Difference between revisions of "Atlantis The Antediluvian World"

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will find that many of ours are the counterpart of yours, as they were in the olden time. In the first place, there is the caste of priests, which is separated from all the others; next there are the artificers, who exercise their several crafts by themselves, and without admixture of any other; and also there is the class of shepherds and that of hunters, as well as that of husbandmen; and you will observe, too, that the warriors in [[Egypt]] are separated from all the other classes, and are commanded by the law only to engage in war; moreover, the weapons with which they are equipped are shields and spears, and this the goddess taught first among you, and then in Asiatic countries, and we among the Asiatics first adopted.
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will find that many of ours are the counterpart of yours, as they were in the olden time. In the first place, there is the caste of priests, which is separated from all the others; next there are the artificers, who exercise their several crafts by themselves, and without admixture of any other; and also there is the class of shepherds and that of hunters, as well as that of husbandmen; and you will observe, too, that the warriors in [[Egypt]] are separated from all the other classes, and are commanded by the law only to engage in war; moreover, the weapons with which they are equipped are shields and spears, and this the goddess taught first among you, and then in [[Asiatic]] countries, and we among the [[Asiatic]]s first adopted.
  
 
"'Then, as to wisdom, do you observe what care the law took from the very first, searching out and comprehending the whole order of things down to prophecy and medicine (the latter with a view to health); and out of these divine elements drawing what was needful for human life, and adding every sort of knowledge which was connected with them. All this order and arrangement the goddess first imparted to you when establishing your city; and she chose the spot of earth in which you were born, because she saw that the happy temperament of the seasons in that land would produce the wisest of men. Wherefore the goddess, who was a lover both of war and of wisdom, selected, and first of all settled that spot which was the most likely to produce men likest herself. And there you dwelt, having such laws as these and still better ones, and excelled all mankind in all virtue, as became the children and disciples of the gods. Many great and wonderful deeds are recorded of your State in our histories; but one of them exceeds all the rest in greatness and valor; for these histories tell of a mighty power which was aggressing wantonly against the whole of [[Europe]] and [[Asia]], and to which your city put an end. This power came forth out of the [[Atlantic Ocean]], for in those days the [[Atlantic]] was navigable; and there was an island situated in front of the straits which you call the [[Columns of Heracles]]: the island was larger than [[Libya]] and [[Asia]] put together, and was the way to other islands, and from the islands you might pass through the whole of the opposite continent which surrounded the true ocean; for this sea which is within the Straits of [[Heracles]] is only a harbor, having a narrow entrance, but that other is a real sea, and the surrounding
 
"'Then, as to wisdom, do you observe what care the law took from the very first, searching out and comprehending the whole order of things down to prophecy and medicine (the latter with a view to health); and out of these divine elements drawing what was needful for human life, and adding every sort of knowledge which was connected with them. All this order and arrangement the goddess first imparted to you when establishing your city; and she chose the spot of earth in which you were born, because she saw that the happy temperament of the seasons in that land would produce the wisest of men. Wherefore the goddess, who was a lover both of war and of wisdom, selected, and first of all settled that spot which was the most likely to produce men likest herself. And there you dwelt, having such laws as these and still better ones, and excelled all mankind in all virtue, as became the children and disciples of the gods. Many great and wonderful deeds are recorded of your State in our histories; but one of them exceeds all the rest in greatness and valor; for these histories tell of a mighty power which was aggressing wantonly against the whole of [[Europe]] and [[Asia]], and to which your city put an end. This power came forth out of the [[Atlantic Ocean]], for in those days the [[Atlantic]] was navigable; and there was an island situated in front of the straits which you call the [[Columns of Heracles]]: the island was larger than [[Libya]] and [[Asia]] put together, and was the way to other islands, and from the islands you might pass through the whole of the opposite continent which surrounded the true ocean; for this sea which is within the Straits of [[Heracles]] is only a harbor, having a narrow entrance, but that other is a real sea, and the surrounding
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became unseemly, and to him who had an eye to see, they began to appear base, and had lost the fairest of their precious gifts; but to those who had no eye to see the true happiness, they still appeared glorious and blessed at the very time when they were filled with unrighteous avarice and power. Zeus, the god of gods, who rules with law, and is able to see into such things, perceiving that an honorable race was in a most wretched state, and wanting to inflict punishment on them, that they might be chastened and improved, collected all the gods into his most holy habitation, which, being placed in the centre of the world, sees all things that partake of generation. And when he had called them together he spake as follows:"
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became unseemly, and to him who had an eye to see, they began to appear base, and had lost the fairest of their precious gifts; but to those who had no eye to see the true happiness, they still appeared glorious and blessed at the very time when they were filled with unrighteous avarice and power. [[Zeus]], the god of gods, who rules with law, and is able to see into such things, perceiving that an honorable race was in a most wretched state, and wanting to inflict punishment on them, that they might be chastened and improved, collected all the gods into his most holy habitation, which, being placed in the centre of the world, sees all things that partake of generation. And when he had called them together he spake as follows:"
  
 
[Here [[Plato]]'s story abruptly ends.]
 
[Here [[Plato]]'s story abruptly ends.]
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Another corroboration of the truth of [[Plato]]'s narrative is found in the fact that upon the [[Azores]] black lava rocks, and rocks red and white in color, are now found. He says they built with white, red, and black stone. Sir [[C. Wyville Thomson]] describes a narrow neck of land between [[Fayal]] and [[Monte da Guia]], called "[[Monte Queimada]]" (the burnt mountain), as follows: "It is formed partly of stratified tufa of a dark chocolate color, and partly of lumps of ''black'' lava, porous, and each with a large cavity in the centre, which must have been ejected as volcanic bombs in a glorious display of fireworks at some period beyond the records of [[Acorean]] history, but late in the geological annals of the island." ("Voyage of the [[Challenger]]," vol. ii., p. 24). He also describes immense walls of black volcanic rock in the island.
 
Another corroboration of the truth of [[Plato]]'s narrative is found in the fact that upon the [[Azores]] black lava rocks, and rocks red and white in color, are now found. He says they built with white, red, and black stone. Sir [[C. Wyville Thomson]] describes a narrow neck of land between [[Fayal]] and [[Monte da Guia]], called "[[Monte Queimada]]" (the burnt mountain), as follows: "It is formed partly of stratified tufa of a dark chocolate color, and partly of lumps of ''black'' lava, porous, and each with a large cavity in the centre, which must have been ejected as volcanic bombs in a glorious display of fireworks at some period beyond the records of [[Acorean]] history, but late in the geological annals of the island." ("Voyage of the [[Challenger]]," vol. ii., p. 24). He also describes immense walls of black volcanic rock in the island.
  
The plain of [[Atlantis]], [[Plato]] tells us, "had been cultivated during many ages by many generations of kings." If, as we believe, agriculture, the domestication of the [[Horse]], ox, sheep, goat, and hog, and the discovery or development of wheat, oats, rye, and barley originated in this region, then this language of [[Plato]] in reference to "the many ages, and the successive generations of kings," accords with the great periods of time which were necessary to bring man from a savage to a civilized condition.
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The plain of [[Atlantis]], [[Plato]] tells us, "had been cultivated during many ages by many generations of kings." If, as we believe, agriculture, the domestication of the [[Horse]], ox, sheep, goat, and hog, and the discovery or development of [[Wheat]], [[Oats]], [[Rye]], and [[Barley]] originated in this region, then this language of [[Plato]] in reference to "the many ages, and the successive generations of kings," accords with the great periods of time which were necessary to bring man from a savage to a civilized condition.
  
 
In the great ditch surrounding the whole land like a circle, and into which streams flowed down from the mountains, we probably see the original of the four rivers of Paradise, and the emblem of the cross surrounded by a circle, which, as we will show hereafter, was, from the earliest pre-[[Christian]] ages, accepted as the emblem of the [[Garden of Eden]].
 
In the great ditch surrounding the whole land like a circle, and into which streams flowed down from the mountains, we probably see the original of the four rivers of Paradise, and the emblem of the cross surrounded by a circle, which, as we will show hereafter, was, from the earliest pre-[[Christian]] ages, accepted as the emblem of the [[Garden of Eden]].
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("[[Prehistoric Nations]]," p. 148.) This worship "was carried to [[Spain]], and to Northern [[Africa]], but most abundantly to [[Italy]], to many of the islands, and to the regions around the [[AEgean Sea]]; also to [[Thrace]]." (Ibid., p. 155.)
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("[[[[Prehistoric Nations]]]]," p. 148.) This worship "was carried to [[Spain]], and to Northern [[Africa]], but most abundantly to [[Italy]], to many of the islands, and to the regions around the [[AEgean Sea]]; also to [[Thrace]]." (Ibid., p. 155.)
  
[[Poseidon]], or [[Neptune]], is represented in [[Greek]] mythology as a sea-god; but he is figured as standing in a war-chariot drawn by [[Horse]]s. The association of the [[Horse]] (a land animal) with a sea-god is inexplicable, except with the light given by [[Plato]]. [[Poseidon]] was a sea-god because he ruled over a great land in the sea, and was the national god of a maritime people; he is associated with [[Horse]]s, because in [[Atlantis]] the [[Horse]] was first domesticated; and, as [[Plato]] shows, the [[Atlantean]]s had great race-courses for the development of speed in [[Horse]]s; and [[Poseidon]] is represented as standing in a war-chariot, because doubtless wheeled vehicles were first invented by the same people who tamed the [[Horse]]; and they transmitted these war-chariots to their descendants from [[Egypt]] to Britain. We know that [[Horse]]s were the favorite objects chosen for sacrifice to [[Poseidon]] by the nations of antiquity within the Historical Period; they were killed, and cast into the sea from high precipices. The religious [[Horse]]-feasts of the pagan [[[[Scandinavia]]n]]s were a survival of this [[Poseidon]]-worship, which once prevailed along all the coasts of [[Europe]]; they continued until the conversion of the people to Christianity, and were then suppressed by the Church with great difficulty.
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[[Poseidon]], or [[Neptune]], is represented in [[Greek]] mythology as a sea-god; but he is figured as standing in a war-chariot drawn by [[Horse]]s. The association of the [[Horse]] (a land animal) with a sea-god is inexplicable, except with the light given by [[Plato]]. [[Poseidon]] was a sea-god because he ruled over a great land in the sea, and was the national god of a maritime people; he is associated with [[Horse]]s, because in [[Atlantis]] the [[Horse]] was first domesticated; and, as [[Plato]] shows, the [[Atlantean]]s had great race-courses for the development of speed in [[Horse]]s; and [[Poseidon]] is represented as standing in a war-chariot, because doubtless wheeled vehicles were first invented by the same people who tamed the [[Horse]]; and they transmitted these war-chariots to their descendants from [[Egypt]] to [[Britain]]. We know that [[Horse]]s were the favorite objects chosen for sacrifice to [[Poseidon]] by the nations of antiquity within the Historical Period; they were killed, and cast into the sea from high precipices. The religious [[Horse]]-feasts of the pagan [[[[Scandinavia]]n]]s were a survival of this [[Poseidon]]-worship, which once prevailed along all the coasts of [[Europe]]; they continued until the conversion of the people to Christianity, and were then suppressed by the Church with great difficulty.
  
 
We find in [[Plato]]'s narrative the names of some of the [[Phoenician]] deities among the kings of [[Atlantis]]. Where did the [[Greek]], [[Plato]], get these names if the story is a fable?
 
We find in [[Plato]]'s narrative the names of some of the [[Phoenician]] deities among the kings of [[Atlantis]]. Where did the [[Greek]], [[Plato]], get these names if the story is a fable?
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"In the number given by the Bible for the [[Antediluvian]] patriarchs we have the first instance of a striking agreement with the traditions of various nations. Ten are mentioned in the Book of [[Genesis]]. Other nations, to whatever epoch they carry back their ancestors, whether before or after the [[Deluge]], whether the mythical or historical character prevail, they are constant to this sacred number ten, which some have vainly attempted to connect with the speculations of later religious philosophers on the mystical value of numbers. In [[Chaldea]], [[Berosus]] enumerates ten [[Antediluvian]] kings whose fabulous reign extended to thousands of years. The legends of the [[Iranian]] race commence with the reign of ten Peisdadien ([[Poseidon]]?) kings, 'men of the ancient law, who lived on pure Homa (water of life)' (nectar?), 'and who preserved their sanctity.' In [[India]] we meet with the nine [[Brahmadikas]], who, with [[Brahma]], their founder, make ten, and who are called the Ten Petris, or Fathers. The [[Chinese]] count ten emperors, partakers of the divine nature, before the dawn of historical times. The [[Germans]] believed in the ten ancestors of [[Odin]], and the [[Arabs]] in the ten mythical kings of the [[Adites]]." ([[Lenormant and Chevallier]], "Anc. Hist. of the East," vol. i., p. 13.)
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"In the number given by the Bible for the [[Antediluvian]] patriarchs we have the first instance of a striking agreement with the traditions of various nations. Ten are mentioned in the Book of [[Genesis]]. Other nations, to whatever epoch they carry back their ancestors, whether before or after the [[Deluge]], whether the mythical or historical character prevail, they are constant to this sacred number ten, which some have vainly attempted to connect with the speculations of later religious philosophers on the mystical value of numbers. In [[Chaldea]], [[Berosus]] enumerates ten [[Antediluvian]] kings whose fabulous reign extended to thousands of years. The legends of the [[Iranian]] race commence with the reign of ten Peisdadien ([[Poseidon]]?) kings, 'men of the ancient law, who lived on pure Homa (water of life)' (nectar?), 'and who preserved their sanctity.' In [[India]] we meet with the nine [[Brahmadikas]], who, with [[Brahma]], their founder, make ten, and who are called the Ten Petris, or Fathers. The [[Chinese]] count ten emperors, partakers of the divine nature, before the dawn of historical times. The [[Germans]] believed in the ten ancestors of [[Odin]], and the [[Arabs]] in the ten mythical kings of the [[Adites]]." ([[[[Lenormant]] and [[Chevallier]]]], "Anc. Hist. of the East," vol. i., p. 13.)
  
 
The story of [[Plato]] finds confirmation from other sources.
 
The story of [[Plato]] finds confirmation from other sources.
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"The [[Gauls]] possessed traditions upon the subject of [[Atlantis]] which were collected by the [[Roman]] historian [[Timagenes]], who lived in the first century before [[Christ]]. He represents that three distinct people dwelt in [[Gaul]]: 1. The indigenous population, which I suppose to be Mongoloids, who had long dwelt in [[Europe]]; 2. The invaders from a distant island, which I understand to be [[Atlantis]]; 3. The [[Aryan Gauls]]." ("[[Preadamites]]," p. 380.)
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"The [[Gauls]] possessed traditions upon the subject of [[Atlantis]] which were collected by the [[Roman]] historian [[Timagenes]], who lived in the first century before [[Christ]]. He represents that three distinct people dwelt in [[Gaul]]: 1. The indigenous population, which I suppose to be [[Mongol]]oids, who had long dwelt in [[Europe]]; 2. The invaders from a distant island, which I understand to be [[Atlantis]]; 3. The [[Aryan Gauls]]." ("[[Preadamites]]," p. 380.)
  
 
[[Marcellus]], in a work on the [[Ethiopians]], speaks of seven islands lying in the [[Atlantic Ocean]]--probably the [[Canaries]]--and the inhabitants of these islands, he says, preserve the memory of a much greater island, [[Atlantis]], "which had for a long time exercised dominion over the smaller ones." ([[Didot Mueller]], "[[Fragmenta Historicorum Graecorum]]," vol. iv., p. 443.)
 
[[Marcellus]], in a work on the [[Ethiopians]], speaks of seven islands lying in the [[Atlantic Ocean]]--probably the [[Canaries]]--and the inhabitants of these islands, he says, preserve the memory of a much greater island, [[Atlantis]], "which had for a long time exercised dominion over the smaller ones." ([[Didot Mueller]], "[[Fragmenta Historicorum Graecorum]]," vol. iv., p. 443.)
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[[Plato]] states that the [[Egyptians]] told [[Solon]] that the destruction of [[Atlantis]] occurred 9000 years before that date, to wit, about 9600 years before the [[Christian]] era. This looks like an extraordinarily long period of time, but it must be remembered that geologists claim that the remains of man found in the caves of [[Europe]] date back 500,000 years; and the fossil [[Calaveras skull]] was found deep under the base of [[Table Mountain]], [[California]], the whole mountain having been formed since the man to whom it belonged lived and died.
 
[[Plato]] states that the [[Egyptians]] told [[Solon]] that the destruction of [[Atlantis]] occurred 9000 years before that date, to wit, about 9600 years before the [[Christian]] era. This looks like an extraordinarily long period of time, but it must be remembered that geologists claim that the remains of man found in the caves of [[Europe]] date back 500,000 years; and the fossil [[Calaveras skull]] was found deep under the base of [[Table Mountain]], [[California]], the whole mountain having been formed since the man to whom it belonged lived and died.
  
"[[M. Oppert]] read an essay at the [[Brussels]] Congress to show, from the astronomical observations of the [[Egyptians]] and [[Assyrians]], that 11,542 years before our era man existed on the earth at such a stage of civilization as to be able to take note of astronomical phenomena, and to calculate with considerable accuracy the length of the year. The [[Egyptians]], says he, calculated by cycles of 1460 years--zodiacal cycles, as they were called. Their year consisted of 365 days, which caused them to lose one day in every four solar years, and, consequently, they would attain their original starting-point again only after 1460 years (365 x 4). Therefore, the zodiacal cycle ending in the year 139 of our era commenced in the year 1322 B.C. On the other hand, the [[Assyrian]] cycle was 1805 years, or 22,325 lunations. An [[Assyrian]] cycle began 712 B.C. The [[Chaldeans]] state that between the [[Deluge]] and their first historic dynasty there was a period of 39,180 years. Now, what means, this number? It stands for 12 [[Egyptian]] zodiacal cycles plus 12 [[Assyrian]] lunar cycles.
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"[[M. Oppert]] read an essay at the [[Brussels]] Congress to show, from the astronomical observations of the [[Egyptians]] and [[Assyrians]], that 11,542 years before our era man existed on the earth at such a stage of civilization as to be able to take note of astronomical phenomena, and to calculate with considerable accuracy the length of the year. The [[Egyptians]], says he, calculated by cycles of 1460 years--zodiacal cycles, as they were called. Their year consisted of 365 days, which caused them to lose one day in every four solar years, and, consequently, they would attain their original starting-point again only after 1460 years (365 x 4). Therefore, the zodiacal cycle ending in the year 139 of our era commenced in the year 1322 B.C. On the other hand, the [[Assyria]]n cycle was 1805 years, or 22,325 lunations. An [[Assyria]]n cycle began 712 B.C. The [[Chaldean]]s state that between the [[Deluge]] and their first historic dynasty there was a period of 39,180 years. Now, what means, this number? It stands for 12 [[Egyptian]] zodiacal cycles plus 12 [[Assyria]]n lunar cycles.
  
 
{|class="wikitable"
 
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the [[Chaldeans]]. Let us now build up the series of both cycles, starting from our era, and the result will be as follows:
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the [[Chaldean]]s. Let us now build up the series of both cycles, starting from our era, and the result will be as follows:
  
 
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{|class="wikitable"
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''WAS SUCH A CATASTROPHE POSSIBLE?'' <p align="right">31</p>
 
''WAS SUCH A CATASTROPHE POSSIBLE?'' <p align="right">31</p>
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====CHAPTER IV.====
 
====CHAPTER IV.====
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where the oceans now roll, and whose mountains and plains were ground down by the action of volcanoes and earthquakes, and frost, ice, wind, and rain, and washed into the sea, to form the rocks upon which the nations now dwell; so that we have changed the conditions of land and water: that which is now continent was once sea, and that which is now sea was formerly continent. There can be no question that the [[Australian Archipelago]] is simply the mountain-tops of a drowned continent, which once reached from [[India]] to [[South America]]. Science has gone so far as to even give it a name; it is called "[[Lemuria]]," and here, it is claimed, the human race originated. An examination of the geological formation of our [[Atlantic]] States proves beyond a doubt, from the manner in which the sedimentary rocks, the sand, gravel, and mud--aggregating a thickness of 45,000 feet--are deposited, that they came from the north and east. "They represent the detritus of pre-existing lands, the washings of rain, rivers, coast-currents, and other agencies of erosion; and since the areas supplying the waste could scarcely have been of less extent than the new strata it formed, it is reasonably inferred that land masses of continental magnitude must have occupied the region now covered by the [[North Atlantic]] before [[America]] began to be, and onward at least through the [[Lemuria]] ages of [[America]]n history. The proof of this fact is that the great strata of rocks are thicker the nearer we approach their source in the east: the maximum thickness of the [[Lemuria]] rocks of the [[Appalachian]] formation is 25,000 to 35,000 feet in [[Pennsylvania]] and [[Virginia]], while their minimum thickness in [[Illinois]] and [[Missouri]] is from 3000 to 4000 feet; the rougher and grosser-textured rocks predominate in the east, while the farther west we go the finer the deposits were of which the rocks are composed; the finer materials were carried farther west by the water." ("New Amer. Cyclop.," art. Coal.)
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where the oceans now roll, and whose mountains and plains were ground down by the action of volcanoes and earthquakes, and frost, ice, wind, and rain, and washed into the sea, to form the rocks upon which the nations now dwell; so that we have changed the conditions of land and water: that which is now continent was once sea, and that which is now sea was formerly continent. There can be no question that the [[Australian Archipelago]] is simply the mountain-tops of a drowned continent, which once reached from [[India]] to [[South America]]. Science has gone so far as to even give it a name; it is called "[[Lemuria]]," and here, it is claimed, the human race originated. An examination of the geological formation of our [[Atlantic States]] proves beyond a doubt, from the manner in which the sedimentary rocks, the sand, gravel, and mud--aggregating a thickness of 45,000 feet--are deposited, that they came from the north and east. "They represent the detritus of pre-existing lands, the washings of rain, rivers, coast-currents, and other agencies of erosion; and since the areas supplying the waste could scarcely have been of less extent than the new strata it formed, it is reasonably inferred that land masses of continental magnitude must have occupied the region now covered by the [[North Atlantic]] before [[America]] began to be, and onward at least through the [[Lemuria]] ages of [[America]]n history. The proof of this fact is that the great strata of rocks are thicker the nearer we approach their source in the east: the maximum thickness of the [[Lemuria]] rocks of the [[Appalachian]] formation is 25,000 to 35,000 feet in [[Pennsylvania]] and [[Virginia]], while their minimum thickness in [[Illinois]] and [[Missouri]] is from 3000 to 4000 feet; the rougher and grosser-textured rocks predominate in the east, while the farther west we go the finer the deposits were of which the rocks are composed; the finer materials were carried farther west by the water." ("New Amer. Cyclop.," art. Coal.)
  
 
The history of the growth of the [[European]] Continent, as recounted by Professor [[Geikie]], gives an instructive illustration
 
The history of the growth of the [[European]] Continent, as recounted by Professor [[Geikie]], gives an instructive illustration
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"We are in the midst of great changes, and are scarcely conscious of it. We have seen worlds in flames, and have felt a comet strike the earth. We have seen the whole coast of [[South America]] lifted up bodily ten or fifteen feet and let down again in an hour. We have seen the [[Andes]] sink 220 feet in seventy years.... Vast transpositions have taken place in the coast-line of [[China]]. The ancient capital, located, in all probability, in an accessible position near the centre of the empire, has now become nearly surrounded by water, and its site is on the peninsula of [[Corea]].... There was a time when the rocky barriers of the [[Thracian Bosphorus]] gave way and the [[Black Sea]] subsided. It had covered a vast area in the north and east. Now this area became drained, and was known as the ancient [[Lectonia]]: it is now the prairie region of Russia, and the granary of [[Europe]]."
 
"We are in the midst of great changes, and are scarcely conscious of it. We have seen worlds in flames, and have felt a comet strike the earth. We have seen the whole coast of [[South America]] lifted up bodily ten or fifteen feet and let down again in an hour. We have seen the [[Andes]] sink 220 feet in seventy years.... Vast transpositions have taken place in the coast-line of [[China]]. The ancient capital, located, in all probability, in an accessible position near the centre of the empire, has now become nearly surrounded by water, and its site is on the peninsula of [[Corea]].... There was a time when the rocky barriers of the [[Thracian Bosphorus]] gave way and the [[Black Sea]] subsided. It had covered a vast area in the north and east. Now this area became drained, and was known as the ancient [[Lectonia]]: it is now the prairie region of Russia, and the granary of [[Europe]]."
  
