upon floating islands of reeds or rafts, covered with earth,
+
on the lakes and rivers.
+
  
In [[Peru]] and Babylonia marriages were made but once a year, at a public
+
Among the [[American]] tribes no man is permitted to marry a wife of the same clan-name or totem as himself. In [[India]] a [[Brahman]] is not allowed to marry a wife whose clan-name (her "cow-stall," as they say) is the same as his own; nor may a [[Chinaman]] take a wife of his own surname. ("Anthropology," p. 403.) "Throughout [[India]] the hill-tribes are divided into septs or clans, and a man may not marry a woman belonging to his own clan. The [[Calmucks]] of [[Tartary]] are divided into hordes, and a man may not marry a girl of his own horde. The same custom prevails among the [[Circassians]] and the [[Samoyeds]] of [[Siberia]]. The [[Ostyaks]] and [[Yakuts]] regard it as a crime to marry a woman of the same family, or even of the same name." (Sir [[John Lubbock]], "Smith. Rep.," p. 347, 1869.)
festival.
+
  
Among the Romans, the [[Chinese]], the Abyssinians, and the [[Indian]]s of
+
[[Sutteeism]]--the burning of the widow upon the funeral-pile of the husband--was extensively practised in [[America]] (West's "Journal," p. 141); as was also the practice of sacrificing warriors, servants, and animals at the funeral of a great chief (Dorman, pp. 210-211.) Beautiful girls were sacrificed to appease the anger of the gods, as among the [[Mediterranean]]
[[Canada]] the singular custom prevails of lifting the bride over the
+
----
door-step of her husband's home. (Sir John Lubbock, "Smith. Rep.," 1869,
+
{{pagebreak}}
p. 352.)
+
  
"The bride-cake which so invariably accompanies a wedding among
+
156 <center>''ATLANTIS: THE ANTEDILUVIAN WORLD.''</center>
ourselves, and which must always be cut by the bride, may be traced back
+
to the old [[Roman]] form of marriage by 'conferreatio,' or eating together.
+
So, also, among the Iroquois the bride and bridegroom used to partake
+
together of a cake of sagamite, which the bride always offered to her
+
husband." (Ibid.)
+
  
Among many [[America]]n tribes, notably in [[Brazil]], the husband captured the
 
wife by main force, as the men of Benjamin carried off the daughters of
 
Shiloh at the feast, and as the Romans captured the Sabine women.
 
"Within a few generations the same old habit was kept up in Wales, where
 
the bridegroom and his friends, mounted and armed as for war, carried
 
off the bride; and in [[Ireland]] they used even to hurl spears at the
 
bride's people, though at such a distance that no one was hurt, except
 
now and then by accident--as happened when one Lord Hoath lost an eye,
 
which mischance put an end to this curious relic of antiquity." (Tylor's
 
"Anthropology," p. 409.)
 
  
Marriage in [[Mexico]] was performed by the priest. He exhorted them to
+
races. ([[Bancroft]], vol. iii., p. 471.) Fathers offered up their children for a like purpose, as among the [[Carthaginians]].
maintain peace and harmony, and tied the end of the man's mantle to the
+
dress of the woman; he perfumed them, and placed on each a shawl on
+
which was painted a skeleton, "as a symbol that only death could now
+
separate them from one another." (Dorman, "Prim. Superst.," p. 379.)
+
  
The priesthood was thoroughly organized in [[Mexico]] and [[Peru]]. They were
+
The poisoned arrows of [[America]] had their representatives in [[Europe]]. [[Odysseus]] went to [[Ephyra]] for the man-slaying drug with which to smear his bronze-tipped arrows. (Tylor's "Anthropology," p. 237.)
prophets as well as priests. "They brought the newly-born infant into
+
the religious society; they directed their training and education; they
+
determined the entrance of the young men into the service of the state;
+
they consecrated marriage by their blessing; they comforted the sick and
+
assisted the dying." (Ibid., p. 374.) There were five thousand priests
+
in the temples of [[Mexico]]. They confessed and absolved the sinners,
+
arranged the festivals, and managed the choirs in the churches. They
+
lived in conventual discipline, but were allowed to marry; they
+
practised flagellation and fasting, and prayed at regular hours. There
+
were great preachers and exhorters among them. There were also convents
+
into which females were admitted. The novice had her hair cut off and
+
took vows of celibacy; they lived holy and pious lives. (Ibid., pp. 375,
+
376.) The king was the high-priest of the religious orders. A new king
+
ascended the temple naked, except his girdle; he was sprinkled four
+
times with water which had been blessed; he was then clothed in a
+
mantle, and on his knees took an oath to maintain the ancient religion.
+
The priests then instructed him in his royal duties. (Ibid., p. 378.)
+
Besides the regular priesthood there were monks who were confined in
+
cloisters. (Ibid., p. 390.) Cortes says the [[Mexican]] priests were very
+
strict in the practice of honesty and chastity, and any deviation was
+
punished with death. They wore long white robes and burned incense.
+
(Dorman, "Prim. Superst.," p. 379.) The first fruits of the earth were
+
devoted to the support of the priesthood. (Ibid., p. 383.) The priests
+