There is ample geological evidence that at one time the entire area of [[Great Britain]] was ''submerged to the depth of at least seventeen hundred feet''. Over the face of the submerged land was strewn thick beds of sand, gravel, and clay, termed by geologists "the [[Northern Drift]]." The [[British Islands]] rose again from the sea, bearing these water-deposits on their bosom. What is now [[Sicily]] once lay deep beneath the sea: It subsequently rose 3000 feet above the sea-level. The [[Desert of Sahara]] was once under water, and its now burning sands are a deposit of the sea.
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There is ample geological evidence that at one time the entire area of [[Great [[Britain]]]] was ''submerged to the depth of at least seventeen hundred feet''. Over the face of the submerged land was strewn thick beds of sand, gravel, and clay, termed by geologists "the [[Northern Drift]]." The [[British Islands]] rose again from the sea, bearing these water-deposits on their bosom. What is now [[Sicily]] once lay deep beneath the sea: It subsequently rose 3000 feet above the sea-level. The [[Desert of Sahara]] was once under water, and its now burning sands are a deposit of the sea.
  
 
Geologically speaking, the submergence of [[Atlantis]], within the historical period, was simply the last of a number of vast changes, by which the continent which once occupied the greater part of the [[Atlantic]] had gradually sunk under the ocean, while the new lands were rising on both sides of it.
 
Geologically speaking, the submergence of [[Atlantis]], within the historical period, was simply the last of a number of vast changes, by which the continent which once occupied the greater part of the [[Atlantic]] had gradually sunk under the ocean, while the new lands were rising on both sides of it.
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[[File:Atlantis6.jpg|border|[[CALABRIAN]] PEASANTS INGULFED BY CREVASSES (1783).|400px]]
 
[[File:Atlantis6.jpg|border|[[CALABRIAN]] PEASANTS INGULFED BY CREVASSES (1783).|400px]]
 
              
 
              
The [[Gulf of Santorin]], in the [[Grecian Archipelago]], has been for two thousand years a scene of active volcanic operations. [[Pliny]] informs us that in the year 186 B.C. the island of "[[Old Kaimeni]]," or the Sacred Isle, was lifted up from the sea; and in A.D. 19 the island of "[[Thia]]" (the Divine) made its appearance. In A.D. 1573 another island was created, called "the small sunburnt island." In 1848 a volcanic convulsion of three months' duration created a great shoal; an earthquake destroyed many houses in [[Thera]], and the sulphur and hydrogen issuing from the sea killed 50 persons and 1000 domestic animals. A recent examination of these islands shows that the whole mass of [[Santorin]] ''has sunk, since its projection from the sea, over 1200 feet.
+
The [[Gulf of Santorin]], in the [[[[Grecian]] Archipelago]], has been for two thousand years a scene of active volcanic operations. [[Pliny]] informs us that in the year 186 B.C. the island of "[[Old Kaimeni]]," or the Sacred Isle, was lifted up from the sea; and in A.D. 19 the island of "[[Thia]]" (the Divine) made its appearance. In A.D. 1573 another island was created, called "the small sunburnt island." In 1848 a volcanic convulsion of three months' duration created a great shoal; an earthquake destroyed many houses in [[Thera]], and the sulphur and hydrogen issuing from the sea killed 50 persons and 1000 domestic animals. A recent examination of these islands shows that the whole mass of [[Santorin]] ''has sunk, since its projection from the sea, over 1200 feet.
 
----
 
----
 
{{pagebreak}}
 
{{pagebreak}}
Line 1,283: Line 1,288:
 
''and then closed again." ([[Raffles]]'s "[[History of Java]]," vol. i., p. 25.)
 
''and then closed again." ([[Raffles]]'s "[[History of Java]]," vol. i., p. 25.)
  
But it is at that point of the [[European]] coast nearest to the site of [[Atlantis]] at [[Lisbon]] that the most tremendous earthquake of modern times has occurred. On the 1st of November, 1775, a sound of thunder was heard underground, and immediately afterward a violent shock threw down the greater part of the city. ''In six minutes 60,000 persons perished.'' A great concourse of people had collected for safety upon a new quay, built entirely of marble; but suddenly it sunk down with all the people on it, and not one of the dead bodies ever floated to the surface. A great number of small boats and vessels anchored near it, and, full of people, were swallowed up as in a whirlpool. No fragments of these wrecks ever rose again to the surface; the water where the quay went down is now 600 feet deep. The area covered by this earthquake was very great. [[Humboldt]] says that a portion of ''the earth's surface, four times as great as the size of [[Europe]], was simultaneously shaken.'' It extended from the [[Baltic]] to the [[West Indies]], and from [[Canada]] to [[Algiers]]. At eight leagues from [[Morocco]] the ground opened and swallowed a village of 10,000 inhabitants, and closed again over them.
+
But it is at that point of the [[European]] coast nearest to the site of [[Atlantis]] at [[Lisbon]] that the most tremendous earthquake of modern times has occurred. On the 1st of November, 1775, a sound of thunder was heard underground, and immediately afterward a violent shock threw down the greater part of the city. ''In six minutes 60,000 persons perished.'' A great concourse of people had collected for safety upon a new quay, built entirely of marble; but suddenly it sunk down with all the people on it, and not one of the dead bodies ever floated to the surface. A great number of small b[[Oats]] and vessels anchored near it, and, full of people, were swallowed up as in a whirlpool. No fragments of these wrecks ever rose again to the surface; the water where the quay went down is now 600 feet deep. The area covered by this earthquake was very great. [[Humboldt]] says that a portion of ''the earth's surface, four times as great as the size of [[Europe]], was simultaneously shaken.'' It extended from the [[Baltic]] to the [[[[West Indies]]]], and from [[Canada]] to [[Algiers]]. At eight leagues from [[Morocco]] the ground opened and swallowed a village of 10,000 inhabitants, and closed again over them.
  
 
It is very probable that the centre of the convulsion was in the bed of the [[Atlantic]], at or near the buried island of [[Atlantis]], and that it was a successor of the great earth throe which, thousands of years before, had brought destruction upon that land.
 
It is very probable that the centre of the convulsion was in the bed of the [[Atlantic]], at or near the buried island of [[Atlantis]], and that it was a successor of the great earth throe which, thousands of years before, had brought destruction upon that land.
Line 1,452: Line 1,457:
 
And when we turn from the fauna to the flora, we find the same state of things.
 
And when we turn from the fauna to the flora, we find the same state of things.
  
An examination of the fossil beds of [[Switzerland]] of the [[Miocene Age]] reveals the remains of more than eight hundred different species of flower-bearing plants, besides [[Mosses]], [[Ferns]], etc. The total number of fossil plants catalogued from those beds, [[Cryptogamous]] as well as [[Phaenogamous]], is upward of three thousand. ''The majority of these species have migrated to [[America]]''. There were others that passed into [[Asia]], [[Africa]], and even to [[Australia]]. The [[America]]n types are, however, in the largest proportion. The analogues of the flora of the [[Miocene Age]] of [[Europe]] now grow in the forests of [[Virginia]], North and [[South Carolina]], and [[Florida]]; they include such familiar examples as [[Magnolias]], [[Tulip-trees]], [[Evergreen oaks]], [[Maples]], [[Plane-trees]], [[Robinas]], [[Sequoias]], etc. It would seem to be impossible that these trees could have migrated from [[Switzerland]] to [[America]] unless there was unbroken land communication between the two continents.
+
An examination of the fossil beds of [[Switzerland]] of the [[Miocene Age]] reveals the remains of more than eight hundred different species of flower-bearing plants, besides [[Mosses]], [[Ferns]], etc. The total number of fossil plants catalogued from those beds, [[Cryptogamous]] as well as [[Phaenogamous]], is upward of three thousand. ''The majority of these species have migrated to [[America]]''. There were others that passed into [[Asia]], [[Africa]], and even to [[Australia]]. The [[America]]n types are, however, in the largest proportion. The analogues of the flora of the [[Miocene Age]] of [[Europe]] now grow in the forests of [[Virginia]], North and [[South Carolina]], and [[Florida]]; they include such familiar examples as [[Magnolias]], [[[[Tulip-trees]]]], [[Evergreen oaks]], [[Maples]], [[Plane-trees]], [[Robinas]], [[Sequoias]], etc. It would seem to be impossible that these trees could have migrated from [[Switzerland]] to [[America]] unless there was unbroken land communication between the two continents.
  
 
It is a still more remarkable fact that a comparison of the flora of the Old World and New goes to show that not only was there communication by land, over which the plants of one continent could extend to another, but that man must have existed, and have helped this transmigration, in the case of certain plants that were incapable of making the journey unaided.
 
It is a still more remarkable fact that a comparison of the flora of the Old World and New goes to show that not only was there communication by land, over which the plants of one continent could extend to another, but that man must have existed, and have helped this transmigration, in the case of certain plants that were incapable of making the journey unaided.
Line 1,463: Line 1,468:
  
  
the [[Bamboo]], the [[Guava]], the [[Mango]]-fruit, and especially the [[Banana]]. He denies that the [[America]]n origin of [[Tobacco]], [[Maize]], and the [[Cocoa-nut]] is proved. He refers to the [[Paritium tiliaceum]], a malvaceous plant, hardly noticed by [[Europeans]], but very highly prized by the natives of the tropics, and cultivated everywhere in the East and West [[Indies]]; it supplies to the natives of these regions so far apart their ropes and cordage. It is always seedless in a cultivated state. It existed in [[America]] before the arrival of [[Columbus]].
+
the [[Bamboo]], the [[Guava]], the [[Mango]]-fruit, and especially the [[Banana]]. He denies that the [[America]]n origin of [[Tobacco]], [[Maize]], and the [[Cocoa-nut]] is proved. He refers to the ''[[Paritium tiliaceum]]'', a malvaceous plant, hardly noticed by [[Europeans]], but very highly prized by the natives of the tropics, and cultivated everywhere in the East and West [[Indies]]; it supplies to the natives of these regions so far apart their ropes and cordage. It is always seedless in a cultivated state. It existed in [[America]] before the arrival of [[Columbus]].
  
But Professor Kuntze pays especial attention to the banana, or plantain.
+
But Professor [[Kuntze]] pays especial attention to the [[Banana]], or [[Plantain]]. The banana is seedless. It is found throughout tropical [[Asia]] and [[Africa]]. Professor [[Kuntze]] asks, "In what way was this plant, which cannot stand a voyage through the temperate zone, carried to [[America]]?" And yet it was generally cultivated in [[America]] before 1492. Says Professor [[Kuntze]], "It must be remembered that the [[Plantain]] is a tree-like, herbaceous plant, possessing no easily transportable bulbs, like the [[Potato]] or the [[Dahlia]], nor propagable by cuttings, like the willow or the poplar. It has only a perennial root, which, once planted, needs hardly any care, and yet produces the most abundant crop of any known tropical plant." He then proceeds to discuss how it could have passed from [[Asia]] to [[America]]. He admits that the roots must have been transported from one country to the other by ''civilized man''. He argues that it could not have crossed the Pacific from [[Asia]] to [[America]], because the Pacific is nearly thrice or four times as wide as the [[Atlantic]]. The only way he can account for the plantain reaching [[America]] is to suppose that it was carried there when the North Pole had a tropical climate! Is there any proof that civilized man existed at the North Pole when it possessed the climate of [[Africa]]?
The banana is seedless. It is found throughout tropical [[Asia]] and [[Africa]].
+
Professor Kuntze asks, "In what way was this plant, which cannot stand a
+
voyage through the temperate zone, carried to [[America]]?" And yet it was
+
generally cultivated in [[America]] before 1492. Says Professor Kuntze, "It
+
must be remembered that the plantain is a tree-like, herbaceous plant,
+
possessing no easily transportable bulbs, like the potato or the dahlia,
+
nor propagable by cuttings, like the willow or the poplar. It has only a
+
perennial root, which, once planted, needs hardly any care, and yet
+
produces the most abundant crop of any known tropical plant." He then
+
proceeds to discuss how it could have passed from [[Asia]] to [[America]]. He
+
admits that the roots must have been transported from one country to the
+
other by civilized man. He argues that it could not have crossed the
+
Pacific from [[Asia]] to [[America]], because the Pacific is nearly thrice or
+
four times as wide as the [[Atlantic]]. The only way he can account for the
+
plantain reaching [[America]] is to suppose that it was carried there when
+
the North Pole had a tropical climate! Is there any proof that civilized
+
man existed at the North Pole when it possessed the climate of [[Africa]]?
+
  
Is it not more reasonable to suppose that the plantain, or banana, was
+
Is it not more reasonable to suppose that the plantain, or banana, was cultivated by the people of [[Atlantis]], and carried by their civilized agricultural colonies to the East and the West? Do we not find a confirmation of this view in the fact alluded
cultivated by the people of [[Atlantis]], and carried by their civilized
+
<center>3*</center>
agricultural colonies to the east and the west? Do we not find a
+
----
confirmation of this view in the fact alluded to by Professor Kuntze in
+
{{pagebreak}}
these words: "A cultivated plant which does not possess seeds must have
+
been under culture for a very long period--we have not in [[Europe]] a
+
single exclusively seedless, berry-bearing, cultivated plant--and hence
+
it is perhaps fair to infer that these plants were cultivated as early
+
as the beginning of the middle of the Diluvial Period."
+
  
Is it possible that a plant of this kind could have been cultivated for
+
58 <center>''ATLANTIS: THE ANTEDILUVIAN WORLD.''</center>
this immense period of time in both [[Asia]] and [[America]]? Where are the two
+
nations, agricultural and highly civilized, on those continents by whom
+
it was so cultivated? What has become of them? Where are the traces of
+
their civilization? All the civilizations of [[Europe]], [[Asia]], and [[Africa]]
+
radiated from the [[Mediterranean]]; the [[Hindoo]]-[[Aryan]]s advanced from the
+
north-west; they were kindred to the Persians, who were next-door
+
neighbors to the Arabians (cousins of the [[Phoenician]]s), and who lived
+
along-side of the [[Egyptians]], who had in turn derived their civilization
+
from the [[Phoenician]]s.
+
  
It would be a marvel of marvels if one nation, on one continent, had
 
cultivated the banana for such a vast period of time until it became
 
seedless; the nation retaining a peaceful, continuous, agricultural
 
civilization during all that time. But to suppose that two nations could
 
have cultivated the same plant, under the same circumstances, on two
 
different continents, for the same unparalleled lapse of time, is
 
supposing an impossibility.
 
  
We find just such a civilization as was necessary, according to [[Plato]],
+
to by Professor [[Kuntze]] in these words: "''A cultivated plant which does not possess seeds must have been under culture ''for a very long period''--we have not in [[Europe]] a single exclusively seedless, berry-bearing, cultivated plant--and hence it is perhaps fair to infer that these plants ''were cultivated as early as the beginning of the middle of the Diluvial Period''."
and under just such a climate, in [[Atlantis]] and nowhere else. We have
+
found it reaching, by its contiguous islands, within one hundred and
+
fifty miles of the coast of [[Europe]] on the one side, and almost touching
+
the West [[India]] Islands on the other, while, by its connecting ridges, it
+
bound together [[Brazil]] and [[Africa]].
+
  
But it may be said these animals and plants may have passed from [[Asia]] to
+
Is it possible that a plant of this kind could have been cultivated for this immense period of time in both [[Asia]] and [[America]]? Where are the two nations, agricultural and highly civilized, on those continents by whom it was so cultivated? What has become of them? Where are the traces of their civilization? All the civilizations of [[Europe]], [[Asia]], and [[Africa]] radiated from the [[Mediterranean]]; the [[Hindoo]]-[[Aryan]]s advanced from the north-west; they were kindred to the [[Persians]], who were next-door neighbors to the [[Arabians]] (cousins of the [[Phoenician]]s), and who lived along-side of the [[Egyptians]], who had in turn derived their civilization from the [[Phoenician]]s.
[[America]] across the Pacific by the continent of [[Lemuria]]; or there may
+
have been continuous land communication at one time at Behring's Strait.
+
True; but an examination of the flora of the Pacific States shows that
+
very many of the trees and plants common to [[Europe]] and the [[Atlantic]]
+
States are not to be seen west of the [[Rocky Mountains]]. The magnificent
+
[[Magnolias]], the tulip-trees, the [[Plane-trees]], etc., which were found
+
existing in the [[Miocene Age]] in [[Switzerland]], and are found at the present
+
day in the [[United States]], are altogether lacking on the [[Pacific coast]].
+
The sources of supply of that region seem to have been far inferior to
+
the sources of supply of the [[Atlantic]] States. Professor Asa Gray tells
+
us that, out of sixty-six genera and one hundred and fifty-five species
+
found in the forests cast of the [[Rocky Mountains]], only thirty-one genera
+
and seventy-eight species are found west of the mountains. The Pacific
+
coast possesses no papaw, no linden or basswood, no locust-trees, no
+
cherry-tree large enough for a timber tree, no gum-trees, no
+
sorrel-tree, nor kalmia; no persimmon-trees, not a holly, only one ash
+
that may be called a timber tree, no catalpa or sassafras, not a single
+
elm or hackberry, not a mulberry, not a hickory, or a beech, or a true
+
chestnut. These facts would seem to indicate that the forest flora of
+
[[North America]] entered it from the east, and that the Pacific States
+
possess only those fragments of it that were able to struggle over or
+
around the great dividing mountain-chain.
+
  
We thus see that the flora and fauna of [[America]] and [[Europe]] testify not
+
It would be a marvel of marvels if ''one'' nation, on one continent, had cultivated the [[Banana]] for such a vast period of time until it became seedless; the nation retaining a peaceful, continuous, agricultural civilization during all that time. But to suppose that two nations could have cultivated the same plant, under the same circumstances, on two different continents, for the same unparalleled lapse of time, is supposing an impossibility.
only to the existence of [[Atlantis]], but to the fact that in an earlier
+
age it must have extended from the shores of one continent to those of
+
the other; and by this bridge of land the plants and animals of one
+
region passed to the other.
+
  
The cultivation of the cotton-plant and the manufacture of its product
+
We find just such a civilization as was necessary, according to [[Plato]], and under just such a climate, in [[Atlantis]] and nowhere else. We have found it reaching, by its contiguous islands, within one hundred and fifty miles of the coast of [[Europe]] on the one side, and almost touching the West [[India]] Islands on the other, while, by its connecting ridges, it bound together [[Brazil]] and [[Africa]].
was known to both the Old and New World. [[Herodotus]] describes it (450
+
B.C.) as the tree of [[India]] that bears a fleece more beautiful than that
+
of the sheep. [[Columbus]] found the natives of the West Indies using cotton
+
cloth. It was also found in [[Mexico]] and [[Peru]]. It is a significant fact
+
that the cotton-plant has been found growing wild in many parts of
+
[[America]], but never in the Old World. This would seem to indicate that
+
the plant was a native of [[America]]; and this is confirmed by the
+
superiority of [[America]]n cotton, and the further fact that the plants
+
taken from [[America]] to [[India]] constantly degenerate, while those taken
+
from [[India]] to [[America]] as constantly improve.
+
  
There is a question whether the potato, [[Maize]], and [[Tobacco]] were not
+
But it may be said these animals and plants may have passed from [[Asia]] to [[America]] across the Pacific by the continent of [[Lemuria]]; or there may have been continuous land communication
cultivated in [[China]] ages before [[Columbus]] discovered [[America]]. A recent
+
----
traveller says, "The interior of [[China]], along the course of the
+
{{pagebreak}}
Yang-tse-Kiang, is a land full of wonders. In one place piscicultural
+
nurseries line the banks for nearly fifty miles. All sorts of
+
inventions, the cotton-gin included, claimed by [[Europeans]] and [[America]]ns,
+
are to be found there forty centuries old. Plants, yielding drugs of
+
great value, without number, the familiar [[Tobacco]] and potato, [[Maize]],
+
white and yellow corn, and other plants believed to be indigenous to
+
[[America]], have been cultivated there from time immemorial."
+
  
Bonafous ("Histoire Naturelle du Mais," Paris, 1826) attributes a
+
''THE TESTIMONY OF THE [[FLORA AND FAUNA]].''<p align="right">59</p>
[[European]] or Asiatic origin to [[Maize]]. The word [[Maize]], ([[India]]n corn) is
+
derived from mahiz or mahis, the name of the plant in the language of
+
the Island of Hayti. And yet, strange to say, in the Lettish and
+
Livonian languages, in the north of [[Europe]], mayse signifies bread; in
+
[[Irish]], maise is food, and in the Old High [[German]], maz is meat. May not
+
likewise the [[Spanish]] maiz have antedated the time of [[Columbus]], and borne
+
testimony to early intercommunication between the people of the Old and
+
New Worlds?
+
  
It is to [[Atlantis]] we must look for the origin of nearly all our valuable
+
 
plants. [[Darwin]] says ("Animals and Plants under Domestication," vol. i.,
+
at one time at [[Behring's Strait]]. True; but an examination of the flora of the [[Pacific States]] shows that very many of the trees and plants common to [[Europe]] and the [[Atlantic States]] are not to be seen west of the [[Rocky Mountains]]. The magnificent [[Magnolias]], the [[Tulip-trees]], the [[Plane-trees]], etc., which were found existing in the [[Miocene Age]] in [[Switzerland]], and are found at the present day in the [[United States]], are altogether lacking on the [[Pacific coast]]. The sources of supply of that region seem to have been far inferior to the sources of supply of the [[Atlantic States]]. Professor [[Asa Gray]] tells us that, out of sixty-six genera and one hundred and fifty-five species found in the forests cast of the [[Rocky Mountains]], only thirty-one genera and seventy-eight species are found west of the mountains. The Pacific coast possesses no [[Papaw]], no [[Linden]] or [[Basswood]], no [[Locust tree]]s, no [[Cherry tree]] large enough for a timber tree, no [[Gum tree]]s, no [[Sorrel tree]], nor [[Kalmia]]; no [[Persimmon ]], not a [[Holly tree]], only one [[Ash tree]] that may be called a timber tree, no [[Catalpa]] or [[Sassafras]], not a single [[Elm]] or [[Hackberry]], not a [[Mulberry]], not a [[Hickory]], or a [[Beech]], or a true [[Chestnut]]. These facts would seem to indicate that the forest flora of [[North America]] entered it ''from the east'', and that the [[Pacific States]] possess only those fragments of it that were able to struggle over or around the great dividing mountain-chain.
p. 374), "It has often been remarked that we do not owe a single useful
+
 
plant to [[Australia]], or the [[Cape of Good Hope]]--countries abounding to an
+
We thus see that the flora and fauna of [[America]] and [[Europe]] testify not only to the existence of [[Atlantis]], but to the fact that in an earlier age it must have extended from the shores of one continent to those of the other; and by this bridge of land the plants and animals of one region passed to the other.
unparalleled degree with endemic species--or to New Zealand, or to
+
 
[[America]] south of the Plata; and, according to some authors, not to
+
The cultivation of the [[Cotton]] plant and the manufacture of its product was known to both the Old and New World. [[Herodotus]] describes it (450 B.C.) as the tree of [[India]] that bears a fleece more beautiful than that of the sheep. [[Columbus]] found the natives of the [[West Indies]] using [[Cotton]] cloth. It was also found in [[Mexico]] and [[Peru]]. It is a significant fact
[[America]] north of [[Mexico]]." In other words, the domesticated plants are
+
----
only found within the limits of what I shall show hereafter was the
+
{{pagebreak}}
Empire of [[Atlantis]] and its colonies; for only here was to be found an
+
 
ancient, long-continuing civilization, capable of developing from a wild
+
60 <center>''ATLANTIS: THE ANTEDILUVIAN WORLD.''</center>
state those plants which were valuable to man, including all the cereals
+
 
on which to-day civilized man depends for subsistence. M. Alphonse de
+
 
Candolle tells us that we owe 33 useful plants to [[Mexico]], [[Peru]], and
+
that the [[Cotton]]-plant has been found growing wild in many parts of [[America]], but never in the Old World. This would seem to indicate that the plant was a native of [[America]]; and this is confirmed by the superiority of [[America]]n [[Cotton]], and the further fact that the plants taken from [[America]] to [[India]] constantly degenerate, while those taken from [[India]] to [[America]] as constantly improve.
Chili. According to the same high authority, of 157 valuable cultivated
+
 
plants 85 can be traced back to their wild state; as to 40, there is
+
There is a question whether the potato, [[Maize]], and [[Tobacco]] were not cultivated in [[China]] ages before [[Columbus]] discovered [[America]]. A recent traveller says, "The interior of [[China]], along the course of the [[Yang-tse-Kiang]], is a land full of wonders. In one place piscicultural nurseries line the banks for nearly fifty miles. All sorts of inventions, the [[Cotton]]-gin included, claimed by [[Europeans]] and [[America]]ns, are to be found there forty centuries old. Plants, yielding drugs of great value, without number, the familiar [[Tobacco]] and potato, [[Maize]], white and yellow corn, and other plants ''believed to be indigenous to [[America]], have been cultivated there from time immemorial.''"
doubt as to their origin; while 32 are utterly unknown in their
+
 
aboriginal condition. ("Geograph. Botan. Raisonnee," 1855, pp. 810-991.)
+
[[File:Atlantis12.jpg|border|ANCIENT CARVING—STRATFORD-ON-AVON, ENGLAND.]]
Certain roses--the imperial lily, the tuberose and the lilac--are said
+
 
to have been cultivated from such a vast antiquity that they are not
+
[[Bonafous]] ("[[Histoire Naturelle du Mais]]," Paris, 1826) attributes a [[European]] or [[Asiatic]] origin to [[Maize]]. The word ''[[Maize]]'', ([[Indian corn]]) is derived from ''mahiz'' or ''mahis'', the name of the plant in the language of the [[Island of Hayti]]. And yet, strange to say, in the [[Lettish]] and [[Livonian]] languages, in the north of [[Europe]], ''mayse'' signifies bread; in [[Irish]], ''maise'' is food, and in the Old High [[German]], ''maz'' is meat. May not likewise the [[Spanish]]
known in their wild state. ([[Darwin]], "Animals and Plants," vol. i., p.
+
----
370.) And these facts are the more remarkable because, as De Candolle
+
{{pagebreak}}
has shown, all the plants historically known to have been first
+
 
cultivated in [[Europe]] still exist there in the wild state. (Ibid.) The
+
''THE TESTIMONY OF THE [[FLORA AND FAUNA]].''<p align="right">61</p>
inference is strong that the great cereals--wheat, oats, barley, rye,
+
 
and [[Maize]]--must have been first domesticated in a vast antiquity, or in
+
 
some continent which has since disappeared, carrying the original wild
+
''maiz'' have antedated the time of [[Columbus]], and borne testimony to early intercommunication between the people of the Old and New Worlds?
plants with it.
+
 
 +
It is to [[Atlantis]] we must look for the origin of nearly all our valuable plants. [[Darwin]] says ("[[Animals and Plants under Domestication]]," vol. i., p. 374), "It has often been remarked that we do not owe a single useful plant to [[Australia]], or the [[Cape of Good Hope]]--countries abounding to an unparalleled degree with endemic species--or to [[New Zealand]], or to [[America]] south of the [[Plata]]; and, according to some authors, not to [[America]] north of [[Mexico]]." In other words, the domesticated plants are only found within the limits of what I shall show hereafter was the Empire of [[Atlantis]] and its colonies; for only here was to be found an ancient, long-continuing civilization, capable of developing from a wild state those plants which were valuable to man, including all the cereals on which to-day civilized man depends for subsistence. [[M. Alphonse de Candolle]] tells us that we owe 33 useful plants to [[Mexico]], [[Peru]], and [[Chili]]. According to the same high authority, of 157 valuable cultivated plants 85 can be traced back to their wild state; as to 40, there is doubt as to their origin; while 32 are utterly unknown in their aboriginal condition. ("[[Geograph. Botan. Raisonnee]]," 1855, pp. 810-991.) Certain roses--the [[Imperial lily]], the tuberose and the [[Lilac]]--are said to have been cultivated from such a vast antiquity that they are not known in their wild state. ([[Darwin]], "[[Animals and Plants]]," vol. i., p. 370.) And these facts are the more remarkable because, as [[De Candolle]] has shown, all the plants historically known to have been first cultivated in [[Europe]] still exist there in the wild state. (''Ibid''.) The inference is strong that the great cereals--[[Wheat]], [[Oats]], [[Barley]], [[Rye]], and [[Maize]]--must have been first domesticated in a vast antiquity, or in some continent which has since disappeared, carrying the original wild plants with it.
  
 
CEREALS OF THE AGE OF STONE IN [[EUROPE]]
 
CEREALS OF THE AGE OF STONE IN [[EUROPE]]
  
[[Darwin]] quotes approvingly the opinion of Mr. Bentham ("Hist. Notes Cult.
+
[[Darwin]] quotes approvingly the opinion of [[Mr. Bentham]] ("History Notes Cult. Plants"), "as the result of all the most
Plants"), "as the result of all the most reliable evidence that none of
+
----
the Ceralia--wheat, rye, barley, and oats--exist or have existed truly
+
{{pagebreak}}
wild in their present state." In the [[Stone Age]] of [[Europe]] five varieties
+
of wheat and three of barley were cultivated. ([[Darwin]], "Animals and
+
Plants," vol. i., p. 382.) He says that it may be inferred, from the
+
presence in the lake habitations of [[Switzerland]] of a variety of wheat
+
known as the [[Egyptian]] wheat, and from the nature of the weeds that grew
+
among their crops, "that the lake inhabitants either still kept up
+
commercial intercourse with some southern people, or had originally
+
proceeded as colonists from the south." I should argue that they were
+
colonists from the land where wheat and barley were first domesticated,
+
to wit, [[Atlantis]]. And when the [[Bronze Age]] came, we find oats and rye
+
making their appearance with the weapons of bronze, together with a
+
peculiar kind of pea. [[Darwin]] concludes (Ibid., vol. i., p. 385) that
+
wheat, barley, rye, and oats were either descended from ten or fifteen
+
distinct species, "most of which are now unknown or extinct," or from
+
four or eight species closely resembling our present forms, or so
+
"widely different as to escape identification;" in which latter case, he
+
says, "man must have cultivated the cereals at an enormously remote
+
period," and at that time practised "some degree of selection."
+
  
Rawlinson ("Ancient Monarchies," vol. i., p. 578) expresses the opinion
+
62 <center>''ATLANTIS: THE ANTEDILUVIAN WORLD.''</center>
that the ancient [[Assyrians]] possessed the pineapple. "The representation
+
on the monuments is so exact that I can scarcely doubt the pineapple
+
being intended." (See Layard's "Nineveh and Babylon," p. 338.) The
+
pineapple (Bromelia ananassa) is supposed to be of [[America]]n origin, and
+
unknown to [[Europe]] before the time of [[Columbus]]; and yet, apart from the
+
revelations of the [[Assyrian]] monuments, there has been some dispute upon
+
this point. ("Amer. Cyclop.," vol. xiii., p. 528.)
+
  
                          ANCIENT [IRISH]] PIPES
 
  
It is not even certain that the use of [[Tobacco]] was not known to the
+
reliable evidence that none of the Ceralia--[[Wheat]], [[Rye]], [[Barley]], and [[Oats]]--exist or have existed truly wild in their present state." In the [[Stone Age]] of [[Europe]] five varieties of [[Wheat]] and three of [[Barley]] were cultivated. ([[Darwin]], "[[Animals and Plants]]," vol. i., p. 382.) He says that it may be inferred, from the presence in
colonists from [[Atlantis]] settled in [[Ireland]] in an age long prior to Sir
+
Walter Raleigh. Great numbers of pipes have been found in the raths and
+
tumuli of [[Ireland]], which, there is every reason to believe, were placed
+
there by men of the Prehistoric Period. The illustration on p. 63
+
represents some of the so-called "Danes' pipes" now in the collection of
+
the Royal [[Irish]] Academy. The Danes entered [[Ireland]] many centuries before
+
the time of [[Columbus]], and if the pipes are theirs, they must have used
+
[[Tobacco]], or some substitute for it, at that early period. It is
+
probable, however, that the tumuli of [[Ireland]] antedate the Danes
+
thousands of years.
+
  
                    ANCIENT INDIAN PIPE, NEW JERSEY
+
[[File:Atlantis13.jpg|border|CEREALS OF TUE AGE OF STONE IN EUEOPE.]]
  
Compare these pipes from the ancient mounds of [[Ireland]] with the
+
the lake habitations of [[Switzerland]] of a variety of [[Wheat]] known as the [[Egyptian Wheat]], and from the nature of the weeds that grew among their crops, "that the lake inhabitants either still kept up commercial intercourse with some southern people, or had originally proceeded as colonists from the south." I should argue that they were colonists from the land where [[Wheat]] and
accompanying picture of an [[India]]n pipe of the [[Stone Age]] of [[New Jersey]].
+
----
("Smithsonian Rep.," 1875, p. 342.)
+
{{pagebreak}}
  
Recent Portuguese travellers have found the most remote tribes of savage
+
''THE TESTIMONY OF THE [[FLORA AND FAUNA]].''<p align="right">63</p>
negroes in [[Africa]], holding no commercial intercourse with [[Europeans]],
+
using strangely shaped pipes, in which they smoked a plant of the
+
country. Investigations in [[America]] lead to the conclusion that [[Tobacco]]
+
was first burnt as an incense to the gods, the priest alone using the
+
pipe; and from this beginning the extraordinary practice spread to the
+
people, and thence over all the world. It may have crossed the [[Atlantic]]
+
in a remote age, and have subsequently disappeared with the failure of
+
retrograding colonists to raise the [[Tobacco]]-plant.
+
  
PART II. THE [[DELUGE]].
 
  
CHAPTER I.
+
[[Barley]] were first domesticated, to wit, [[Atlantis]]. And when the [[Bronze Age]] came, we find [[Oats]] and [[Rye]] making their appearance with the weapons of bronze, together with a peculiar kind of pea. [[Darwin]] concludes (Ibid., vol. i., p. 385) that [[Wheat]], [[Barley]], [[Rye]], and [[Oats]] were either descended from ten or fifteen distinct species, "most of which are now unknown or extinct," or from four or eight species closely resembling our present forms, or so "widely different as to escape identification;" in which latter case, he says, "man must have cultivated the cereals at an enormously remote period," and at that time practised "some degree of selection."
  
THE DESTRUCTION OF [[ATLANTIS]] DESCRIBED IN THE [[DELUGE]] LEGENDS.
+
[[Rawlinson]] ("[[Ancient Monarchies]]," vol. i., p. 578) expresses the opinion that the ancient [[Assyrians]] possessed the [[Pineapple]]. "The representation on the monuments is so exact that I can scarcely doubt the [[Pineapple]] being intended." (See [[Layard]'s "[[[[Nineveh]] and [[Babylon]]]]," p. 338.) The [[Pineapple]] ([[Bromelia ananassa]]) is supposed to be of [[America]]n origin, and unknown to [[Europe]] before the time of [[Columbus]]; and yet, apart from the revelations of the [[Assyria]]n monuments, there has been some dispute upon this point. ("Amer. Cyclop.," vol. xiii., p. 528.)
  
Having demonstrated, as we think successfully, that there is no
+
It is not even certain that the use of [[Tobacco]] was not known
improbability in the statement of [[Plato]] that a large island, almost a
+
continent, existed in the past in the [[Atlantic Ocean]], nay, more, that it
+
is a geological certainty that it did exist; and having further shown
+
that it is not improbable but very possible that it may have sunk
+
beneath the sea in the manner described by [[Plato]], we come now to the
+
next question, Is the memory of this gigantic catastrophe preserved
+
among the traditions of mankind? We think there can be no doubt that an
+
affirmative answer must be given to this question.
+
  
An event, which in a few hours destroyed, amid horrible convulsions, an
+
[[File:Atlantis14.jpg|border|ANCIENT [[IRISH PIPES]]
entire country, with all its vast population--that Population the
+
----
ancestors of the great races of both continents, and they themselves the
+
{{pagebreak}}
custodians of the civilization of their age--could not fail to impress
+
with terrible force the minds of men, and to project its gloomy shadow
+
over all human history. And hence, whether we turn to the Hebrews, the
+
[[Aryan]]s, the [[Phoenician]]s, the [[Greek]]s, the Cushites, or the inhabitants of
+
[[America]], we find everywhere traditions of the [[Deluge]]; and we shall see
+
that all these traditions point unmistakably to the destruction of
+
[[Atlantis]].
+
  
Francois Lenormant says (Contemp. Rev., Nov., 1879):
+
64 <center>''ATLANTIS: THE ANTEDILUVIAN WORLD.''</center>
  
"The result authorizes us to affirm the story of the [[Deluge]] to be a
+
to the colonists from [[Atlantis]] settled in [[Ireland]] in an age long prior to [[Sir Walter Raleigh]]. Great numbers of pipes have been found in the raths and [[tumuli]] of [[Ireland]], which, there is every reason to believe, were placed there by men of the Prehistoric Period. The illustration on p. 63 represents some of the so-called "[[Danes pipes]]" now in the collection of the Royal [[Irish]] Academy. The [[Danes]] entered [[Ireland]] many centuries before the time of [[Columbus]], and if the pipes are theirs, they must have used [[Tobacco]], or some substitute for it, at that early period. It is probable, however, that the [[tumuli]] of [[Ireland]] antedate the [[Danes]] thousands of years.
universal tradition among all branches of the human race, with the one
+
exception, however, of the black. Now, a recollection thus precise and
+
concordant cannot be a myth voluntarily invented. No religious or
+
cosmogonic myth presents this character of universality. It must arise
+
from the reminiscence of a real and terrible event, so powerfully
+
impressing the imagination of the first ancestors of our race as never
+
to have been forgotten by their descendants. This cataclysm must have
+
occurred near the first cradle of mankind, and before the dispersion of
+
the families from which the principal races were to spring; for it would
+
be at once improbable and uncritical to admit that, at as many different
+
points of the globe as we should have to assume in order to explain the
+
wide spread of these traditions, local phenomena so exactly alike should
+
have occurred, their memory having assumed an identical form, and
+
presenting circumstances that need not necessarily have occurred to the
+
mind in such cases.
+
  
"Let us observe, however, that probably the diluvian tradition is not
+
Compare these pipes from the ancient mounds of [[Ireland]] with the accompanying picture of an [[Indian pipe]] of the [[Stone Age]] of [[New Jersey]]. ("Smithsonian Rep.," 1875, p. 342.)
primitive, but imported in [[America]]; that it undoubtedly wears the aspect
+
of an importation among the rare populations of the yellow race where it
+
is found; and lastly, that it is doubtful among the Polynesians of
+
Oceania. There will still remain three great races to which it is
+
undoubtedly peculiar, who have not borrowed it from each other, but
+
among whom the tradition is primitive, and goes back to the most ancient
+
times, and these three races are precisely the only ones of which the
+
Bible speaks as being descended from Noah--those of which it gives the
+
ethnic filiation in the tenth chapter of [[Genesis]]. This observation,
+
which I hold to be undeniable, attaches a singularly historic and exact
+
value to the tradition as recorded by the Sacred Book, even if, on the
+
other hand, it may lead to giving it a more limited geographical and
+
ethnological significance....
+
  
"But, as the case now stands, we do not hesitate to declare that, far
+
[[File:Atlantis15.jpg|border|ANCIENT INDIAN PIPE, [[NEW JERSEY]]]]
from being a myth, the Biblical [[Deluge]] is a real and historical fact,
+
having, to say the least, left its impress on the ancestors of three
+
races--[[Aryan]], or [[Indo-European]], [[Semitic]], or Syro-Arabian, Chamitic, or
+
Cushite--that is to say, on the three great civilized races of the
+
ancient world, those which constitute the higher humanity--before the
+
ancestors of those races had as yet separated, and in the part of [[Asia]]
+
they together inhabited."
+
  
Such profound scholars and sincere Christians as M. Schoebel (Paris,
+
Recent [[Portuguese]] travellers have found the most remote tribes of savage [[negroes]] in [[Africa]], holding no commercial intercourse with [[Europeans]], using strangely shaped pipes, in which they smoked a plant of the country. Investigations in [[America]] lead to the conclusion that [[Tobacco]] was first burnt as an incense to the gods, the priest alone using the pipe; and from this beginning the extraordinary practice spread to the people, and thence over all the world. It may have crossed the [[Atlantic]] in a remote age, and have subsequently disappeared with the failure of retrograding colonists to raise the [[Tobacco plant]].
1858), and M. Omalius d'Halloy (Bruxelles, 1866), deny the universality
+
----
of the [[Deluge]], and claim that "it extended only to the principal centre
+
{{pagebreak}}
of humanity, to those who remained near its primitive cradle, without
+
reaching the scattered tribes who had already spread themselves far away
+
in almost desert regions. It is certain that the Bible narrative
+
commences by relating facts common to the whole human species, confining
+
itself subsequently to the annals of the race peculiarly chosen by the
+
designs of Providence." (Lenormant and Chevallier, "Anc. Hist. of the
+
East," p. 44.) This theory is supported by that eminent authority on
+
anthropology, M. de Quatrefages, as well as by Cuvier; the Rev. R. p.
+
Bellynck, S.J., admits that it has nothing expressly opposed to
+
orthodoxy.
+
  
[[Plato]] identifies "the great [[Deluge]] of all" with the destruction of
+
''THE DESTRUCTION OF [[ATLANTIS]].''<p align="right">65</p>
[[Atlantis]]. The priest of [[Sais]] told [[Solon]] that before "the great [[Deluge]] of
+
all" [[Athens]] possessed a noble race, who performed many noble deeds, the
+
last and greatest of which was resisting the attempts of [[Atlantis]] to
+
subjugate them; and after this came the destruction of [[Atlantis]], and the
+
same great convulsion which overwhelmed that island destroyed a number
+
of the [[Greek]]s. So that the [[Egyptians]], who possessed the memory of many
+
partial deluges, regarded this as "the great [[Deluge]] of all."
+
  
CHAPTER II.
 
  
THE [[DELUGE]] OF THE [[BIBLE]]
+
==PART II.==
  
We give first the Bible history of the [[Deluge]], as found in [[Genesis]]
+
===THE [[DELUGE]].===
(chap. vi. to chap. viii.):
+
<hr size="2" width="15%">
 +
====CHAPTER I.====
  
"And it came to pass, when men began to multiply on the face of the
+
=====''THE DESTRUCTION OF [[ATLANTIS]] DESCRIBED IN THE [[DELUGE]] LEGENDS.''=====
earth, and daughters were born unto them, that the sons of God saw the
+
daughters of men that they were fair; and they took them wives of all
+
which they chose.
+
  
"And the Lord said, My Spirit shall not always strive with man, for that
+
Having demonstrated, as we think successfully, that there is no improbability in the statement of [[Plato]] that a large island, almost a continent, existed in the past in the [[Atlantic Ocean]], nay, more, that it is a geological certainty that it did exist; and having further shown that it is not improbable but very possible that it may have sunk beneath the sea in the manner described by [[Plato]], we come now to the next question, Is the memory of this gigantic catastrophe preserved among the traditions of mankind? We think there can be no doubt that an affirmative answer must be given to this question.
he also is flesh: yet his days shall be a hundred and twenty years.
+
  
"There were giants in the earth in those days; and also after that, when
+
An event, which in a few hours destroyed, amid horrible convulsions, an entire country, with all its vast population--that Population the ancestors of the great races of both continents, and they themselves the custodians of the civilization of their age--could not fail to impress with terrible force the minds of men, and to project its gloomy shadow over all human history. And hence, whether we turn to the [[Hebrews]], the [[Aryan]]s, the [[Phoenician]]s, the [[Greek]]s, the [[Cushites]], or the inhabitants of [[America]], we find everywhere traditions of the
the sons of God came in unto the daughters of men, and they bare
+
----
children to them, the same became mighty men which were of old, men of
+
{{pagebreak}}
renown.
+
  
"And God saw that the wickedness of man was great in the earth, and that
+
66 <center>''ATLANTIS: THE ANTEDILUVIAN WORLD.''</center>
every imagination of the thoughts of his heart was only evil
+
continually. And it repented the Lord that he had made man on the earth,
+
and it grieved him at his heart. And the Lord said, I will destroy man
+
whom I have created from the face of the earth; both man, and beast, and
+
the creeping thing, and the fowls of the air; for it repenteth me that I
+
have made them. But Noah found grace in the eyes of the Lord.
+
  
["These are the generations of Noah: Noah was a just man and perfect in
 
his generations, and Noah walked with God. And Noah begat three sons,
 
Shem, Ham, and Japheth.]
 
  
"The earth also was corrupt before God; and the earth was filled with
+
[[Deluge]]; and we shall see that all these traditions point unmistakably to the destruction of [[Atlantis]].
violence. And God looked upon the earth, and, behold, it was corrupt;
+
for all flesh had corrupted his way upon the earth. And God said unto
+
Noah, The end of all flesh is come before me; for the earth is filled
+
with violence through them; and, behold, I will destroy them with the
+
earth. Make thee an ark of gopher wood; rooms shalt thou make in the
+
ark, and shalt pitch it within and without with pitch. And this is the
+
fashion which thou shalt make it of: The length of the ark shall be
+
three hundred cubits, the breadth of it fifty cubits, and the height of
+
it thirty cubits. A window shalt thou make to the ark, and in a cubit
+
shalt thou finish it above; and the door of the ark shalt thou set in
+
the side thereof; with lower, second, and third stories shalt thou make
+
it. And, behold, I, even I, do bring a flood of waters upon the earth,
+
to destroy all flesh, wherein is the breath of life, from under heaven;
+
and everything that is in the earth shall die. But with thee will I
+
establish my covenant; and thou shalt come into the ark, thou, and thy
+
sons, and thy wife, and thy sons' wives with thee. And of every living
+
thing of all flesh, two of every sort shalt thou bring into the ark, to
+
keep them alive with thee; they shall be male and female. Of fowls after
+
their kind, and of cattle after their kind, of every creeping thing of
+
the earth after his kind; two of every sort shall come unto thee, to
+
keep them alive. And take thou unto thee of all food that is eaten, and
+
thou shalt gather it to thee; and it shall be for food for thee, and for
+
them.
+
  
"Thus did Noah; according to all that God commanded him, so did he.
+
[[Francois Lenormant]] says (Contemp. Rev., Nov., 1879):
  
"And the Lord said unto Noah, Come thou and all thy house into the ark;
+
"The result authorizes us to affirm the story of the [[Deluge]] to be a universal tradition among all branches of the human race, with the one exception, however, of the black. Now, a recollection thus precise and concordant cannot be a myth voluntarily invented. No religious or cosmogonic myth presents this character of universality. It must arise from the reminiscence of a real and terrible event, so powerfully impressing the imagination of the first ancestors of our race as never to have been forgotten by their descendants. This cataclysm must have occurred near the first cradle of mankind, and before the dispersion of the families from which the principal races were to spring; for it would be at once improbable and uncritical to admit that, at as many different points of the globe as we should have to assume in order to explain the wide spread of these traditions, local phenomena so exactly alike should have occurred, their memory having assumed an identical form, and presenting circumstances that need not necessarily have occurred to the mind in such cases.
for thee have I seen righteous before me in this generation. Of every
+
clean beast thou shalt take to thee by sevens, the male and his female:
+
and of beasts that are not clean by two, the male and his female. Of
+
fowls also of the air by sevens, the male and the female; to keep seed
+
alive upon the face of all the earth. For yet seven days, and I will
+
cause it to rain upon the earth forty days and forty nights; and every
+
living substance that I have made will I destroy from off the face of
+
the earth.
+
  
"And Noah did according unto all that the Lord commanded him. And Noah
+
"Let us observe, however, that probably the diluvian tradition is not primitive, but imported in [[America]]; that it undoubtedly wears the aspect of an importation among the rare populations of the yellow race where it is found; and lastly, that it is doubtful among the [[Polynesian]]s of [[Oceania]]. There will still remain three great races to which it is undoubtedly peculiar, ''who have not borrowed it from each other'', but among whom the tradition is primitive, and goes back to the ''most ancient times'', and these three races are precisely the only ones of which the Bible speaks as being ''descended from [[Noah]]''--those of which it gives the ethnic filiation in the tenth chapter of [[Genesis]]. This observation, which I hold to be undeniable, attaches a singularly historic and exact value to the tradition as recorded by the Sacred Book, even if, on the other hand, it may lead to giving it a ''more limited geographical and ethnological significance''....
was six hundred years old when the flood of waters was upon the earth.
+
  
"And Noah went in, and his sons, and his wife, and his sons' wives with
+
"But, as the case now stands, we do not hesitate to declare that, far from being a myth, the Biblical [[Deluge]] is a ''real and historical fact'', having, to say the least, left its impress on the
him, into the ark, because of the waters of the flood. Of clean beasts,
+
----
and of beasts that are not clean, and of fowls, and of everything that
+
{{pagebreak}}
creepeth upon the earth, there went in two and two unto Noah into the
+
ark, the male and the female, as God had commanded Noah.
+
  
"And it came to pass after seven days, that the waters of the flood were
 
upon the earth. In the six hundredth year of Noah's life, in the second
 
month, the seventeenth day of the month, the same day were all the
 
fountains of the great deep broken up, and the windows of heaven were
 
opened. And the rain was upon the earth forty days and forty nights. In
 
the selfsame day entered Noah, and Shem, and Ham, and Japheth, the sons
 
of Noah, and Noah's wife, and the three wives of his sons with them,
 
into the ark; they, and every beast after his kind, and all the cattle
 
after their kind, and every creeping thing that creepeth upon the earth
 
after his kind, and every fowl after his kind, every bird of every sort.
 
And they went in unto Noah into the ark, two and two of all flesh,
 
wherein is the breath of life. And they that went in, went in male and
 
female of all flesh, as God had commanded him: and the Lord shut him in.
 
  
"And the flood was forty days upon the earth; and the waters increased,
+
''THE DESTRUCTION OF [[ATLANTIS]].''<p align="right">67</p>
and bare up the ark, and it was lifted up above the earth. And the
+
waters prevailed, and were increased greatly upon the earth; and the ark
+
went upon the face of the waters. And the waters prevailed exceedingly
+
upon the earth; and all the high hills, that were under the whole
+
heaven, were covered. Fifteen cubits upward did the waters prevail; and
+
the mountains were covered. And all flesh died that moved upon the
+
earth, both of fowl, and of cattle, and of beast, and of every creeping
+
thing that creepeth upon the earth, and every man: all in whose nostrils
+
was the breath of life, of all that was in the dry land, died. And every
+
living substance was destroyed which was upon the face of the ground,
+
both man, and cattle, and the creeping things, and the fowl of the
+
heaven; and they were destroyed from the earth: and Noah only remained
+
alive, and they that were with him in the ark. And the waters prevailed
+
upon the earth a hundred and fifty days.
+
  
"And God remembered Noah, and every living thing, and all the cattle
+
ancestors of three races--[[Aryan]], or [[Indo-European]], [[Semitic]], or [[Syro-Arabian]], [[Chamitic]], or [[Cushite]]--that is to say, on ''the three great civilized races of the ancient world'', those which constitute the higher humanity--before the ancestors of those races had as yet separated, and in the part of [[Asia]] they together inhabited."
that was with him in the ark: and God made a wind to pass over the
+
earth, and the waters assuaged. The fountains also of the deep and the
+
windows of heaven were stopped, and the rain from heaven was restrained.
+
And the waters returned from off the earth continually: and after the
+
end of the hundred and fifty days the waters were abated. And the ark
+
rested in the seventh mouth, on the seventeenth day of the month, upon
+
the mountains of Ararat. And the waters decreased continually until the
+
tenth month: in the tenth month, on the first day of the mouth, were the
+
tops of the mountains seen.
+
  
"And it came to pass at the end of forty days, that Noah opened the
+
Such profound scholars and sincere Christians as [[M. Schoebel]] (Paris, 1858), and [[M. Omalius d'Halloy]] (Bruxelles, 1866), deny the universality of the [[Deluge]], and claim that "it extended only to the principal centre of humanity, to those who remained near its primitive cradle, without reaching the scattered tribes who had already spread themselves far away in almost desert regions. It is certain that the Bible narrative commences by relating facts common to the whole human species, confining itself subsequently to the annals of the race peculiarly chosen by the designs of Providence." ([[Lenormant]] and [[Chevallier]], "Anc. Hist. of the East," p. 44.) This theory is supported by that eminent authority on anthropology, [[M. de Quatrefages]], as well as by Cuvier; the Rev. R. p. Bellynck, S.J., admits that it has nothing expressly opposed to orthodoxy.
window of the ark which he had made: and he sent forth a raven, which
+
went forth to and fro, until the waters were dried up from off the
+
earth. Also he sent forth a dove from him, to see if the waters were
+
abated from off the face of the ground. But the dove found no rest for
+
the sole of her foot, and she returned unto him into the ark; for the
+
waters were on the face of the whole earth. Then he put forth his hand,
+
and took her, and pulled her in unto him into the ark. And he stayed yet
+
other seven days; and again he sent forth the dove out of the ark. And
+
the dove came in to him in the evening, and, lo, in her mouth was an
+
olive leaf plucked off: so Noah knew that the waters were abated from
+
off the earth. And he stayed yet other seven days, and sent forth the
+
dove, which returned not again unto him any more.
+
  
"And it came to pass in the six hundredth and first year, in the first
+
[[Plato]] identifies "the great [[Deluge]] of all" with the destruction of [[Atlantis]]. The priest of [[Sais]] told [[Solon]] that before "the great [[Deluge]] of all" [[Athens]] possessed a noble race, who performed many noble deeds, the last and greatest of which was resisting the attempts of [[Atlantis]] to subjugate them; and after this came the destruction of [[Atlantis]], and the same great convulsion which overwhelmed that island destroyed a number of the [[Greek]]s. So that the [[Egyptians]], who possessed the memory of many partial deluges, regarded this as "the great [[Deluge]] of all."
month, the first day of the month, the waters were dried up from off the
+
----
earth: and Noah removed the covering of the ark, and looked, and,
+
{{pagebreak}}
behold, the face of the ground was dry. And in the second month, on the
+
seven and twentieth day of the month, was the earth dried.
+
  
"And God spake unto Noah, saying, Go forth of the ark, thou, and thy
+
68 <center>''ATLANTIS: THE ANTEDILUVIAN WORLD.''</center>
wife, and thy sons, and thy sons' wives with thee. Bring forth with thee
+
every living thing that is with thee, of all flesh, both of fowl and of
+
cattle, and of every creeping thing that creepeth upon the earth; that
+
they may breed abundantly in the earth, and be fruitful, and multiply
+
upon the earth.
+
  
"And Noah went forth, and his sons, and his wife, and his sons' wives
 
with him: every beast, every creeping thing, and every fowl, and
 
whatsoever creepeth upon the earth, after their kinds, went forth out of
 
the ark.
 
  
"And Noah builded an altar unto the Lord; and took of every clean beast,
+
 
and of every clean fowl, and offered burnt offerings on the altar. And
+
====CHAPTER II.====
the Lord smelled a sweet savour; and the Lord said in his heart, I will
+
 
not again curse the ground any more for man's sake; for the imagination
+
=====''THE [[DELUGE]] OF THE [[BIBLE]]''=====
of man's heart is evil from his youth: neither will I again smite any
+
 
more every thing living, as I have done. While the earth remaineth,
+
We give first the Bible history of the [[Deluge]], as found in [[Genesis]] (chap. vi. to chap. viii.):
seedtime and harvest, and cold and heat, and summer and winter, and day
+
 
and night shall not cease."
+
"And it came to pass, when men began to multiply on the face of the earth, and daughters were born unto them, that the sons of God saw the daughters of men that they were fair; and they took them wives of all which they chose.
 +
 
 +
"And the Lord said, My Spirit shall not always strive with man, for that he also is flesh: yet his days shall be a hundred and twenty years.
 +
 
 +
"There were giants in the earth in those days; and also after that, when the sons of God came in unto the daughters of men, and they bare children to them, the same became mighty men which were of old, men of renown.
 +
 
 +
"And God saw that the wickedness of man was great in the earth, and that every imagination of the thoughts of his heart was only evil continually. And it repented the Lord that he had made man on the earth, and it grieved him at his heart. And the Lord said, I will destroy man whom I have created from the face of the earth; both man, and beast, and the creeping thing, and the fowls of the air; for it repenteth me that I have made them. But [[Noah]] found grace in the eyes of the Lord.
 +
 
 +
["These are the generations of [[Noah]]: [[Noah]] was a just man and perfect in his generations, and [[Noah]] walked with God. And [[Noah]] begat three sons, [[Shem]], [[Ham]], and [[Japheth]].]
 +
 
 +
"The earth also was corrupt before God; and the earth was filled with violence. And God looked upon the earth, and, behold, it was corrupt; for all flesh had corrupted his way upon the earth. And God said unto [[Noah]], The end of all flesh is come before me; for the earth is filled with violence
 +
----
 +
{{pagebreak}}
 +
 
 +
''THE [[DELUGE]] OF THE [[BIBLE]]''<p align="right">69</p>
 +
 
 +
 
 +
through them; and, behold, I will destroy them with the earth. Make thee an ark of gopher wood; rooms shalt thou make in the ark, and shalt pitch it within and without with pitch. And this is the fashion which thou shalt make it of: The length of the ark shall be three hundred cubits, the breadth of it fifty cubits, and the height of it thirty cubits. A window shalt thou make to the ark, and in a cubit shalt thou finish it above; and the door of the ark shalt thou set in the side thereof; with lower, second, and third stories shalt thou make it. And, behold, I, even I, do bring a flood of waters upon the earth, to destroy all flesh, wherein is the breath of life, from under heaven; and everything that is in the earth shall die. But with thee will I establish my covenant; and thou shalt come into the ark, thou, and thy sons, and thy wife, and thy sons' wives with thee. And of every living thing of all flesh, two of every sort shalt thou bring into the ark, to keep them alive with thee; they shall be male and female. Of fowls after their kind, and of cattle after their kind, of every creeping thing of the earth after his kind; two of every sort shall come unto thee, to keep them alive. And take thou unto thee of all food that is eaten, and thou shalt gather it to thee; and it shall be for food for thee, and for them.
 +
 
 +
"Thus did [[Noah]]; according to all that God commanded him, so did he.
 +
 
 +
"And the Lord said unto [[Noah]], Come thou and all thy house into the ark; for thee have I seen righteous before me in this generation. Of every clean beast thou shalt take to thee by sevens, the male and his female: and of beasts that are not clean by two, the male and his female. Of fowls also of the air by sevens, the male and the female; to keep seed alive upon the face of all the earth. For yet seven days, and I will cause it to rain upon the earth forty days and forty nights; and every living substance that I have made will I destroy from off the face of the earth.
 +
 
 +
"And [[Noah]] did according unto all that the Lord commanded him. And [[Noah]] was six hundred years old when the flood of waters was upon the earth.
 +
 
 +
"And [[Noah]] went in, and his sons, and his wife, and his sons' wives with him, into the ark, because of the waters of the flood. Of clean beasts, and of beasts that are not clean, and of fowls, and of everything that creepeth upon the earth, there
 +
----
 +
{{pagebreak}}
 +
 
 +
70 <center>''ATLANTIS: THE ANTEDILUVIAN WORLD.''</center>
 +
 
 +
 
 +
went in two and two unto [[Noah]] into the ark, the male and the female, as God had commanded [[Noah]].
 +
 
 +
"And it came to pass after seven days, that the waters of the flood were upon the earth. In the six hundredth year of [[Noah]]'s life, in the second month, the seventeenth day of the month, the same day were all the fountains of the great deep broken up, and the windows of heaven were opened. And the rain was upon the earth forty days and forty nights. In the selfsame day entered [[Noah]], and [[Shem]], and [[Ham]], and [[Japheth]], the sons of [[Noah]], and [[Noah]]'s wife, and the three wives of his sons with them, into the ark; they, and every beast after his kind, and all the cattle after their kind, and every creeping thing that creepeth upon the earth after his kind, and every fowl after his kind, every bird of every sort. And they went in unto [[Noah]] into the ark, two and two of all flesh, wherein is the breath of life. And they that went in, went in male and female of all flesh, as God had commanded him: and the Lord shut him in.
 +
 
 +
"And the flood was forty days upon the earth; and the waters increased, and bare up the ark, and it was lifted up above the earth. And the waters prevailed, and were increased greatly upon the earth; and the ark went upon the face of the waters. And the waters prevailed exceedingly upon the earth; and all the high hills, that were under the whole heaven, were covered. Fifteen cubits upward did the waters prevail; and the mountains were covered. And all flesh died that moved upon the earth, both of fowl, and of cattle, and of beast, and of every creeping thing that creepeth upon the earth, and every man: all in whose nostrils was the breath of life, of all that was in the dry land, died. And every living substance was destroyed which was upon the face of the ground, both man, and cattle, and the creeping things, and the fowl of the heaven; and they were destroyed from the earth: and [[Noah]] only remained alive, and they that were with him in the ark. And the waters prevailed upon the earth a hundred and fifty days.
 +
 
 +
"And God remembered [[Noah]], and every living thing, and all the cattle that was with him in the ark: and God made a wind to pass over the earth, and the waters assuaged. The fountains also of the deep and the windows of heaven were stopped, and the rain from heaven was restrained. And the
 +
----
 +
{{pagebreak}}
 +
 
 +
''THE [[DELUGE]] OF THE [[BIBLE]]''<p align="right">71</p>
 +
 
 +
 
 +
waters returned from off the earth continually: and after the end of the hundred and fifty days the waters were abated. And the ark rested in the seventh mouth, on the seventeenth day of the month, upon the mountains of [[Ararat]]. And the waters decreased continually until the tenth month: in the tenth month, on the first day of the mouth, were the tops of the mountains seen.
 +
 
 +
"And it came to pass at the end of forty days, that [[Noah]] opened the window of the ark which he had made: and he sent forth a raven, which went forth to and fro, until the waters were dried up from off the earth. Also he sent forth a dove from him, to see if the waters were abated from off the face of the ground. But the dove found no rest for the sole of her foot, and she returned unto him into the ark; for the waters were on the face of the whole earth. Then he put forth his hand, and took her, and pulled her in unto him into the ark. And he stayed yet other seven days; and again he sent forth the dove out of the ark. And the dove came in to him in the evening, and, lo, in her mouth was an olive leaf plucked off: so [[Noah]] knew that the waters were abated from off the earth. And he stayed yet other seven days, and sent forth the dove, which returned not again unto him any more.
 +
 
 +
"And it came to pass in the six hundredth and first year, in the first month, the first day of the month, the waters were dried up from off the earth: and [[Noah]] removed the covering of the ark, and looked, and, behold, the face of the ground was dry. And in the second month, on the seven and twentieth day of the month, was the earth dried.
 +
 
 +
"And God spake unto [[Noah]], saying, Go forth of the ark, thou, and thy wife, and thy sons, and thy sons' wives with thee. Bring forth with thee every living thing that is with thee, of all flesh, both of fowl and of cattle, and of every creeping thing that creepeth upon the earth; that they may breed abundantly in the earth, and be fruitful, and multiply upon the earth.
 +
 
 +
"And [[Noah]] went forth, and his sons, and his wife, and his sons' wives with him: every beast, every creeping thing, and every fowl, and whatsoever creepeth upon the earth, after their kinds, went forth out of the ark.
 +
 
 +
"And [[Noah]] builded an altar unto the Lord; and took of every clean beast, and of every clean fowl, and offered burnt offerings on the altar. And the Lord smelled a sweet savour;
 +
----
 +
{{pagebreak}}
 +
 
 +
72 <center>''ATLANTIS: THE ANTEDILUVIAN WORLD.''</center>
 +
 
 +
 
 +
and the Lord said in his heart, I will not again curse the ground any more for man's sake; for the imagination of man's heart is evil from his youth: neither will I again smite any more every thing living, as I have done. While the earth remaineth, seedtime and harvest, and cold and heat, and summer and winter, and day and night shall not cease."
  
 
Let us briefly consider this record.
 
Let us briefly consider this record.
Line 1,931: Line 1,686:
 
It shows, taken in connection with the opening chapters of [[Genesis]]:
 
It shows, taken in connection with the opening chapters of [[Genesis]]:
  
1. That the land destroyed by water was the country in which the
+
1. That the land destroyed by water was the country in which the civilization of the human race originated. Adam was at first naked (Gen., chap. iii., 7); then he clothed himself in leaves; then in the skins of animals (chap. iii., 21): he was the first that tilled the earth, having emerged from a more primitive condition in which he lived upon the fruits of the forest (chap. ii., 16); his son Abel was the first of those that kept flocks of sheep (chap. iv., 2); his son Cain was the builder of the first city (chap. iv., 17); his descendant, Tubal-cain, was the first metallurgist (chap. iv., 22); Jabal was the first that erected tents and kept cattle (chap. iv., 20); Jubal was the first that made musical instruments. We have here the successive steps by which a savage race advances to civilization. We will see hereafter that the [[Atlantean]]s passed through precisely similar stages of development.
civilization of the human race originated. Adam was at first naked
+
(Gen., chap. iii., 7); then he clothed himself in leaves; then in the
+
skins of animals (chap. iii., 21): he was the first that tilled the
+
earth, having emerged from a more primitive condition in which he lived
+
upon the fruits of the forest (chap. ii., 16); his son Abel was the
+
first of those that kept flocks of sheep (chap. iv., 2); his son Cain
+
was the builder of the first city (chap. iv., 17); his descendant,
+
Tubal-cain, was the first metallurgist (chap. iv., 22); Jabal was the
+
first that erected tents and kept cattle (chap. iv., 20); Jubal was the
+
first that made musical instruments. We have here the successive steps
+
by which a savage race advances to civilization. We will see hereafter
+
that the [[Atlantean]]s passed through precisely similar stages of
+
development.
+
  
2. The Bible agrees with [[Plato]] in the statement that these Antediluvians
+
2. The Bible agrees with [[Plato]] in the statement that these Antediluvians had reached great populousness and wickedness, and that it was on account of their wickedness God resolved to destroy them.
had reached great populousness and wickedness, and that it was on
+
account of their wickedness God resolved to destroy them.
+
  
3. In both cases the inhabitants of the doomed land were destroyed in a
+
3. In both cases the inhabitants of the doomed land were destroyed in a great catastrophe by the agency of water; they were drowned.
great catastrophe by the agency of water; they were drowned.
+
  
4. The Bible tells us that in an earlier age, before their destruction,
+
4. The Bible tells us that in an earlier age, before their destruction, mankind had dwelt in a happy, peaceful, sinless condition in a Garden of Eden. [[Plato]] tells us the same thing of the earlier ages of the [[Atlantean]]s.
mankind had dwelt in a happy, peaceful, sinless condition in a Garden of
+
----
Eden. [[Plato]] tells us the same thing of the earlier ages of the
+
{{pagebreak}}
[[Atlantean]]s.
+
  
6. In both the Bible history and [[Plato]]'s story the destruction of the
+
''THE [[DELUGE]] OF THE [[BIBLE]]''<p align="right">73</p>
people was largely caused by the intermarriage of the superior or divine
+
race, "the sons of God," with an inferior stock, "the children of men,"
+
whereby they were degraded and rendered wicked.
+
  
We will see hereafter that the Hebrews and their Flood legend are
 
closely connected with the [[Phoenician]]s, whose connection with [[Atlantis]] is
 
established in many ways.
 
  
It is now conceded by scholars that the genealogical table given in the
+
5. In both the Bible history and [[Plato]]'s story the destruction of the people was largely caused by the intermarriage of the superior or divine race, "the sons of God," with an inferior stock, "the children of men," whereby they were degraded and rendered wicked.
Bible (Gen., chap. x.) is not intended to include the true negro races,
+
or the [[Chinese]], the Japanese, the Finns or Lapps, the [[Australian]]s, or
+
the [[America]]n red men. It refers altogether to the [[Mediterranean]] races,
+
the [[Aryan]]s, the Cushites, the [[Phoenician]]s, the Hebrews, and the
+
[[Egyptians]]. "The sons of Ham" were not true negroes, but the dark-brown
+
races. (See [[Winchell]]'s "[[Preadamites]]," chap. vii.)
+
  
If these races (the [[Chinese]], [[Australian]]s, [[America]]ns, etc.) are not
+
We will see hereafter that the [[Hebrews]] and their Flood legend are closely connected with the [[Phoenician]]s, whose connection with [[Atlantis]] is established in many ways.
descended from Noah they could not have been included in the [[Deluge]]. If
+
neither [[China]], Japan, [[America]], Northern [[Europe]], nor [[Australia]] were
+
depopulated by the [[Deluge]], the [[Deluge]] could not have been universal. But
+
as it is alleged that it did destroy a country, and drowned all the
+
people thereof except Noah and his family, the country so destroyed
+
could not have been [[Europe]], [[Asia]], [[Africa]], [[America]], or [[Australia]], for
+
there has been no universal destruction of the people of those regions;
+
or, if there had been, how can we account for the existence to-day of
+
people on all of those continents whose descent [[Genesis]] does not trace
+
back to Noah, and, in fact, about whom the writer of [[Genesis]] seems to
+
have known nothing?
+
  
We are thus driven to one of two alternative conclusions: either the
+
It is now conceded by scholars that the genealogical table given in the Bible (Gen., chap. x.) is not intended to include the true negro races, or the [[Chinese]], the [[Japanese]], the [[Finns]] or [[Lapps]], the [[Australian]]s, or the [[America]]n red men. It refers altogether to the [[Mediterranean]] races, the [[Aryan]]s, the [[Cushites]], the [[Phoenician]]s, the [[Hebrews]], and the [[Egyptians]]. "The sons of [[Ham]]" were not true [[negroes]], but the dark-brown races. (See [[Winchell]]'s "[[Preadamites]]," chap. vii.)
[[Deluge]] record of the Bible is altogether fabulous, or it relates to some
+
land other than [[Europe]], [[Asia]], [[Africa]], or [[Australia]], some land that was
+
destroyed by water. It is not fabulous; and the land it refers to is not
+
[[Europe]], [[Asia]], [[Africa]], or [[Australia]]--but [[Atlantis]]. No other land is known
+
to history or tradition that was overthrown in a great catastrophe by
+
the agency of water; that was civilized, populous, powerful, and given
+
over to wickedness.
+
  
That high and orthodox authority, Francois Lenormant, says ("Ancient
+
If these races (the [[Chinese]], [[Australian]]s, [[America]]ns, etc.) are not descended from [[Noah]] they could not have been included in the [[Deluge]]. If neither [[China]], [[Japan]], [[America]], [[Northern Europe]], nor [[Australia]] were depopulated by the [[Deluge]], the [[Deluge]] could not have been universal. But as it is alleged that it did destroy a country, and drowned all the people thereof except [[Noah]] and his family, the country so destroyed could not have been [[Europe]], [[Asia]], [[Africa]], [[America]], or [[Australia]], for there has been no universal destruction of the people of those regions; or, if there had been, how can we account for the existence to-day of people on all of those continents whose descent [[Genesis]] does not trace back to [[Noah]], and, in fact, about whom the writer of [[Genesis]] seems to have known nothing?
Hist. of the East," vol. i., p. 64), "The descendants of Shem, Ham, and
+
Japhet, so admirably catalogued by Moses, include one only of the races
+
of humanity, the white race, whose three chief divisions he gives us as
+
now recognized by anthropologists. The other three races--yellow, black,
+
and red--have no place in the Bible list of nations sprung from Noah."
+
As, therefore, the [[Deluge]] of the Bible destroyed only the land and
+
people of Noah, it could not have been universal. The religious world
+
does not pretend to fix the location of the [[Garden of Eden]]. The Rev.
+
George Leo Haydock says, "The precise situation cannot be ascertained;
+
how great might be its extent we do not know;" and we will see hereafter
+
that the unwritten traditions of the Church pointed to a region in the
+
west, beyond the ocean which bounds [[Europe]] in that direction, as the
+
locality in which "mankind dwelt before the [[Deluge]]."
+
  
It will be more and more evident, as we proceed in the consideration of
+
We are thus driven to one of two alternative conclusions: either the [[Deluge]] record of the Bible is altogether fabulous, or it relates to some land other than [[Europe]], [[Asia]], [[Africa]],
the Flood legends of other nations, that the [[Antediluvian]] World was none
+
----
other than [[Atlantis]].
+
{{pagebreak}}
  
CHAPTER III.
+
74 <center>''ATLANTIS: THE ANTEDILUVIAN WORLD.''</center>
  
THE [[DELUGE]] OF THE [[CHALDEAN]]S.
 
  
We have two versions of the Chaldean story--unequally developed, indeed,
+
or [[Australia]], some land that ''was'' destroyed by water. It is not fabulous; and the land it refers to is not [[Europe]], [[Asia]], [[Africa]], or [[Australia]]--but [[Atlantis]]. No other land is known to history or tradition that was overthrown in a great catastrophe by the agency of water; that was civilized, populous, powerful, and given over to wickedness.
but exhibiting a remarkable agreement. The one most anciently known, and
+
also the shorter, is that which [[Berosus]] took from the sacred books of
+
Babylon, and introduced into the history that he wrote for the use of
+
the [[Greek]]s. After speaking of the last nine [[Antediluvian]] kings, the
+
Chaldean priest continues thus.
+
  
"Obartes Elbaratutu being dead, his son Xisuthros (Khasisatra) reigned
+
That high and orthodox authority, [[Francois Lenormant]], says ("Ancient Hist. of the East," vol. i., p. 64), "The descendants of [[Shem]], [[Ham]], and [[Japhet]], so admirably catalogued by [[Moses]], include one only of the races of humanity, the white race, whose three chief divisions he gives us as now recognized by anthropologists. The other three races--yellow, black, and red--have no place in the Bible list of nations sprung from [[Noah]]." As, therefore, the [[Deluge]] of the Bible destroyed only the land and
eighteen sares (64,800 years). It was under him that the Great [[Deluge]]
+
people of [[Noah]], it could not have been universal. The religious world does not pretend to fix the location of the [[Garden of Eden]]. The Rev. [[George Leo Haydock]] says, "The precise situation cannot be ascertained; how great might be its extent we do not know;" and we will see hereafter that the unwritten traditions of the Church pointed to a region in the west, beyond the ocean which bounds [[Europe]] in that direction, as the locality in which "mankind dwelt before the [[Deluge]]."
took place, the history of which is told in the sacred documents as
+
follows: Cronos (Ea) appeared to him in his sleep, and announced that on
+
the fifteenth of the month of Daisios (the [[Assyrian]] month Sivan--a
+
little before the summer solstice) all men should perish by a flood. He
+
therefore commanded him to take the beginning, the middle, and the end
+
of whatever was consigned to writing, and to bury it in the City of the
+
Sun, at Sippara; then to build a vessel, and to enter it with his family
+
and dearest friends; to place in this vessel provisions to eat and
+
drink, and to cause animals, birds, and quadrupeds to enter it; lastly,
+
to prepare everything for navigation. And when Xisuthros inquired in
+
what direction he should steer his bark, he was answered, 'toward the
+
gods,' and enjoined to pray that good might come of it for men.
+
  
"Xisuthros obeyed, and constructed a vessel five stadia long and five
+
It will be more and more evident, as we proceed in the consideration of the Flood legends of other nations, that the [[Antediluvian]] World was none other than [[Atlantis]].
broad; he collected all that had been prescribed to him, and embarked
+
----
his wife, his children, and his intimate friends.
+
{{pagebreak}}
  
"The [[Deluge]] having come, and soon going down, Xisuthros loosed some of
+
''THE [[DELUGE]] OF THE [[CHALDEAN]]S.''<p align="right">75</p>
the birds. These, finding no food nor place to alight on, returned to
+
the ship. A few days later Xisuthros again let them free, but they
+
returned again to the vessel, their feet full of mud. Finally, loosed
+
the third time, the birds came no more back. Then Xisuthros understood
+
that the earth was bare. He made an opening in the roof of the ship, and
+
saw that it had grounded on the top of a mountain. He then descended
+
with his wife, his daughter, and his pilot, who worshipped the earth,
+
raised an altar, and there sacrificed to the gods; at the same moment he
+
vanished with those who accompanied him.
+
  
"Meanwhile those who had remained in the vessel, not seeing Xisutbros
 
return, descended too, and began to seek him, calling him by his name.
 
They saw Xisuthros no more; but a voice from heaven was heard commanding
 
them piety toward the gods; that he, indeed, was receiving the reward of
 
his piety in being carried away to dwell thenceforth in the midst of the
 
gods, and that his wife, his daughter, and the pilot of the ship shared
 
the same honor. The voice further said that they were to return to
 
Babylon, and, conformably to the decrees of fate, disinter the writings
 
buried at Sippara in order to transmit them to men. It added that the
 
country in which they found themselves was Armenia. These, then, having
 
heard the voice, sacrificed to the gods and returned on foot to Babylon.
 
Of the vessel of Xisuthros, which had finally landed in Armenia, a
 
portion is still to be found in the Gordyan Mountains in Armenia, and
 
pilgrims bring thence asphalte that they have scraped from its
 
fragments. It is used to keep off the influence of witchcraft. As to the
 
companions of Xisuthros, they came to Babylon, disinterred the writings
 
left at Sippara, founded numerous cities, built temples, and restored
 
Babylon."
 
  
"By the side of this version," says Lenormant, "which, interesting
 
though it be, is, after all, second-hand, we are now able to place an
 
original Chaldeo-Babylonian edition, which the lamented George Smith was
 
the first to decipher on the cuneiform tablets exhumed at Nineveh, and
 
now in the [[British]] Museum. Here the narrative of the [[Deluge]] appears as
 
an episode in the eleventh tablet, or eleventh chant of the great epic
 
of the town of Uruk. The hero of this poem, a kind of [[Hercules]], whose
 
name has not as yet been made out with certainty, being attacked by
 
disease (a kind of leprosy), goes, with a view to its cure, to consult
 
the patriarch saved from the [[Deluge]], Khasisatra, in the distant land to
 
which the gods have transported him, there to enjoy eternal felicity. He
 
asks Khasisatra to reveal the secret of the events which led to his
 
obtaining the privilege of immortality, and thus the patriarch is
 
induced to relate the cataclysm.
 
  
"By a comparison of the three copies of the poem that the library of the
 
palace of Nineveh contained, it has been possible to restore the
 
narrative with hardly any breaks. These three copies were, by order of
 
the King of Assyria, Asshurbanabal, made in the eighth century B.C.,
 
from a very ancient specimen in the sacerdotal library of the town of
 
Uruk, founded by the monarchs of the first Chaldean empire. It is
 
difficult precisely to fix the date of the original, copied by [[Assyrian]]
 
scribes, but it certainly goes back to the ancient empire, seventeen
 
centuries at least before our era, and even probably beyond; it was
 
therefore much anterior to Moses, and nearly contemporaneous with
 
Abraham. The variations presented by the three existing copies prove
 
that the original was in the primitive mode of writing called the
 
hieratic, a character which must have already become difficult to
 
decipher in the eighth century B.C., as the copyists have differed as to
 
the interpretation to be given to certain signs, and in other cases have
 
simply reproduced exactly the forms of such as they did not understand.
 
Finally, it results from a comparison of these variations, that the
 
original, transcribed by order of Asshurbanabal, must itself have been a
 
copy of some still more ancient manuscript, it, which the original text
 
had already received interlinear comments. Some of the copyists have
 
introduced these into their text, others have omitted them. With these
 
preliminary observations, I proceed to give integrally the narrative
 
ascribed in the poem to Khasisatra:
 
  
"'I will reveal to thee, O Izdhubar, the history of my preservation--and
+
====CHAPTER III.====
tell to thee the decision of the gods.
+
  
"'The town of Shurippak, a town which thou knowest, is situated on the
+
=====''THE [[DELUGE]] OF THE [[CHALDEAN]]S''=====.
Euphrates--it was ancient, and in it [men did not honor] the gods. [I
+
alone, I was] their servant, to the great gods--[The gods took counsel
+
on the appeal of] Ann--[a [[Deluge]] was proposed by] Bel--[and approved by
+
Nabon, Nergal and] Adar.
+
  
"'And the god [Ea], the immutable lord, repeated this command in a
 
dream.--I listened to the decree of fate that he announced, and he said
 
to me:--" Man of Shurippak, son of Ubaratutu--thou, build a vessel and
 
finish it [quickly].--[By a [[Deluge]]] I will destroy substance and
 
life.--Cause thou to go up into the vessel the substance of all that has
 
life.--The vessel thou shall build--600 cubits shall be the measure of
 
its length--and 60 cubits the amount of its breadth and of its height.
 
[Launch it] thus on the ocean, and cover it with a roof."--I understood,
 
and I said to Ea, my lord:--"[The vessel] that thou commandest me to
 
build thus--[when] I shall do it,--young and old [shall laugh at
 
me.]"--[Ea opened his mouth and] spoke.--He said to me, his
 
servant:--"[If they laugh at thee] thou shalt say to them:--[shall be
 
punished] he who has insulted me, [for the protection of the gods] is
 
over me.-- ... like to caverns ... -- ... I will exercise my
 
judgment on that which is on high and that which is below ... -- ...
 
Close the vessel ... -- ... At a given moment that I shall cause
 
thee to know,--enter into it, and draw the door of the ship toward
 
thee.--Within it, thy grains, thy furniture, thy provisions, thy riches,
 
thy men-servants, and thy maid-servants, and thy young people--the
 
cattle of the field, and the wild beasts of the plain that I will
 
assemble--and that I will send thee, shall be kept behind thy
 
door."--Khasisatra opened his mouth and spoke;--he said to Ea, his
 
lord:--"No one has made [such a] ship.--On the prow I will fix ... --I
 
shall see ... and the vessel ... --the vessel thou commandest me to
 
build [thus] which in...."
 
  
"'On the fifth day [the two sides of the bark] were raised.--In its
+
We have two versions of the [[Chaldean]] story - unequally developed, indeed, but exhibiting a remarkable agreement. The one most anciently known, and also the shorter, is that which [[Berosus]] took from the sacred books of [[Babylon]], and introduced into the history that he wrote for the use of the [[Greek]]s. After speaking of the last nine [[Antediluvian]] kings, the [[Chaldean]] priest continues thus.
covering fourteen in all were its rafters--fourteen in all did it count
+
above.--I placed its roof, and I covered it.--I embarked in it on the
+
sixth day; I divided its floors on the seventh;--I divided the interior
+
compartments on the eighth. I stopped up the chinks through which the
+
water entered in;--I visited the chinks, and added what was wanting.--I
+
poured on the exterior three times 3600 measures of asphalte,--and three
+
times 3600 measures of asphalte within.--Three times 3600 men, porters,
+
brought on their heads the chests of provisions.--I kept 3600 chests for
+
the nourishment of my family,--and the mariners divided among themselves
+
twice 3600 chests.--For [provisioning] I had oxen slain;--I instituted
+
[rations] for each day.--In [anticipation of the need of] drinks, of
+
barrels, and of wine--[I collected in quantity] like to the waters of a
+
river, [of provisions] in quantity like to the dust of the earth.--[To
+
arrange them in] the chests I set my hand to.-- ... of the sun ...
+
the vessel was completed.-- ... strong and--I had carried above and
+
below the furniture of the ship.--[This lading filled the two-thirds.]
+
  
"'All that I possessed I gathered together; all I possessed of silver I
+
"[[Obartes Elbaratutu]] being dead, his son [[Xisuthros]] ([[Khasisatra]]) reigned eighteen sares (64,800 years). It was under him that the Great [[Deluge]] took place, the history of which is told in the sacred documents as follows: [[Cronos]] ([[Ea]]) appeared to him in his sleep, and announced that on the fifteenth of the month of [[Daisios]] (the [[Assyria]]n month [[Sivan]]--a little before the [[summer solstice]]) all men should perish by a flood. He therefore commanded him to take the beginning, the middle, and the end of whatever was consigned to writing, and to bury it in the [[City of the Sun]], at [[Sippara]]; then to build a vessel, and to enter it with his family and dearest friends; to place in this vessel provisions to eat and drink, and to cause animals, birds, and quadrupeds to enter it; lastly, to prepare everything for navigation. And when [[Xisuthros]] inquired in what direction he should steer his bark, he was answered, 'toward the gods,' and enjoined to pray that good might come of it for men.
gathered together; all that I possessed of gold I gathered--all that I
+
possessed of the substance of life of every kind I gathered together.--I
+
made all ascend into the vessel; my servants, male and female,--the
+
cattle of the fields, the wild beasts of the plains, and the sons of the
+
people, I made them all ascend.
+
  
"'Shamash (the sun) made the moment determined, and he announced it in
+
"[[Xisuthros]] obeyed, and constructed a vessel five stadia long and five broad; he collected all that had been prescribed to him, and embarked his wife, his children, and his intimate friends.
these terms:--"In the evening I will cause it to rain abundantly from
+
heaven; enter into the vessel and close the door."--The fixed moment had
+
arrived, which he announced in these terms:--"In the evening I will
+
cause it to rain abundantly from heaven."--When the evening of that day
+
arrived, I was afraid,--I entered into the vessel and shut my door.--In
+
shutting the vessel, to Buzur-shadi-rabi, the pilot,--I confided this
+
dwelling, with all that it contained.
+
  
"'Mu-sheri-ina-namari--rose from the foundations of heaven in a black
+
"The [[Deluge]] having come, and soon going down, [[Xisuthros]]
cloud;--Ramman thundered in the midst of the cloud,--and Nabon and
+
----
Sharru marched before;--they marched, devastating the mountain and the
+
{{pagebreak}}
plain;--Nergal the powerful dragged chastisements after him;--Adar
+
advanced, overthrowing;--before him;--the archangels of the abyss
+
brought destruction,--in their terrors they agitated the earth.--The
+
inundation of Ramman swelled up to the sky,--and [the earth] became
+
without lustre, was changed into a desert.
+
  
"'They broke ... of the surface of the earth like...;--[they
+
76 <center>''ATLANTIS: THE ANTEDILUVIAN WORLD.''</center>
destroyed] the living beings of the surface of the earth.--The terrible
+
([[Deluge]]) on men swelled up to [heaven]. The brother no longer saw his
+
brother; men no longer knew each other. In heaven--the gods became
+
afraid of the water-spout, and--sought a refuge; they mounted up to the
+
heaven of Anu.--The gods were stretched out motionless, pressing one
+
against another like dogs.--Ishtar wailed like a child, the great
+
goddess pronounced her discourse:--"Here is humanity returned into mud,
+
and--this is the misfortune that I have announced in the presence of the
+
gods.--So I announced the misfortune in the presence of the gods,--for
+
the evil I announced the terrible [chastisement] of men who are mine.--I
+
am the mother who gave birth to men, and--like to the race of fishes,
+
there they are filling the sea;--and the gods, by reason of that--which
+
the archangels of the abyss are doing, weep with me."--The gods on their
+
seats were seated in tears,--and they held their lips closed,
+
[revolving] future things.
+
  
"'Six days and as many nights passed; the wind, the water-spout, and the
 
diluvian rain were in all their strength. At the approach of the seventh
 
day the diluvian rain grew weaker, the terrible water-spout--which had
 
assailed after the fashion of an earthquake--grew calm, the sea inclined
 
to dry up, and the wind and the water-spout came to an end. I looked at
 
the sea, attentively observing--and the whole of humanity had returned
 
to mud; like unto sea-weeds the corpses floated. I opened the window,
 
and the light smote on my face. I was seized with sadness; I sat down
 
and I wept;-and my tears came over my face.
 
  
"'I looked at the regions bounding the sea: toward the twelve points of
+
loosed some of the birds. These, finding no food nor place to alight on, returned to the ship. A few days later [[Xisuthros]] again let them free, but they returned again to the vessel, their feet full of mud. Finally, loosed the third time, the birds came no more back. Then [[Xisuthros]] understood that the earth was bare. He made an opening in the roof of the ship, and saw that it had grounded on the top of a mountain. He then descended with his wife, his daughter, and his pilot, who worshipped the earth, raised an altar, and there sacrificed to the gods; at the same moment he vanished with those who accompanied him.
the horizon; not any continent.--The vessel was borne above the land of
+
Nizir,--the mountain of Nizir arrested the vessel, and did not permit it
+
to pass over.--A day and a second day the mountain of Nizir arrested the
+
vessel, and did not permit it to pass over;--the third and fourth day
+
the mountain of Nizir arrested the vessel, and did not permit it to pass
+
over;--the fifth and sixth day the mountain of Nizir arrested the
+
vessel, and did not permit it to pass over. At the approach of the
+
seventh day, I sent out and loosed a dove. The dove went, turned,
+
and--found no place to light on, and it came back. I sent out and loosed
+
a swallow; the swallow went, turned, and--found no place to light on,
+
and it came back. I sent out and loosed a raven; the raven went and saw
+
the corpses on the waters; it ate, rested, turned, and came not back.
+
  
"'I then sent out (what was in the vessel) toward the four winds, and I
+
"Meanwhile those who had remained in the vessel, not seeing Xisutbros return, descended too, and began to seek him, calling him by his name. They saw [[Xisuthros]] no more; but a voice from heaven was heard commanding them piety toward the gods; that he, indeed, was receiving the reward of his piety in being carried away to dwell thenceforth in the midst of the gods, and that his wife, his daughter, and the pilot of the ship shared the same honor. The voice further said that they were to return to [[Babylon]], and, conformably to the decrees of fate, disinter  thethe writings buried at [[Sippara]] in order to transmit them to men. It added that the country in which they found themselves was [[Armenia]]. These, then, having heard the voice, sacrificed to the gods and returned on foot to [[Babylon]]. Of the vessel of [[Xisuthros]], which had finally landed in [[Armenia]], a portion is still to be found in the [[Gordyan Mountains]] in [[Armenia]], and pilgrims bring thence asphalte that they have scraped from its fragments. It is used to keep off the influence of witchcraft. As to the companions of [[Xisuthros]], they came to [[Babylon]], disinterred the writings left at [[Sippara]], founded numerous cities, built temples, and restored [[Babylon]]."
offered a sacrifice. I raised the pile of my burnt-offering on the peak
+
of the mountain; seven by seven I disposed the measured vases,--and
+
beneath I spread rushes, cedar, and juniper-wood. The gods were seized
+
with the desire of it--the gods were seized with a benevolent desire of
+
it;--and the gods assembled like flies above the master of the
+
sacrifice. From afar, in approaching, the great goddess raised the great
+
zones that Anu has made for their glory (the gods). These gods, luminous
+
crystal before me, I will never leave them; in that day I prayed that I
+
might never leave them. "Let the gods come to my sacrificial pile!--but
+
never may Bel come to my sacrificial pile! for he did not master
+
himself, and he has made the water-spout for the [[Deluge]], and he has
+
numbered my men for the pit."
+
  
"'From far, in drawing near, Bel--saw the vessel, and Bel stopped;--he
+
"By the side of this version," says [[Lenormant]], "which, interesting though it be, is, after all, second-hand, we are now able to place an original [[Chaldeo-[[Babylonian]]]] edition, which the lamented [[George Smith]] was the first to decipher on the cuneiform tablets exhumed at [[Nineveh]], and now in the [[British]] Museum. Here the narrative of the [[Deluge]] appears as an episode in the eleventh tablet, or eleventh chant of the great
was filled with anger against the gods and the celestial archangels:--
+
----
 +
{{pagebreak}}
  
"'"No one shall come out alive! No man shall be preserved from the
+
''THE [[DELUGE]] OF THE [[CHALDEAN]]S''<p align="right">77</p>
abyss!"--Adar opened his mouth and said; he said to the warrior
+
Bel:--"What other than Ea should have formed this resolution?--for Ea
+
possesses knowledge, and [he foresees] all."--Ea opened his mouth and
+
spake; he said to the warrior Bel:--"O thou, herald of the gods,
+
warrior,--as thou didst not master thyself, thou hast made the
+
water-spout of the [[Deluge]].--Let the sinner carry the weight of his sins,
+
the blasphemer the weight of his blasphemy.--Please thyself with this
+
good pleasure, and it shall never be infringed; faith in it never [shall
+
be violated].--Instead of thy making a new [[Deluge]], let lions appear and
+
reduce the number of men;--instead of thy making a new [[Deluge]], let
+
hyenas appear and reduce the number of men;--instead of thy making a new
+
[[Deluge]], let there be famine, and let the earth be [devastated];--instead
+
of thy making a new [[Deluge]], let Dibbara appear, and let men be [mown
+
down]. I have not revealed the decision of the great gods;--it is
+
Khasisatra who interpreted a dream and comprehended what the gods had
+
decided."
+
  
"'Then, when his resolve was arrested, Bel entered into the vessel.--He
+
epic of the town of [[Uruk]]. The hero of this poem, a kind of [[Hercules]], whose name has not as yet been made out with certainty, being attacked by disease (a kind of leprosy), goes, with a view to its cure, to consult the patriarch saved from the [[Deluge]], [[Khasisatra]], in the distant land to which the gods have transported him, there to enjoy eternal felicity. He asks [[Khasisatra]] to reveal the secret of the events which led to his obtaining the privilege of immortality, and thus the patriarch is induced to relate the cataclysm.
took my hand and made me rise.--He made my wife rise, and made her place
+
herself at my side--He turned around us and stopped short; he
+
approached our group.--"Until now Khasisatra has made part of perishable
+
humanity;--but lo, now Khasisatra and his wife are going to be carried
+
away to live like the gods,--and Khasisatra will reside afar at the
+
mouth of the rivers."--They carried me away, and established me in a
+
remote place at the mouth of the streams.'"
+
  
"This narrative," says Lenormant, "follows with great exactness the same
+
"By a comparison of the three copies of the poem that the library of the palace of [[Nineveh]] contained, it has been possible to restore the narrative with hardly any breaks. These three copies were, by order of the King of [[Assyria]], [[Asshurbanabal]], made in the eighth century B.C., from a very ancient specimen in the sacerdotal library of the town of [[Uruk]], founded by the monarchs of the first [[Chaldean]] empire. It is difficult precisely to fix the date of the original, copied by [[Assyria]]n scribes, but it certainly goes back to the ancient empire, seventeen centuries at least before our era, and even probably beyond; it was therefore much anterior to [[Moses]], and nearly contemporaneous with Abraham. The variations presented by the three existing copies prove that the original was in the primitive mode of writing called the ''hieratic'', a character which must have already become difficult to decipher in the eighth century B.C., as the copyists have differed as to the interpretation to be given to certain signs, and in other cases have simply reproduced exactly the forms of such as they did not understand. Finally, it results from a comparison of these variations, that the original, transcribed by order of [[Asshurbanabal]], must itself have been a copy of some still more ancient manuscript, it, which the original text had already received interlinear comments. Some of the copyists have introduced these into their text, others have omitted them. With these preliminary observations, I proceed to give integrally the narrative ascribed in the poem to [[Khasisatra]]:
course as that, or, rather, as those of [[Genesis]]; and the analogies are,
+
----
on both sides, striking."
+
{{pagebreak}}
  
When we consider these two forms of the same legend, we see many points
+
78 <center>''ATLANTIS: THE ANTEDILUVIAN WORLD.''</center>
wherein the story points directly to [[Atlantis]].
+
  
1. In the first place, [[Berosus]] tells us that the god who gave warning of
 
the coming of the [[Deluge]] was Chronos. Chronos, it is well known, was the
 
same as Saturn. Saturn was an ancient king of [[Italy]], who, far anterior
 
to the founding of Rome, introduced civilization from some other country
 
to the Italians. He established industry and social order, filled the
 
land with plenty, and created the golden age of [[Italy]]. He was suddenly
 
removed to the abodes of the gods. His name is connected, in the
 
mythological legends, with "a great Saturnian continent" in the [[Atlantic]]
 
Ocean, and a great kingdom which, in the remote ages, embraced Northern
 
[[Africa]] and the [[European]] coast of the [[Mediterranean]] as far as the
 
peninsula of [[Italy]], and "certain islands in the sea;" agreeing, in this
 
respect, with the story of [[Plato]] as to the dominions of [[Atlantis]]. The
 
Romans called the [[Atlantic Ocean]] "Chronium Mare," the Sea of Chronos,
 
thus identifying Chronos with that ocean. The [[Pillars of Hercules]] were
 
also called by the ancients "the pillars of Chronos."
 
  
Here, then, we have convincing testimony that the country referred to in
+
"'I will reveal to thee, O [[Izdhubar]], the history of my preservation--and tell to thee the decision of the gods.
the Chaldean legends was the land of Chronos, or Saturn--the ocean
+
world, the dominion of [[Atlantis]].
+
  
2. Hea or Ea, the god of the Nineveh tablets, was a fish-god: he was
+
"'The town of [[Shurippak]], a town which thou knowest, is situated on the [[Euphrates]]--it was ancient, and in it [men did not honor] the gods. [I alone, I was] their servant, to the great gods--[The gods took counsel on the appeal of] [[Ann]]--[a [[Deluge]] was proposed by] [[Bel]]--[and approved by [[Nabon]], [[Nergal]] and] [[Adar]].
represented in the Chaldean monuments as half man and half fish; he was
+
described as the god, not of the rivers and seas, but of "the abyss"--to
+
wit, the ocean. He it was who was said to have brought civilization and
+
letters to the ancestors of the [[Assyrians]]. He clearly represented an
+
ancient, maritime, civilized nation; he came from the ocean, and was
+
associated with some land and people that had been destroyed by rain and
+
inundations. The fact that the scene of the [[Deluge]] is located on the
+
Euphrates proves nothing, for we will see hereafter that almost every
+
nation had its especial mountain on which, according to its traditions,
+
the ark rested; just as every [[Greek]] tribe had its own particular
+
mountain of [[Olympos]]. The god Bel of the legend was the Baal of the
+
[[Phoenician]]s, who, as we shall show, were of [[Atlantean]] origin. Bel, or
+
Baal, was worshipped on the western and northern coasts of [[Europe]], and
+
gave his name to the [[Baltic]], the Great and Little Belt, Balesbaugen,
+
Balestranden, etc.; and to many localities, in the [[British Islands]], as,
+
for instance, Belan and the Baal hills in Yorkshire.
+
  
3. In those respects wherein the Chaldean legend, evidently the older
+
"'And the god [[[Ea]]], the immutable lord, repeated this command in a dream.--I listened to the decree of fate that he announced, and he said to me:--" Man of [[Shurippak]], son of [[Ubaratutu]]--thou, build a vessel and finish it [quickly].--[By a [[Deluge]]] I will destroy substance and life.--Cause thou to go up into the vessel the substance of all that has life.--The vessel thou shall build--600 cubits shall be the measure of its length--and 60 cubits the amount of its breadth and of its height. [Launch it] thus on the ocean, and cover it with a roof."--I understood, and I said to [[Ea]], my lord:--"[The vessel] that thou commandest me to build thus--[when] I shall do it,--young and old [shall laugh at me.]"--[[[Ea]] opened his mouth and] spoke.--He said to me, his servant:--"[If they laugh at thee] thou shalt say to them:--[shall be punished] he who has insulted me, [for the protection of the gods] is over me.-- ... like to caverns ... -- ... I will exercise my judgment on that which is on high and that which is below ... -- ... Close the vessel ... -- ... At a given moment that I shall cause thee to know,--enter into it, and draw the door of the ship toward thee.--Within it, thy grains, thy furniture, thy provisions, thy riches, thy men-servants, and thy maid-servants, and thy young people--the cattle of the field, and the wild beasts of the plain that I will assemble--and that I will send thee, shall be kept behind thy door."--[[Khasisatra]] opened his mouth and spoke;--he said to [[Ea]], his lord:--"No one has made [such a] ship.--On the prow I will fix ... --I shall see ... and the vessel ... --the vessel thou commandest me to build [thus] which in...."
form of the tradition, differs from the Biblical record, we see that in
+
each instance we approach nearer to [[Atlantis]]. The account given in
+
[[Genesis]] is the form of the tradition that would be natural to an inland
+
people. Although there is an allusion to "the breaking up of the
+
fountains of the great deep" (about which I shall speak more fully
+
hereafter), the principal destruction seems to have been accomplished by
+
rain; hence the greater period allowed for the [[Deluge]], to give time
+
enough for the rain to fall, and subsequently drain off from the land. A
+
people dwelling in the midst of a continent could not conceive the
+
possibility of a whole world sinking beneath the sea; they therefore
+
supposed the destruction to have been caused by a continuous down-pour
+
of rain for forty days and forty nights.
+
  
In the Chaldean legend, on the contrary, the rain lasted but seven days;
+
"'On the fifth day [the two sides of the bark] were raised.--In it's covering fourteen in all were its rafters--fourteen in all did it count above.--I placed its roof, and I covered it.--I embarked in it on the sixth day; I divided its floors on the seventh;--I divided the interior compartments on the eighth.
and we see that the writer had a glimpse of the fact that the
+
----
destruction occurred in the midst of or near the sea. The ark of [[Genesis]]
+
{{pagebreak}}
(tebah) was simply a chest, a coffer, a big box, such as might be
+
imagined by an inland people. The ark of the [[Chaldeans]] was a veritable
+
ship; it had a prow, a helm, and a pilot, and men to manage it; and it
+
navigated "the sea."
+
  
4. The Chaldean legend represents not a mere rain-storm, but a
+
''THE [[DELUGE]] OF THE [[CHALDEAN]]S''<p align="right">79</p>
tremendous cataclysm. There was rain, it is true, but there was also
+
thunder, lightning, earthquakes, wind, a water-spout, and a devastation
+
of mountain and land by the war of the elements. All the dreadful forces
+
of nature were fighting together over the doomed land: "the archangel of
+
the abyss brought destruction," "the water rose to the sky," "the
+
brother no longer saw his brother; men no longer knew each other;" the
+
men "filled the sea like fishes;" the sea was filled with mud, and "the
+
corpses floated like sea-weed." When the storm abated the land had
+
totally disappeared-there was no longer "any continent." Does not all
+
this accord with "that dreadful day and night" described by [[Plato]]?
+
  
5. In the original it appears that Izdhubar, when he started to find the
 
deified Khasisatra, travelled first, for nine days' journey, to the sea;
 
then secured the services of a boatman, and, entering a ship, sailed for
 
fifteen days before finding the Chaldean Noah. This would show that
 
Khasisatra dwelt in a far country, one only attainable by crossing the
 
water; and this, too, seems like a reminiscence of the real site of
 
[[Atlantis]]. The sea which a sailing-vessel required fifteen days to cross
 
must have been a very large body of water; in fact, an ocean.
 
  
CHAPTER IV.
+
I stopped up the chinks through which the water entered in;--I visited the chinks, and added what was wanting.--I poured on the exterior three times 3600 measures of asphalte,--and three times 3600 measures of asphalte within.--Three times 3600 men, porters, brought on their heads the chests of provisions.--I kept 3600 chests for the nourishment of my family,--and the mariners divided among themselves twice 3600 chests.--For [provisioning] I had oxen slain;--I instituted [rations] for each day.--In [anticipation of the need of] drinks, of barrels, and of wine--[I collected in quantity] like to the waters of a river, [of provisions] in quantity like to the dust of the earth.--[To arrange them in] the chests I set my hand to.-- ... of the sun ... the vessel was completed.-- ... strong and--I had carried above and below the furniture of the ship.--[This lading filled the two-thirds.]
  
THE [[DELUGE]] LEGENDS OF OTHER NATIONS.
+
"'All that I possessed I gathered together; all I possessed of silver I gathered together; all that I possessed of gold I gathered--all that I possessed of the substance of life of every kind I gathered together.--I made all ascend into the vessel; my servants, male and female,--the cattle of the fields, the wild beasts of the plains, and the sons of the people, I made them all ascend.
  
A collection of the [[Deluge]] legends of other nations will throw light
+
"'[[Shamash]] (the sun) made the moment determined, and he announced it in these terms:--"In the evening I will cause it to rain abundantly from heaven; enter into the vessel and close the door."--The fixed moment had arrived, which he announced in these terms:--"In the evening I will cause it to rain abundantly from heaven."--When the evening of that day arrived, I was afraid,--I entered into the vessel and shut my door.--In shutting the vessel, to [[Buzur-shadi-rabi]], the pilot,--I confided this dwelling, with all that it contained.
upon the Biblical and Chaldean records of that great event.
+
  
The author of the treatise "On the [[Syria]]n Goddess" acquaints us with the
+
"'[[Mu-sheri-ina-namari]]--rose from the foundations of heaven in a black cloud;--[[Ramman]] thundered in the midst of the cloud,--and [[Nabon]] and [[Sharru]] marched before;--they marched, devastating the mountain and the plain;--[[Nergal]] the powerful dragged chastisements after him;--[[Adar]] advanced, overthrowing;--before him;--the archangels of the abyss brought destruction,--in their terrors they agitated the earth.--The inundation of [[Ramman]] swelled up to the sky,--and [the earth] became without lustre, was changed into a desert.
diluvian tradition of the Arameans, directly derived from that of
+
[[Chaldea]], as it was narrated in the celebrated Sanctuary of Hierapolis,
+
or Bambyce.
+
  
"The generality of people," he says, "tells us that the founder of the
+
"'They broke ... of the surface of the earth like...;--
temple was [[Deucalion]] Sisythes--that [[Deucalion]] in whose time the great
+
----
inundation occurred. I have also heard the account given by the [[Greek]]s
+
{{pagebreak}}
themselves of [[Deucalion]]; the myth runs thus: The actual race of men is
+
not the first, for there was a previous one, all the members of which
+
perished. We belong to a second race, descended from [[Deucalion]], and
+
multiplied in the course of time. As to the former men, they are said to
+
have been full of insolence and pride, committing many crimes,
+
disregarding their oath, neglecting the rights of hospitality, unsparing
+
to suppliants; accordingly, they were punished by an immense disaster.
+
All on a sudden enormous volumes of water issued from the earth, and
+
rains of extraordinary abundance began to fall; the rivers left their
+
beds, and the sea overflowed its shores; the whole earth was covered
+
with water, and all men perished. [[Deucalion]] alone, because of his virtue
+
and piety, was preserved alive to give birth to a new race. This is how
+
he was saved: He placed himself, his children, and his wives in a great
+
coffer that he had, in which pigs, [[Horse]]s, lions, serpents, and all
+
other terrestrial animals came to seek refuge with him. He received them
+
all; and while they were in the coffer Zeus inspired them with
+
reciprocal amity, which prevented their devouring one another. In this
+
manner, shut up within one single coffer, they floated as long as the
+
waters remained in force. Such is the account given by the [[Greek]]s of
+
[[Deucalion]].
+
  
"But to this, which they equally tell, the people of Hierapolis add a
+
80 <center>''ATLANTIS: THE ANTEDILUVIAN WORLD.''</center>
marvellous narrative: That in their country a great chasm opened, into
+
which all the waters of the [[Deluge]] poured. Then [[Deucalion]] raised an
+
altar, and dedicated a temple to Hera (Atargatis) close to this very
+
chasm. I have seen it; it is very narrow, and situated under the temple.
+
Whether it was once large, and has now shrunk, I do not know; but I have
+
seen it, and it is quite small. In memory of the event the following is
+
the rite accomplished: Twice a year sea-water is brought to the temple.
+
This is not only done by the priests, but numerous pilgrims come from
+
the whole of [[Syria]] and Arabia, and even from beyond the Euphrates,
+
bringing water. It is poured out in the temple and goes into the cleft,
+
which, narrow as it is, swallows up a considerable quantity. This is
+
said to be in virtue of a religious law instituted by [[Deucalion]] to
+
preserve the memory of the catastrophe, and of the benefits that he
+
received from the gods. Such is the ancient tradition of the temple."
+
  
"It appears to me difficult," says Lenormant, "not to recognize an echo
 
of fables popular in all [[Semitic]] countries about this chasm of
 
Hierapolis, and the part it played in the [[Deluge]], in the enigmatic
 
expressions of the Koran respecting the oven (tannur) which began to
 
bubble and disgorge water all around at the commencement of the [[Deluge]].
 
We know that this tannur has been the occasion of most grotesque
 
imaginings of Mussulman commentators, who had lost the tradition of the
 
story to which Mohammed made allusion. And, moreover, the Koran formally
 
states that the waters of the [[Deluge]] were absorbed in the bosom of the
 
earth."
 
  
Here the Xisuthros of [[Berosus]] becomes [[Deucalion]]-Sisythes. The animals
+
[they destroyed] the living beings of the surface of the earth.--The terrible ([[Deluge]]) on men swelled up to [heaven]. The brother no longer saw his brother; men no longer knew each other. In heaven--the gods became afraid of the water-spout, and--sought a refuge; they mounted up to the heaven of [[Anu]].- The gods were stretched out motionless, pressing one against another like dogs.--[[Ishtar]] wailed like a child, the great goddess pronounced her discourse:--"Here is humanity returned into mud, and--this is the misfortune that I have announced in the presence of the gods.--So I announced the misfortune in the presence of the gods,--for the evil I announced the terrible [chastisement] of men who are mine.--I am the mother who gave birth to men, and--like to the race of fishes, there they are filling the sea;--and the gods, by reason of that--which the archangels of the abyss are doing, weep with me."--The gods on their seats were seated in tears,--and they held their lips closed, [revolving] future things.
are not collected together by [[Deucalion]], as in the case of Noah and
+
Khasisatra, but they crowded into the vessel of their own accord, driven
+
by the terror with which the storm had inspired them; as in great
+
calamities the creatures of the forest have been known to seek refuge in
+
the houses of men.
+
  
[[India]] affords us an account of the [[Deluge]] which, by its poverty,
+
"'Six days and as many nights passed; the wind, the water-spout, and the diluvian rain were in all their strength. At the approach of the seventh day the diluvian rain grew weaker, the terrible water-spout--which had assailed after the fashion of an earthquake--grew calm, the sea inclined to dry up, and the wind and the water-spout came to an end. I looked at the sea, attentively observing--and the whole of humanity had returned to mud; like unto sea-weeds the corpses floated. I opened the window, and the light smote on my face. I was seized with sadness; I sat down and I wept;-and my tears came over my face.
strikingly contrasts with that of the Bible and the [[Chaldeans]]. Its most
+
simple and ancient form is found in the Catapatha Brahmana of the
+
Rig-Veda. It has been translated for the first time by Max Mueller.
+
  
"One morning water for washing was brought to Mann, and when he had
+
"'I looked at the regions bounding the sea: toward the twelve points of the horizon; not any continent.--The vessel was borne above the land of [[Nizir]],--the mountain of [[Nizir]] arrested the vessel, and did not permit it to pass over.--A day and a second day the mountain of [[Nizir]] arrested the vessel, and did not permit it to pass over;--the third and fourth day the mountain of [[Nizir]] arrested the vessel, and did not permit it to pass over;--the fifth and sixth day the mountain of [[Nizir]] arrested the vessel, and did not permit it to pass over. At the approach of the seventh day, I sent out and loosed a dove. The dove went, turned, and--found no place to light on, and it came
washed himself a fish remained in his hands, and it addressed these
+
----
words to him: 'Protect me, and I will save thee.' 'From what wilt thou
+
{{pagebreak}}
save me?' 'A [[Deluge]] will sweep all creatures away; it is from that I
+
will save thee.' 'How shall I protect thee?' The fish replied, 'While we
+
are small we run great dangers, for fish swallow fish. Keep me at first
+
in a vase; when I become too large for it, dig a basin to put me into.
+
When I shall have grown still more, throw me into the ocean; then I
+
shall be preserved from destruction.' Soon it grew a large fish. It said
+
to Mann, 'The very year I shall have reached my full growth the [[Deluge]]
+
will happen. Then build a vessel and worship me. When the waters rise,
+
enter the vessel, and I will save thee.'
+
  
"After keeping him thus, Mann carried the fish to the sea. In the year
+
''THE [[DELUGE]] OF THE [[CHALDEAN]]S''<p align="right">81</p>
indicated Mann built a vessel and worshipped the fish. And when the
+
[[Deluge]] came he entered the vessel. Then the fish came swimming up to
+
him, and Mann fastened the cable of the ship to the horn of the fish, by
+
which means the latter made it pass over the Mountain of the North. The
+
fish said, 'I have saved thee; fasten the vessel to a tree, that the
+
water may not sweep it away while thou art on the mountain; and in
+
proportion as the waters decrease thou shalt descend.' Mann descended
+
with the waters, and this is what is called the descent of Mann on the
+
Mountain of the North. The [[Deluge]] had carried away all creatures, and
+
Mann remained alone."
+
  
There is another form of the [[Hindoo]] legend in the Puranas. Lenormant
+
 
 +
back. I sent out and loosed a swallow; the swallow went, turned, and--found no place to light on, and it came back. I sent out and loosed a raven; the raven went and saw the corpses on the waters; it ate, rested, turned, and came not back.
 +
 
 +
"'I then sent out (what was in the vessel) toward the four winds, and I offered a sacrifice. I raised the pile of my burnt-offering on the peak of the mountain; seven by seven I disposed the measured vases,--and beneath I spread rushes, cedar, and juniper-wood. The gods were seized with the desire of it--the gods were seized with a benevolent desire of it;--and the gods assembled like flies above the master of the sacrifice. From afar, in approaching, the great goddess raised the great zones that [[Anu]] has made for their glory (the gods). These gods, luminous crystal before me, I will never leave them; in that day I prayed that I might never leave them. "Let the gods come to my sacrificial pile!--but never may [[Bel]] come to my sacrificial pile! for he did not master himself, and he has made the water-spout for the [[Deluge]], and he has numbered my men for the pit."
 +
 
 +
"'From far, in drawing near, [[Bel]]--saw the vessel, and [[Bel]] stopped;--he was filled with anger against the gods and the celestial archangels:--
 +
 
 +
"'"No one shall come out alive! No man shall be preserved from the abyss!"--[[Adar]] opened his mouth and said; he said to the warrior [[Bel]]:--"What other than [[Ea]] should have formed this resolution?--for [[Ea]] possesses knowledge, and [he foresees] all."--[[Ea]] opened his mouth and spake; he said to the warrior [[Bel]]:--"O thou, herald of the gods, warrior,--as thou didst not master thyself, thou hast made the water-spout of the [[Deluge]].--Let the sinner carry the weight of his sins, the blasphemer the weight of his blasphemy.--Please thyself with this good pleasure, and it shall never be infringed; faith in it never [shall be violated].--Instead of thy making a new [[Deluge]], let lions appear and reduce the number of men;--instead of thy making a new [[Deluge]], let hyenas appear and reduce the number of men;--instead of thy making a new [[Deluge]], let there be famine, and let the earth be [devastated];--instead of thy making a new [[Deluge]], let [[Dibbara]] appear, and let men be [mown down]. I have not revealed the decision of the great gods;--it is [[Khasisatra]] who interpreted a dream and comprehended what the gods had decided."
 +
 
 +
"'Then, when his resolve was arrested, [[Bel]] entered into the
 +
<center>*4</center>
 +
----
 +
{{pagebreak}}
 +
 
 +
82 <center>''ATLANTIS: THE ANTEDILUVIAN WORLD.''</center>
 +
 
 +
 
 +
vessel.--He took my hand and made me rise.--He made my wife rise, and made her place herself at my side--He turned around us and stopped short; he approached our group.--"Until now [[Khasisatra]] has made part of perishable humanity;--but lo, now [[Khasisatra]] and his wife are going to be carried away to live like the gods,--and [[Khasisatra]] will reside afar at the mouth of the rivers."--They carried me away, and established me in a remote place at the mouth of the streams.'"
 +
 
 +
"This narrative," says [[Lenormant]], "follows with great exactness the same course as that, or, rather, as those of [[Genesis]]; and the analogies are, on both sides, striking."
 +
 
 +
When we consider these two forms of the same legend, we see many points wherein the story points directly to [[Atlantis]].
 +
 
 +
1. In the first place, [[Berosus]] tells us that the god who gave warning of the coming of the [[Deluge]] was [[Chronos]]. [[Chronos]], it is well known, was the same as [[Saturn]]. [[Saturn]] was an ancient king of [[Italy]], who, far anterior to the founding of Rome, introduced civilization from some other country to the Italians. He established industry and social order, filled the land with plenty, and created the golden age of [[Italy]]. He was suddenly removed to the abodes of the gods. His name is connected, in the mythological legends, with "a great Saturnian continent" in the [[Atlantic]] Ocean, and a great kingdom which, in the remote ages, embraced Northern [[Africa]] and the [[European]] coast of the [[Mediterranean]] as far as the peninsula of [[Italy]], and "certain islands in the sea;" agreeing, in this respect, with the story of [[Plato]] as to the dominions of [[Atlantis]]. The Romans called the [[Atlantic Ocean]] "[[Chronium Mare]]," the Sea of [[Chronos]], thus identifying [[Chronos]] with that ocean. The [[Pillars of Hercules]] were also called by the ancients "the pillars of [[Chronos]]."
 +
 
 +
Here, then, we have convincing testimony that the country referred to in the [[Chaldean]] legends was the land of [[Chronos]], or [[Saturn]]--the ocean world, the dominion of [[Atlantis]].
 +
 
 +
2. Hea or [[Ea]], the god of the [[Nineveh tablets]], was a fish-god;
 +
----
 +
{{pagebreak}}
 +
 
 +
''THE [[DELUGE]] OF THE [[CHALDEAN]]S''<p align="right">83</p>
 +
 
 +
 
 +
he was represented in the [[Chaldean]] monuments as half man and half fish; he was described as the god, not of the rivers and seas, but of "the abyss"--to wit, the ocean. He it was who was said to have brought civilization and letters to the ancestors of the [[Assyrians]]. He clearly represented an ancient, maritime, civilized nation; he came from the ocean, and was associated with some land and people that had been destroyed by rain and inundations. The fact that the scene of the [[Deluge]] is located on the [[Euphrates]] proves nothing, for we will see hereafter that almost every nation had its especial mountain on which, according to its traditions, the ark rested; just as every [[Greek]] tribe had its own particular mountain of [[Olympos]]. The god [[Bel]] of the legend was the Baal of the [[Phoenician]]s, who, as we shall show, were of [[Atlantean]] origin. [[Bel]], or Baal, was worshipped on the western and northern coasts of [[Europe]], and gave his name to the [[Baltic]], the Great and Little Belt, Balesbaugen, Balestranden, etc.; and to many localities, in the [[British Islands]], as, for instance, Belan and the Baal hills in Yorkshire.
 +
 
 +
3. In those respects wherein the [[Chaldean]] legend, evidently the older form of the tradition, differs from the Biblical record, we see that in each instance we approach nearer to [[Atlantis]]. The account given in [[Genesis]] is the form of the tradition that would be natural to an inland people. Although there is an allusion to "the breaking up of the fountains of the great deep" (about which I shall speak more fully hereafter), the principal destruction seems to have been accomplished by rain; hence the greater period allowed for the [[Deluge]], to give time enough for the rain to fall, and subsequently drain off from the land. A people dwelling in the midst of a continent could not conceive the possibility of a whole world sinking beneath the sea; they therefore supposed the destruction to have been caused by a continuous down-pour of rain for forty days and forty nights.
 +
 
 +
In the [[Chaldean]] legend, on the contrary, the rain lasted but
 +
----
 +
{{pagebreak}}
 +
 
 +
84 <center>''ATLANTIS: THE ANTEDILUVIAN WORLD.''</center>
 +
 
 +
 
 +
seven days; and we see that the writer had a glimpse of the fact that the destruction occurred in the midst of or near the sea. The ark of [[Genesis]] (''tebah'') was simply a chest, a coffer, a big box, such as might be imagined by an inland people. The ark of the [[Chaldean]]s was a veritable ship; it had a prow, a helm, and a pilot, and men to manage it; and it navigated "the sea."
 +
 
 +
4. The [[Chaldean]] legend represents not a mere rain-storm, but a tremendous cataclysm. There was rain, it is true, but there was also thunder, lightning, earthquakes, wind, a water-spout, and a devastation of mountain and land by the war of the elements. All the dreadful forces of nature were fighting together over the doomed land: "the archangel of the abyss brought destruction," "the water rose to the sky," "the brother no longer saw his brother; men no longer knew each other;" the men "filled the sea like fishes;" the sea was filled with mud, and "the corpses floated like sea-weed." When the storm abated the land had totally disappeared-there was no longer "any continent." Does not all this accord with "that dreadful day and night" described by [[Plato]]?
 +
 
 +
5. In the original it appears that [[Izdhubar]], when he started to find the deified [[Khasisatra]], travelled first, for nine days' journey, to the sea; then secured the services of a boatman, and, entering a ship, sailed for fifteen days before finding the [[Chaldean]] [[Noah]]. This would show that [[Khasisatra]] dwelt in a far country, one only attainable by crossing the water; and this, too, seems like a reminiscence of the real site of [[Atlantis]]. The sea which a sailing-vessel required fifteen days to cross must have been a very large body of water; in fact, an ocean.
 +
----
 +
{{pagebreak}}
 +
 
 +
''THE [[DELUGE]] LEGENDS OF OTHER NATIONS.''<p align="right">85</p>
 +
 
 +
 
 +
 
 +
 
 +
====CHAPTER IV.====
 +
 
 +
 
 +
=====''THE [[DELUGE]] LEGENDS OF OTHER NATIONS.''=====
 +
 
 +
 
 +
A collection of the [[Deluge]] legends of other nations will throw light upon the Biblical and [[Chaldean]] records of that great event.
 +
 
 +
The author of the treatise "On the [[Syria]]n Goddess" acquaints us with the diluvian tradition of the [[Arameans]], directly derived from that of [[Chaldea]], as it was narrated in the celebrated Sanctuary of [[Hierapolis]], or [[Bambyce]].
 +
 
 +
"The generality of people," he says, "tells us that the founder of the temple was [[Deucalion Sisythes]]--that [[Deucalion]] in whose time the great inundation occurred. I have also heard the account given by the [[Greek]]s themselves of [[Deucalion]]; the myth runs thus: The actual race of men is not the first, for there was a previous one, all the members of which perished. We belong to a second race, descended from [[Deucalion]], and multiplied in the course of time. As to the former men, they are said to have been full of insolence and pride, committing many crimes, disregarding their oath, neglecting the rights of hospitality, unsparing to suppliants; accordingly, they were punished by an immense disaster. All on a sudden enormous volumes of water issued from the earth, and rains of extraordinary abundance began to fall; the rivers left their beds, and ''the sea overflowed its shores''; the whole earth was covered with water, and all men perished. [[Deucalion]] alone, because of his virtue and piety, was preserved alive to give birth to a new race. This is how he was saved: He placed himself, his children, and his wives in a great coffer that he had, in which pigs, Horses, lions, serpents, and all other terrestrial animals came to seek refuge with him. He received them all; and while they
 +
----
 +
{{pagebreak}}
 +
 
 +
86 <center>''ATLANTIS: THE ANTEDILUVIAN WORLD.''</center>
 +
 
 +
 
 +
were in the coffer [[Zeus]] inspired them with reciprocal amity, which prevented their devouring one another. In this manner, shut up within one single coffer, they floated as long as the waters remained in force. Such is the account given by the [[Greek]]s of [[Deucalion]].
 +
 
 +
"But to this, which they equally tell, the people of [[Hierapolis]] add a marvellous narrative: That in their country a great chasm opened, into which all the waters of the [[Deluge]] poured. Then [[Deucalion]] raised an altar, and dedicated a temple to [[Hera]] ([[Atargatis]]) close to this very chasm. I have seen it; it is very narrow, and situated under the temple. Whether it was once large, and has now shrunk, I do not know; but I have seen it, and it is quite small. In memory of the event the following is the rite accomplished: Twice a year sea-water is brought to the temple. This is not only done by the priests, but numerous pilgrims come from the whole of [[Syria]] and [[Arabia]], and even from beyond the [[Euphrates]], bringing water. It is poured out in the temple and goes into the cleft, which, narrow as it is, swallows up a considerable quantity. This is said to be in virtue of a religious law instituted by [[Deucalion]] to preserve the memory of the catastrophe, and of the benefits that he received from the gods. Such is the ancient tradition of the temple."
 +
 
 +
"It appears to me difficult," says [[Lenormant]], "not to recognize an echo of fables popular in all [[Semitic]] countries about this chasm of [[Hierapolis]], and the part it played in the [[Deluge]], in the enigmatic expressions of the [[Koran]] respecting the oven (''tannur'') which began to bubble and disgorge water all around at the commencement of the [[Deluge]]. We know that this ''tannur'' has been the occasion of most grotesque imaginings of Mussulman commentators, who had lost the tradition of the story to which [[Mohammed]] made allusion. And, moreover, the [[Koran]] formally
 +
states that the waters of the [[Deluge]] were absorbed in the bosom of the earth."
 +
 
 +
Here the [[Xisuthros]] of [[Berosus]] becomes [[Deucalion Sisythes]]. The animals are not collected together by [[Deucalion]], as in the case of [[Noah]] and [[Khasisatra]], but they crowded into the vessel of their own accord, driven by the terror with which the storm
 +
----
 +
{{pagebreak}}
 +
 
 +
''THE [[DELUGE]] LEGENDS OF OTHER NATIONS.''<p align="right">87</p>
 +
 
 +
 
 +
had inspired them; as in great calamities the creatures of the forest have been known to seek refuge in the houses of men.
 +
 
 +
[[India]] affords us an account of the [[Deluge]] which, by its poverty, strikingly contrasts with that of the Bible and the [[Chaldean]]s. Its most simple and ancient form is found in the ''[[Catapatha Brahmana]]'' of the [[Rig-Veda]]. It has been translated for the first time by [[Max Mueller]].
 +
 
 +
"One morning water for washing was brought to [[Manu]], and when he had washed himself a fish remained in his hands, and it addressed these words to him: 'Protect me, and I will save thee.' 'From what wilt thou save me?' 'A [[Deluge]] will sweep all creatures away; it is from that I will save thee.' 'How shall I protect thee?' The fish replied, 'While we are small we run great dangers, for fish swallow fish. Keep me at first in a vase; when I become too large for it, dig a basin to put me into. When I shall have grown still more, throw me into the ocean; then I shall be preserved from destruction.' Soon it grew a large fish. It said to [[Manu]], 'The very year I shall have reached my full growth the [[Deluge]] will happen. Then build a vessel and worship me. When the waters rise, enter the vessel, and I will save thee.'
 +
 
 +
"After keeping him thus, [[Manu]] carried the fish to the sea. In the year indicated [[Manu]] built a vessel and worshipped the fish. And when the [[Deluge]] came he entered the vessel. Then the fish came swimming up to him, and [[Manu]] fastened the cable of the ship to the horn of the fish, by which means the latter made it pass over the Mountain of the North. The fish said, 'I have saved thee; fasten the vessel to a tree, that the water may not sweep it away while thou art on the mountain; and in proportion as the waters decrease thou shalt descend.' [[Manu]] descended with the waters, and this is what is called the ''descent of [[Manu]]'' on the Mountain of the North. The [[Deluge]] had carried away all creatures, and [[Manu]] remained alone."
 +
 
 +
There is another form of the [[Hindoo]] legend in the [[Puranas]]. [[Lenormant]]
 
says:
 
says:
  
"We must also remark that in the Puranas it is no longer Mann Vaivasata
+
"We must also remark that in the [[Puranas]] it is no longer [[Manu Vaivasata]] that the divine fish saves from the [[Deluge]], but a different personage, the King of the [[Dastas]]--i. e., fishers
that the divine fish saves from the [[Deluge]], but a different personage,
+
----
the King of the Dastas--i. e., fisher--Satyravata, 'the man who loves
+
{{pagebreak}}
justice and truth,' strikingly corresponding to the Chaldean Khasisatra.
+
Nor is the Puranic version of the Legend of the [[Deluge]] to be despised,
+
though it be of recent date, and full of fantastic and often puerile
+
details. In certain aspects it is less [[Aryan]]ized than that of Brahmana
+
or than the Mahabharata; and, above all, it gives some circumstances
+
omitted in these earlier versions, which must yet have belonged to the
+
original foundation, since they appear in the Babylonian legend; a
+
circumstance preserved, no doubt, by the oral tradition--popular, and
+
not Brahmanic--with which the Puranas are so deeply imbued. This has
+
already been observed by Pictet, who lays due stress on the following
+
passage of the Bhagavata-Purana: 'In seven days,' said Vishnu to
+
Satyravata, 'the three worlds shall be submerged.' There is nothing like
+
this in the Brahmana nor the Mahabharata, but in [[Genesis]] the Lord says
+
to Noah, 'Yet seven days and I will cause it to rain upon the earth;'
+
and a little farther we read, 'After seven days the waters of the flood
+
were upon the earth.'... Nor must we pay less attention to the
+
directions given by the fish-god to Satyravata for the placing of the
+
sacred Scriptures in a safe place, in order to preserve them from
+
Hayagriva, a marine [[Horse]] dwelling in the abyss.... We recognize in
+
it, under an [[India]]n garb, the very tradition of the interment of the
+
sacred writings at Sippara by Khasisatra, such as we have seen it in the
+
fragment of [[Berosus]]."
+
  
The references to "the three worlds" and the "fish-god" in these legends
+
88 <center>''ATLANTIS: THE ANTEDILUVIAN WORLD.''</center>
point to [[Atlantis]]. The "three worlds" probably refers to the great
+
empire of [[Atlantis]], described by [[Plato]], to wit, the western continent,
+
[[America]], the eastern continent, [[Europe]] and [[Africa]], considered as one,
+
and the island of [[Atlantis]]. As we have seen, [[Poseidon]], the founder of
+
the civilization of [[Atlantis]], is identical with [[Neptune]], who is always
+
represented riding a dolphin, bearing a trident, or three-pronged
+
symbol, in his hand, emblematical probably of the triple kingdom. He is
+
thus a sea-god, or fish-god, and he comes to save the representative of
+
his country.
+
  
And we have also a new and singular form of the legend in the following.
 
Lenormant says:
 
  
"Among the Iranians, in the sacred books containing the fundamental
+
--[[Satyravata]], 'the man who loves justice and truth,' strikingly corresponding to the [[Chaldean]] [[Khasisatra]]. Nor is the [[Puranic]] version of the Legend of the [[Deluge]] to be despised, though it be of recent date, and full of fantastic and often puerile details. In certain aspects it is less [[Aryan]]ized than that of ''[[Brahmana]]'' or than the ''[[Mahabharata]]''; and, above all, it gives some circumstances omitted in these earlier versions, which must yet have belonged to the original foundation, since they appear in the [[Babylonian]] legend; a circumstance preserved, no doubt, by the oral tradition--popular, and not [[Brahmanic]]--with which the ''[[Puranas]]'' are so deeply imbued. This has already been observed by [[Pictet]], who lays due stress on the following passage of the ''[[Bhagavata-Purana]]'': 'In seven days,' said [[Vishnu]] to [[Satyravata]], ''the three worlds shall be submerged.'' There is nothing like this in the ''[[Brahmana]]'' nor the ''[[Mahabharata]]'', but in [[Genesis]] the Lord says to [[Noah]], 'Yet seven days and I will cause it to rain upon the earth;' and a little farther we read, 'After seven days the waters of the flood were upon the earth.'... Nor must we pay less attention to the directions given by the fish-god to [[Satyravata]] for the placing of the sacred Scriptures in a safe place, in order to preserve them from [[Hayagriva]], a marine [[Horse]] dwelling in the abyss.... We recognize in it, under an [[Indian]] garb, the very tradition of the interment of the sacred writings at [[Sippara]] by [[Khasisatra]], such as we have seen it in the fragment of [[Berosus]]."
Zoroastrian doctrines, and dating very far back, we meet with a
+
tradition which must assuredly be looked upon as a variety of that of
+
the [[Deluge]], though possessing a special character, and diverging in some
+
essential particulars from those we have been examining. It relates how
+
Yima, who, in the original and primitive conception, was the father of
+
the human race, was warned by Ahuramazda, the good deity, of the earth
+
being about to be devastated by a flood. The god ordered Yima to
+
construct a refuge, a square garden, vara, protected by an enclosure,
+
and to cause the germs of men, beasts, and plants to enter it, in order
+
to escape annihilation. Accordingly, when the inundation occurred, the
+
garden of Yima, with all that it contained, was alone spared, and the
+
message of safety was brought thither by the bird Karshipta, the envoy
+
of Ahuramazda." ("Vendudid," vol. ii., p. 46.)
+
  
This clearly signifies that, prior to the destruction of [[Atlantis]], a
+
The references to "the three worlds" and the "fish-god" in these legends point to [[Atlantis]]. The "three worlds" probably refers to the great empire of [[Atlantis]], described by [[Plato]], to wit, the western continent, [[America]], the eastern continent, [[Europe]] and [[Africa]], considered as one, and the island of [[Atlantis]]. As we have seen, [[Poseidon]], the founder of the civilization of [[Atlantis]], is identical with [[Neptune]], who is always represented riding a dolphin, bearing a trident, or three-pronged symbol, in his hand, emblematical probably of the triple kingdom. He is thus a sea-god, or fish-god, and he comes to save the representative of his country.
colony had been sent out to some neighboring country. These emigrants
+
built a walled town, and brought to it the grains and domestic animals
+
of the mother country; and when the island of [[Atlantis]] sunk in the
+
ocean, a messenger brought the terrible tidings to them in a ship.
+
  
"The [[Greek]]s had two principal legends as to the cataclysm by which
+
And we have also a new and singular form of the legend in the following. [[Lenormant]] says:
primitive humanity was destroyed. The first was connected with the name
+
----
of Ogyges, the most ancient of the kings of Boeotia or Attica--a quite
+
{{pagebreak}}
mythical personage, lost in the night of ages, his very name seemingly
+
derived from one signifying [[Deluge]] in [[Aryan]] idioms, in Sanscrit Angha.
+
It is said that in his time the whole land was covered by a flood, whose
+
waters reached the sky, and from which he, together with some
+
companions, escaped in a vessel.
+
  
"The second tradition is the Thessalian legend of [[Deucalion]]. Zeus having
+
''THE [[DELUGE]] LEGENDS OF OTHER NATIONS.''<p align="right">89</p>
worked to destroy the men of the age of bronze, with whose crimes he was
+
wroth, [[Deucalion]], by the advice of Prometheus, his father, constructed a
+
coffer, in which he took refuge with his wife, [[Pyrrha]]. The [[Deluge]] came;
+
the chest, or coffer, floated at the mercy of the waves for nine days
+
and nine nights, and was finally stranded on Mount Parnassus. [[Deucalion]]
+
and [[Pyrrha]] leave it, offer sacrifice, and, according to the command of
+
Zeus, repeople the world by throwing behind them 'the bones of the
+
earth'--namely, stones, which change into men. This [[Deluge]] of [[Deucalion]]
+
is, in Grecian tradition, what most resembles a universal [[Deluge]]. Many
+
authors affirm that it extended to the whole earth, and that the whole
+
human race perished. At [[Athens]], in memory of the event, and to appease
+
the manes of its victims, a ceremony called Hydrophoria was observed,
+
having so close a resemblance to that in use at Hierapolis, in [[Syria]],
+
that we can hardly fail to look upon it as a Syro-[[Phoenician]] importation,
+
and the result of an assimilation established in remote antiquity
+
between the [[Deluge]] of [[Deucalion]] and that of Khasisatra, as described by
+
the author of the treatise 'On the [[Syria]]n Goddess.' Close to the temple
+
of the Olympian Zeus a fissure in the soil was shown, in length but one
+
cubit, through which it was said the waters of the [[Deluge]] had been
+
swallowed up. Thus, every year, on the third day of the festival of the
+
Anthesteria, a day of mourning consecrated to the dead--that is, on the
+
thirteenth of the month of Anthesterion, toward the beginning of
+
March--it was customary, as at Bambyce, to pour water into the fissure,
+
together with flour mixed with honey, poured also into the trench dug to
+
the west of the tomb, in the funeral sacrifices of the [[Athenian]]s."
+
  
In this legend, also, there are passages which point to [[Atlantis]]. We
 
will see hereafter that the [[Greek]] god Zeus was one of the kings of
 
[[Atlantis]]. "The men of the age of bronze" indicates the civilization of
 
the doomed people; they were the great metallurgists of their day, who,
 
as we will see, were probably the source of the great number of
 
implements and weapons of bronze found all over [[Europe]]. Here, also,
 
while no length of time is assigned to the duration of the storm, we
 
find that the ark floated but nine days and nights. Noah was one year
 
and ten days in the ark, Khasisatra was not half that time, while
 
[[Deucalion]] was afloat only nine days.
 
  
At Megara, in Greece, it was the eponym of the city, Megaros, son of
+
"Among the [[Iranian]]s, in the sacred books containing the fundamental [[Zoroastrian]] doctrines, and dating very far back, we meet with a tradition which must assuredly be looked upon as a variety of that of the [[Deluge]], though possessing a special character, and diverging in some essential particulars from those we have been examining. It relates how [[Yima]], who, in the original and primitive conception, was the father of the human race, was warned by [[Ahuramazda]], the good deity, of the earth being about to be devastated by a flood. The god ordered [[Yima]] to construct a refuge, a square garden, ''[[vara]]'', protected by an enclosure, and to cause the germs of men, beasts, and plants to enter it, in order to escape annihilation. Accordingly, when the inundation occurred, the garden of [[Yima]], with all that it contained, was alone spared, and the message of safety was brought thither by the bird [[Karshipta]], the envoy of [[Ahuramazda]]." ("[[Vendudid]]," vol. ii., p. 46.)
Zeus and one of the nymphs, Sithnides, who, warned by the cry of cranes
+
of the imminence of the danger of the coming flood, took refuge on Mount
+
Geranien. Again, there was the Thessalian Cerambos, who was said to have
+
escaped the flood by rising into the air on wings given him by the
+
nymphs; and it was Perirrhoos, son of Eolus, that Zeus Naios had
+
preserved at Dodona. For the inhabitants of the Isle of Cos the hero of
+
the [[Deluge]] was Merops, son of Hyas, who there assembled under his rule
+
the remnant of humanity preserved with him. The traditions of Rhodes
+
only supposed the Telchines, those of Crete Sasion, to have escaped the
+
cataclysm. In Samothracia the same character was attributed to Saon,
+
said to be the son of Zeus or of Hermes.
+
  
It will be observed that in all these legends the name of Zeus, King of
+
This clearly signifies that, prior to the destruction of [[Atlantis]], a colony had been sent out to some neighboring country. These emigrants built a walled town, and brought to it the grains and domestic animals of the mother country; and when the island of [[Atlantis]] sunk in the ocean, a messenger brought the terrible tidings to them in a ship.
[[Atlantis]], reappears. It would appear probable that many parties had
+
escaped from the catastrophe, and had landed at the different points
+
named in the traditions; or else that colonies had already been
+
established by the [[Atlantean]]s at those places. It would appear
+
impossible that a maritime people could be totally destroyed; doubtless
+
many were on shipboard in the harbors, and others going and coming on
+
distant voyages.
+
  
"The invasion of the East," says Baldwin ('Prehistoric Nations,' p.
+
"The [[Greek]]s had two principal legends as to the cataclysm by which primitive humanity was destroyed. The first was connected with the name of [[Ogyges]], the most ancient of the kings of [[Boeotia]] or [[Attica]]--a quite mythical personage, lost in the night of ages, his very name seemingly derived from one signifying [[Deluge]] in [[Aryan]] idioms, in Sanskrit ''[[Angha]]''. It is said that in his time the whole land was covered by a flood, whose waters reached the sky, and from which he, together with some companions, escaped in a vessel.
396), "to which the story of [[Atlantis]] refers, seems to have given rise
+
to the Panathenae, the oldest, greatest, and most splendid festivals in
+
honor of Athena celebrated in Attica. These festivals are said to have
+
been established by Erichthonis in the most ancient times remembered by
+
the historical traditions of [[Athens]]. [[Boeckh]] says of them, in his
+
'Commentary on [[Plato]]:'
+
  
"'In the greater Panathenae there was carried in procession a peplum of
+
"The second tradition is the [[Thessalian]] legend of [[Deucalion]]. [[Zeus]] having worked to destroy the men of the age of bronze, with whose crimes he was wroth, [[Deucalion]], by the advice of [[Prometheus]], his father, constructed a coffer, in which he took refuge with his wife, [[Pyrrha]]. The [[Deluge]] came; the chest, or coffer, floated at the mercy of the waves for nine days and nine nights, and was finally stranded on Mount Parnassus. [[Deucalion]] and [[Pyrrha]] leave it, offer sacrifice, and, according
Minerva, representing the war with the giants and the victory of the
+
----
gods of Olympus. In the lesser Panathenae they carried another peplum
+
{{pagebreak}}
(covered with symbolic devices), which showed how the [[Athenian]]s,
+
supported by Minerva, had the advantage in the war with the Atlantes.' A
+
scholia quoted from [[Proclus]] by [[Humboldt]] and [[Boeckh]] says: 'The historians
+
who speak of the islands of the exterior sea tell us that in their time
+
there were seven islands consecrated to Proserpine, and three others of
+
immense extent, of which the first was consecrated to Pluto, the second
+
to Ammon, and the third to [[Neptune]]. The inhabitants of the latter had
+
preserved a recollection (transmitted to them by their ancestors) of the
+
island of [[Atlantis]], which was extremely large, and for a long time held
+
sway over all the islands of the [[Atlantic Ocean]]. [[Atlantis]] was also
+
consecrated to [[Neptune]]."' (See [[Humboldt]]'s "Histoire de la Geographie du
+
Nouveau Continent," vol. i.)
+
  
No one can read these legends and doubt that the Flood was an
+
90 <center>''ATLANTIS: THE ANTEDILUVIAN WORLD.''</center>
historical reality. It is impossible that in two different places in the
+
Old World, remote from each other, religious ceremonies should have been
+
established and perpetuated from age to age in memory of an event which
+
never occurred. We have seen that at [[Athens]] and at Hierapolis, in [[Syria]],
+
pilgrims came from a distance to appease the god of the earthquake, by
+
pouring offerings into fissures of the earth said to have been made at
+
the time [[Atlantis]] was destroyed.
+
  
More than this, we know from [[Plato]]'s history that the [[Athenian]]s long
 
preserved in their books the memory of a victory won over the [[Atlantean]]s
 
in the early ages, and celebrated it by national festivals, with
 
processions and religious ceremonies.
 
  
It is too much to ask us to believe that Biblical history, Chaldean,
+
to the command of [[Zeus]], repeople the world by throwing behind them 'the bones of the earth'--namely, stones, which change into men. This [[Deluge]] of [[Deucalion]] is, in [[Grecian]] tradition, what most resembles a universal [[Deluge]]. Many authors affirm that it extended to the whole earth, and that the whole human race perished. At [[Athens]], in memory of the event, and to appease the manes of its victims, a ceremony called ''[[Hydrophoria]]'' was observed, having so close a resemblance to that in use at [[Hierapolis]], in [[Syria]], that we can hardly fail to look upon it as a Syro-[[Phoenician]] importation, and the result of an assimilation established in remote antiquity between the [[Deluge]] of [[Deucalion]] and that of [[Khasisatra]], as described by the author of the treatise 'On the [[Syria]]n Goddess.' Close to the temple of the Olympian [[Zeus]] a fissure in the soil was shown, in length but one cubit, through which it was said the waters of the [[Deluge]] had been swallowed up. Thus, every year, on the third day of the festival of the [[Anthesteria]], a day of mourning consecrated to the dead--that is, on the thirteenth of the month of [[Anthesterion]], toward the beginning of March--it was customary, as at [[Bambyce]], to pour water into the fissure, together with flour mixed with honey, poured also into the trench dug to the west of the tomb, in the funeral sacrifices of the [[Athenian]]s."
[[Iranian]], and [[Greek]] legends signify nothing, and that even religious
+
pilgrimages and national festivities were based upon a myth.
+
  
I would call attention to the farther fact that in the [[Deluge]] legend of
+
In this legend, also, there are passages which point to [[Atlantis]]. We will see hereafter that the [[Greek]] god [[Zeus]] was one of the kings of [[Atlantis]]. "The men of the age of bronze" indicates the civilization of the doomed people; they were the great metallurgists of their day, who, as we will see, were probably the source of the great number of implements and weapons of bronze found all over [[Europe]]. Here, also, while no length of time is assigned to the duration of the storm, we find that the ark floated but nine days and nights. [[Noah]] was one year and ten days in the ark, [[Khasisatra]] was not half that time, while [[Deucalion]] was afloat only nine days.
the Isle of Cos the hero of the affair was Merops. Now we have seen
+
that, according to [[Theopompus]], one of the names of the people of
+
[[Atlantis]] was "[[Meropes]]."
+
  
But we have not reached the end of our Flood legends. The Persian Magi
+
At [[Megara]], in [[Greece]], it was the eponym of the city, [[Megaros]], son of
possessed a tradition in which the waters issued from the oven of an old
+
[[Zeus]] and one of the nymphs, [[Sithnides]], who, warned by the cry of cranes of the imminence of the danger of the coming flood, took refuge on [[Mount Geranien]]. Again, there
woman. Mohammed borrowed this story, and in the Koran he refers to the
+
----
[[Deluge]] as coming from an oven. "All men were drowned save Noah and his
+
{{pagebreak}}
family; and then God said, 'O earth, swallow up thy waters; and thou, O
+
heaven, withhold thy rain;' and immediately the waters abated."
+
  
In the bardic poems of Wales we have a tradition of the [[Deluge]] which,
+
''THE [[DELUGE]] LEGENDS OF OTHER NATIONS.''<p align="right">91</p>
although recent, under the concise forms of the triads, is still
+
deserving of attention. As usual, the legend is localized in the
+
country, and the [[Deluge]] counts among three terrible catastrophes of the
+
island of Prydian, or Britain, the other two consisting of devastation
+
by fire and by drought.
+
  
"The first of these events," it is said, "was the eruption of
 
Llyn-llion, or 'the lake of waves,' and the inundation (bawdd) of the
 
whole country, by which all mankind was drowned with the exception of
 
Dwyfam and Dwyfach, who saved themselves in a vessel without rigging,
 
and it was by them that the island of Prydian was repeopled."
 
  
Pictet here observes:
+
was the [[Thessalian]] [[Cerambos]], who was said to have escaped the flood by rising into the air on wings given him by the nymphs; and it was [[Perirrhoos]], son of [[Eolus]], that [[Zeus]] [[Naios]] had preserved at [[Dodona]]. For the inhabitants of the [[Isle of Cos]] the hero of the [[Deluge]] was ''[[Merops]]'', son of [[Hyas]], who there assembled under his rule the remnant of humanity preserved with him. The traditions of [[Rhodes]] only supposed the [[Telchines]], those of [[Crete Sasion]], to have escaped the cataclysm. In [[Samothracia]] the same character was attributed to [[Saon]], said to be the son of [[Zeus]] or of [[Hermes]].
  
"Although the triads in their actual form hardly date farther than the
+
It will be observed that in all these legends the name of [[Zeus]], King of [[Atlantis]], reappears. It would appear probable that many parties had escaped from the catastrophe, and had landed at the different points named in the traditions; or else that colonies had already been established by the [[Atlantean]]s at those places. It would appear impossible that a maritime people could be totally destroyed; doubtless many were on shipboard in the harbors, and others going and coming on distant voyages.
thirteenth or fourteenth century, some of them are undoubtedly connected
+
with very ancient traditions, and nothing here points to a borrowing
+
from [[Genesis]].
+
  
"But it is not so, perhaps, with another triad, speaking of the vessel
+
"The invasion of the East," says [[Baldwin]] ('[[Prehistoric Nations]],' p. 396), "to which the story of [[Atlantis]] refers, seems to have given rise to the [[Panathenae]], the oldest, greatest, and most splendid festivals in honor of [[Athena]] celebrated in [[Attica]]. These festivals are said to have been established by [[Erichthonis]] in the most ancient times remembered by the historical traditions of [[Athens]]. [[Boeckh]] says of them, in his 'Commentary on [[Plato]]:'
Nefyddnaf-Neifion, which at the time of the overflow of Llyon-llion,
+
bore a pair of all living creatures, and rather too much resembles the
+
ark of Noah. The very name of the patriarch may have suggested this
+
triple epithet, obscure as to its meaning, but evidently formed on the
+
principle of Cymric alliteration. In the same triad we have the
+
enigmatic story of the horned oxen (ychain banog) of Hu the mighty, who
+
drew out of Llyon-llion the avanc (beaver or crocodile?), in order that
+
the lake should not overflow. The meaning of these enigmas could only be
+
hoped from deciphering the chaos of barbaric monuments of the Welsh
+
middle age; but meanwhile we cannot doubt that the Cymri possessed an
+
indigenous tradition of the [[Deluge]]."
+
  
We also find a vestige of the same tradition in the [[Scandinavia]]n Edda.
+
"'In the greater [[Panathenae]] there was carried in procession a ''[[peplum]]'' of Minerva, representing the war with the giants and the victory of the gods of Olympus. In the lesser [[Panathenae]] they carried another ''[[peplum]]'' (covered with symbolic devices), which showed how the [[Athenian]]s, supported by Minerva, had the advantage in the war with the [[Atlantes]].' A scholia quoted from [[Proclus]] by [[Humboldt]] and [[Boeckh]] says: 'The historians who speak of the islands of the exterior sea
Here the story is combined with a cosmogonic myth. The three sons of
+
----
Borr--Othin, Wili, and We--grandsons of Buri, the first man, slay Ymir,
+
{{pagebreak}}
the father of the Hrimthursar, or ice giants, and his body serves them
+
for the construction of the world. Blood flows from his wounds in such
+
abundance that all the race of giants is drowned in it except Bergelmir,
+
who saves himself, with his wife, in a boat, and reproduces the race.
+
  
In the Edda of Soemund, "The Vala's Prophecy" (stz. 48-56, p. 9), we seem
+
92 <center>''ATLANTIS: THE ANTEDILUVIAN WORLD.''</center>
to catch traditional glimpses of a terrible catastrophe, which reminds
+
us of the Chaldean legend:
+
  
"Then trembles Yggdrasil's ash yet standing, groans that ancient tree,
 
and the Joetun Loki is loosed. The shadows groan on the ways of Hel (the
 
goddess of death), until the fire of Surt has consumed the tree. Hyrm
 
steers from the east, the waters rise, the mundane snake is coiled in
 
joetun-rage. The worm beats the water and the eagle screams; the pale of
 
beak tears carcasses; (the ship) Naglfar is loosed. Surt from the south
 
comes with flickering flame; shines from his sword the Valgod's sun. The
 
stony hills are dashed together, the giantesses totter; men tread the
 
path of Hel, and heaven is cloven. The sun darkens, earth in ocean
 
sinks, fall from heaven the bright stars, fire's breath assails the
 
all-nourishing, towering fire plays against heaven itself."
 
  
[[Egypt]] does not contain a single allusion to the Flood. Lenormant says:
+
tell us that in their time there were seven islands consecrated to [[Proserpine]], and three others of immense extent, of which the first was consecrated to [[Pluto]], the second to [[Ammon]], and the third to [[Neptune]]. The inhabitants of the latter had preserved a recollection (transmitted to them by their ancestors) of the island of [[Atlantis]], which was extremely large, and for a long time held sway over all the islands of the [[Atlantic Ocean]]. [[Atlantis]] was also consecrated to [[Neptune]]."' (See [[Humboldt]]'s "Histoire de la Geographie du Nouveau Continent," vol. i.)
  
"While the tradition of the [[Deluge]] holds so considerable a place in the
+
No one can read these legends and doubt that the Flood was an historical reality. It is impossible that in two different places in the Old World, remote from each other, religious ceremonies should have been established and perpetuated from age to age in memory of an event which never occurred. We have seen that at [[Athens]] and at [[Hierapolis]], in [[Syria]], pilgrims came from a distance to appease the god of the earthquake, by pouring offerings into fissures of the earth said to have been made at the time [[Atlantis]] was destroyed.
legendary memories of all branches of the [[Aryan]] race, the monuments and
+
original texts of [[Egypt]], with their many cosmogonic speculations, have
+
not afforded one, even distant, allusion to this cataclysm. When the
+
[[Greek]]s told the [[Egyptian]] priests of the [[Deluge]] of [[Deucalion]], their reply
+
was that they had been preserved from it as well as from the
+
conflagration produced by [[Phaethon]]; they even added that the [[Amasis]]
+
were childish in attaching so much importance to that event, as there
+
had been several other local catastrophes resembling it. According to a
+
passage in Manetho, much suspected, however, of being an interpolation,
+
Thoth, or Hermes Trismegistus, had himself, before the cataclysm,
+
inscribed on stelae, in hieroglyphical and sacred language, the
+
principles of all knowledge. After it the second Thoth translated into
+
the vulgar tongue the contents of these stelae. This would be the only
+
[[Egyptian]] mention of the [[Deluge]], the same Manetho not speaking of it in
+
what remains to us of his 'Dynasties,' his only complete authentic work.
+
The silence of all other myths of the Pharaonic religion on this head
+
render it very likely that the above is merely a foreign tradition,
+
recently introduced, and no doubt of Asiatic and Chaldean origin."
+
  
To my mind the explanation of this singular omission is very plain. The
+
More than this, we know from [[Plato]]'s history that the [[Athenian]]s long preserved in their books the memory of a victory won over the [[Atlantean]]s in the early ages, and celebrated it by national festivals, with processions and religious ceremonies.
[[Egyptians]] had preserved in their annals the precise history of the
+
destruction of [[Atlantis]], out of which the Flood legends grew; and, as
+
they told the [[Greek]]s, there had been no universal flood, but only local
+
catastrophes. Possessing the real history of the local catastrophe which
+
destroyed [[Atlantis]], they did not indulge in any myths about a universal
+
[[Deluge]] covering the mountain-tops of all the world. They had no Ararat
+
in their neighborhood.
+
  
The traditions of the early [[Christian]] ages touching the [[Deluge]] pointed
+
It is too much to ask us to believe that Biblical history, [[Chaldean]], [[Iranian]], and [[Greek]] legends signify nothing, and that even religious pilgrimages and national festivities were based upon a myth.
to the quarter of the world in which [[Atlantis]] was situated.
+
  
There was a quaint old monk named [[Cosmos]], who, about one thousand years
+
I would call attention to the farther fact that in the [[Deluge]] legend of the [[Isle of Cos]] the hero of the affair was [[Merops]]. Now we have seen that, according to [[Theopompus]], one of the names of the people of [[Atlantis]] was "[[Meropes]]."
ago, published a book, "Topographia Christiana," accompanied by a map,
+
in which he gives his view of the world as it was then understood. It
+
was a body surrounded by water, and resting on nothing. "The earth,"
+
says [[Cosmos]], "presses downward, but the igneous parts tend upward," and
+
between the conflicting forces the earth hangs suspended, like
+
Mohammed's coffin in the old story. The accompanying illustration (page
+
95) represents the earth surrounded by the ocean, and beyond this ocean
+
was "the land where men dwelt before the [[Deluge]]."
+
  
He then gives us a more accurate map, in detail, of the known world of
+
But we have not reached the end of our Flood legends. The Persian Magi possessed a tradition in which the waters issued from the oven of an old woman. [[Mohammed]] borrowed this story, and in the [[Koran]] he refers to the [[Deluge]] as coming from an oven. "All men were drowned save [[Noah]] and his family; and then God said, 'O earth, swallow up thy waters;
his day.
+
----
 +
{{pagebreak}}
  
I copy this map, not to show how much more we know than poor [[Cosmos]], but
+
''THE [[DELUGE]] LEGENDS OF OTHER NATIONS.''<p align="right">93</p>
because he taught that all around this habitable world there was yet
+
another world, adhering closely on all sides to the circumscribing walls
+
of heaven. "Upon the eastern side of this transmarine land he judges man
+
was created; and that there the paradise of gladness was located, such
+
as here on the eastern edge is described, where it received our first
+
parents, driven out of Paradise to that extreme point of land on the
+
sea-shore. Hence, upon the coming of the [[Deluge]], Noah and his sons were
+
borne by the ark to the earth we now inhabit. The four rivers he
+
supposes to be gushing up the spouts of Paradise." They are depicted on
+
the above map: O is the [[Mediterranean Sea]]; P, the Arabian Gulf; L, the
+
[[Caspian]] Sea; Q, the Tigris; M, the river Pison; "and J, the land where
+
men dwelt before the Flood."
+
  
It will be observed that, while he locates Paradise in the east, he
 
places the scene of the [[Deluge]] in the west; and he supposes that Noah
 
came from the scene of the [[Deluge]] to [[Europe]].
 
  
This shows that the traditions in the time of [[Cosmos]] looked to the west
+
and thou, O heaven, withhold thy rain;' and immediately the waters abated."
as the place of the [[Deluge]], and that after the [[Deluge]] Noah came to the
+
shores of the [[Mediterranean]]. The fact, too, that there was land in the
+
west beyond the ocean is recognized by [[Cosmos]], and is probably a dim
+
echo from [[Atlantean]] times.
+
  
                      MAP OF [[EUROPE]], AFTER COSMOS
+
In the bardic poems of Wales we have a tradition of the [[Deluge]] which, although recent, under the concise forms of the triads, is still deserving of attention. As usual, the legend is localized in the country, and the [[Deluge]] counts among three terrible catastrophes of the island of [[Prydian]], or [[Britain]], the other two consisting of devastation by fire and by drought.
 +
 
 +
"The first of these events," it is said, "was the eruption of [[Llyn-llion]], or 'the lake of waves,' and the inundation (''bawdd'') of the whole country, by which all mankind was drowned with the exception of [[Dwyfam]] and [[Dwyfach]], who saved themselves in a vessel without rigging, and it was by them that the island of [[Prydian]] was repeopled."
 +
 
 +
[[Pictet]] here observes:
 +
 
 +
"Although the triads in their actual form hardly date farther than the thirteenth or fourteenth century, some of them are undoubtedly connected with very ancient traditions, and nothing here points to a borrowing from [[Genesis]].
 +
 
 +
"But it is not so, perhaps, with another triad, speaking of the vessel ''[[Nefyddnaf-Neifion]]'', which at the time of the overflow of [[Llyon-llion]], bore a pair of all living creatures, and rather too much resembles the ark of [[Noah]]. The very name of the patriarch may have suggested this triple epithet, obscure as to its meaning, but evidently formed on the principle of Cymric alliteration. In the same triad we have the enigmatic story of the horned oxen (''[[ychain banog]]'') of [[Hu]] the mighty, who drew out of [[Llyon-llion]] the avanc (beaver or crocodile?), in order that the lake should not overflow. The meaning of these enigmas could only be hoped from deciphering the chaos of barbaric monuments of the Welsh middle age; but meanwhile we cannot doubt that the [[Cymri]] possessed an indigenous tradition of the [[Deluge]]."
 +
 
 +
We also find a vestige of the same tradition in the [[Scandinavian Edda]]. Here the story is combined with a cosmogonic myth. The three sons of [[Borr-Othin]], [[Wili]], and [[We]]-grandsons of [[Buri]], the first man, slay [[Ymir]], the father of the
 +
----
 +
{{pagebreak}}
 +
 
 +
94 <center>''ATLANTIS: THE ANTEDILUVIAN WORLD.''</center>
 +
 
 +
 
 +
[[Hrimthursar]], or ice giants, and his body serves them for the construction of the world. Blood flows from his wounds in such abundance that all the race of giants is drowned in it except [[Bergelmir]], who saves himself, with his wife, in a boat, and reproduces the race.
 +
 
 +
In the ''[[Edda of Soemund]]'', "The Vala's Prophecy" (stz. 48-56, p. 9), we seem to catch traditional glimpses of a terrible catastrophe, which reminds us of the [[Chaldean]] legend:
 +
 
 +
"Then trembles [[Yggdrasil]]'s ash yet standing, groans that ancient tree, and the [[Joetun Loki]] is loosed. The shadows groan on the ways of [[Hel]] (the goddess of death), until the fire of [[Surt]] has consumed ''the tree. [[Hyrm]] steers from the east, the waters rise'', the mundane snake is coiled in [[joetun]]-rage. The worm beats the water and the eagle screams; the pale of beak tears carcasses; (the ship) [[Naglfar]] is loosed. [[Surt]] from the south comes with flickering flame; shines from his sword the [[Valgod]]'s sun. The stony hills are dashed together, the giantesses totter; men tread the path of [[Hel]], and heaven is cloven. The sun darkens, ''earth in ocean sinks'', fall from heaven the bright stars, fire's breath assails the all-nourishing, towering fire plays against heaven itself."
 +
 
 +
[[Egypt]] does not contain a single allusion to the Flood. [[Lenormant]] says:
 +
 
 +
"While the tradition of the [[Deluge]] holds so considerable a place in the legendary memories of all branches of the [[Aryan]] race, the monuments and original texts of [[Egypt]], with their many cosmogonic speculations, have not afforded one, even distant, allusion to this cataclysm. When the [[Greek]]s told the [[Egyptian]] priests of the [[Deluge]] of [[Deucalion]], their reply was that they had been preserved from it as well as from the conflagration produced by [[Phaethon]]; they even added that the [[Amasis]] were childish in attaching so much importance to that event, as there had been several other local catastrophes resembling it. According to a passage in [[Manetho]], much suspected, however, of being an interpolation, [[Thoth]], or [[Hermes Trismegistus]], had himself, before the cataclysm, inscribed on stelae, in hieroglyphical and sacred language, the principles of all knowledge. After it the second [[Thoth]] translated into the
 +
----
 +
{{pagebreak}}
 +
 
 +
''THE [[DELUGE]] LEGENDS OF OTHER NATIONS.''<p align="right">95</p>
 +
 
 +
 
 +
vulgar tongue the contents of these stelae. This would be the only [[Egyptian]] mention of the [[Deluge]], the same [[Manetho]] not speaking of it in what remains to us of his 'Dynasties,' his only complete authentic work. The silence of all other myths of the Pharaonic religion on this head render it very likely that the above is merely a foreign tradition, recently introduced, and no doubt of [[Asiatic]] and [[Chaldean]] origin."
 +
 
 +
To my mind the explanation of this singular omission is very plain. The [[Egyptians]] had preserved in their annals the precise history of the destruction of [[Atlantis]], out of which the Flood legends grew; and, as they told the [[Greek]]s, there had been no universal flood, but only local catastrophes. Possessing the real history of the local catastrophe which destroyed [[Atlantis]], they did not indulge in any myths about a universal [[Deluge]] covering the mountain-tops of all the world. They had no [[Ararat]] in their neighborhood.
 +
 
 +
 
 +
[[File:Atlantis16.jpg|border|THE WORLD ACCORDING TO COSMOS]]
 +
 
 +
 
 +
The traditions of the early [[Christian]] ages touching the [[Deluge]] pointed to the quarter of the world in which [[Atlantis]] was situated.
 +
 
 +
There was a quaint old monk named [[Cosmos]], who, about one thousand years ago, published a book, "[[Topographia Christiana]]," accompanied by a map, in which he gives his view of the world as it was then understood. It was a body surrounded by water, and resting on nothing. "The earth," says [[Cosmos]], "presses downward, but the igneous parts tend upward," and between the conflicting forces the earth hangs suspended, like Mohammed's coffin in the old story. The accompanying
 +
----
 +
{{pagebreak}}
 +
 
 +
96 <center>''ATLANTIS: THE ANTEDILUVIAN WORLD.''</center>
 +
 
 +
 
 +
illustration (page 95) represents the earth surrounded by the ocean, and beyond this ocean was "the land where men dwelt before the [[Deluge]]."
 +
 
 +
He then gives us a more accurate map, in detail, of the known world of his day.
 +
 
 +
I copy this map, not to show how much more we know than poor [[Cosmos]], but because he taught that all around this habitable world there was yet another world, adhering closely on all sides to the circumscribing walls of heaven. "Upon the eastern side of this transmarine land he judges man was created; and that there the paradise of gladness was located,
 +
 
 +
[[File:Atlantis17.jpg|border|MAP OF [[EUROPE]], AFTER [[COSMOS]]]]
 +
 
 +
such as here on the eastern edge is described, where it received our first parents, driven out of Paradise to that extreme point of land on the sea-shore. Hence, upon the coming of the [[Deluge]], [[Noah]] and his sons were borne by the ark to the earth we now inhabit. The four rivers he supposes to be gushing up the spouts of Paradise." They are depicted on the above map: O is the [[Mediterranean Sea]]; P, the [[Arabian Gulf]]; L, the [[Caspian Sea]]; Q, the [[Tigris]]; M, the river [[Pison]]; "''and J, the land where men dwelt before the Flood.''"
 +
----
 +
{{pagebreak}}
 +
 
 +
''THE [[DELUGE]] LEGENDS OF OTHER NATIONS.''<p align="right">97</p>
 +
 
 +
 
 +
It will be observed that, while he locates Paradise in the east, he places the scene of the [[Deluge]] in the west; and he supposes that [[Noah]] came from the scene of the [[Deluge]] to [[Europe]].
 +
 
 +
This shows that the traditions in the time of [[Cosmos]] looked to the west as the place of the [[Deluge]], and that after the [[Deluge]] [[Noah]] came to the shores of the [[Mediterranean]]. The fact, too, that there was land in the west beyond the ocean is recognized by [[Cosmos]], and is probably a dim echo from [[Atlantean]] times.
  
 
The following rude cut, from [[Cosmos]], represents the high mountain in the
 
The following rude cut, from [[Cosmos]], represents the high mountain in the
Line 2,790: Line 2,053:
 
the [[Aztecs]].
 
the [[Aztecs]].
  
                THE MOUNTAIN THE SUN GOES BEHIND AT NIGHT
+
[[File:Atlantis18.jpg|border|THE MOUNTAIN THE SUN GOES BEHIND AT NIGHT]]
 +
<center>5</center>
 +
----
 +
{{pagebreak}}
  
CHAPTER V
+
98 <center>''ATLANTIS: THE ANTEDILUVIAN WORLD.''</center>
  
THE [[DELUGE]] LEGENDS OF [[AMERICA]].
 
  
"It is a very remarkable fact," says Alfred Maury, "that we find in
+
====CHAPTER V====
[[America]] traditions of the [[Deluge]] coming infinitely nearer to that of the
+
 
Bible and the Chaldean religion than among any people of the Old World.
+
 
It is difficult to suppose that the emigration that certainly took place
+
=====''THE [[DELUGE]] LEGENDS OF [[AMERICA]].''=====
from [[Asia]] into [[North America]] by the Kourile and Aleutian Islands, and
+
 
still does so in our day, should have brought in these memories, since
+
 
no trace is found of them among those Mongol or Siberian populations
+
"It is a very remarkable fact," says [[Alfred Maury]], "that we find in [[America]] traditions of the [[Deluge]] coming infinitely nearer to that of the Bible and the [[Chaldean]] religion than among any people of the Old World. It is difficult to suppose that the emigration that certainly took place from [[Asia]] into [[North America]] by the [[Kourile]] and [[Aleutian Islands]], and still does so in our day, should have brought in these memories, since no trace is found of them among those [[Mongol]] or [[Siberian]] populations which were fused with the natives of the New World.... The attempts that have been made to trace the origin of [[Mexican]] civilization to [[Asia]] have not as yet led to any sufficiently conclusive facts. Besides, had [[Buddhism]], which we doubt, made its way into [[America]], it could not have introduced a myth not found in its own scriptures. The cause of these similarities between the diluvian traditions of the nations of the New World and that of the Bible remains therefore unexplained."
which were fused with the natives of the New World.... The attempts
+
 
that have been made to trace the origin of [[Mexican]] civilization to [[Asia]]
+
The cause of these similarities can be easily explained: the legends of the Flood did not pass into [[America]] by way of the [[Aleutian Islands]], or through the [[Buddhist]]s of [[Asia]], but were derived from an actual knowledge of [[Atlantis]] possessed by the people of [[America]].
have not as yet led to any sufficiently conclusive facts. Besides, had
+
 
Buddhism, which we doubt, made its way into [[America]], it could not have
+
[[Atlantis]] and the western continent had from an immemorial age held intercourse with each other: the great nations of [[America]] were simply colonies from [[Atlantis]], sharing in its civilization, language, religion, and blood. From [[Mexico]] to the peninsula of [[Yucatan]], from the shores of [[Brazil]] to the heights of [[Bolivia]] and [[Peru]], from the [[Gulf of Mexico]] to the head-waters of the [[Mississippi River]], the colonies of [[Atlantis]]
introduced a myth not found in its own scriptures. The cause of these
+
----
similarities between the diluvian traditions of the nations of the New
+
{{pagebreak}}
World and that of the Bible remains therefore unexplained."
+
 
 +
''THE [[DELUGE]] LEGENDS OF [[AMERICA]].''<p align="right">99</p>
  
The cause of these similarities can be easily explained: the legends of
 
the Flood did not pass into [[America]] by way of the Aleutian Islands, or
 
through the [[Buddhist]]s of [[Asia]], but were derived from an actual knowledge
 
of [[Atlantis]] possessed by the people of [[America]].
 
  
[[Atlantis]] and the western continent had from an immemorial age held
+
extended; and therefore it is not strange to find, as [[Alfred Maury]] says, [[America]]n traditions of the [[Deluge]] coming nearer to that of the Bible and the [[Chaldean]] record than those of any people of the Old World.
intercourse with each other: the great nations of [[America]] were simply
+
colonies from [[Atlantis]], sharing in its civilization, language, religion,
+
and blood. From [[Mexico]] to the peninsula of [[Yucatan]], from the shores of
+
[[Brazil]] to the heights of Bolivia and [[Peru]], from the [[Gulf of Mexico]] to
+
the head-waters of the [[Mississippi River]], the colonies of [[Atlantis]]
+
extended; and therefore it is not strange to find, as Alfred Maury says,
+
[[America]]n traditions of the [[Deluge]] coming nearer to that of the Bible and
+
the Chaldean record than those of any people of the Old World.
+
  
 
"The most important among the [[America]]n traditions are the [[Mexican]], for
 
"The most important among the [[America]]n traditions are the [[Mexican]], for
 
they appear to have been definitively fixed by symbolic and mnemonic
 
they appear to have been definitively fixed by symbolic and mnemonic
 
paintings before any contact with [[Europeans]]. According to these
 
paintings before any contact with [[Europeans]]. According to these
documents, the Noah of the [[Mexican]] cataclysm was Coxcox, called by
+
documents, the [[Noah]] of the [[Mexican]] cataclysm was Coxcox, called by
 
certain peoples Teocipactli or Tezpi. He had saved himself, together
 
certain peoples Teocipactli or Tezpi. He had saved himself, together
 
with his wife Xochiquetzal, in a bark, or, according to other
 
with his wife Xochiquetzal, in a bark, or, according to other
Line 2,836: Line 2,090:
 
[[Aztecs]], Miztecs, Zapotecs, Tlascaltecs, and Mechoacaneses. The tradition
 
[[Aztecs]], Miztecs, Zapotecs, Tlascaltecs, and Mechoacaneses. The tradition
 
of the latter is still more strikingly in conformity with the story as
 
of the latter is still more strikingly in conformity with the story as
we have it in [[Genesis]], and in Chaldean sources. It tells how Tezpi
+
we have it in [[Genesis]], and in [[Chaldean]] sources. It tells how Tezpi
 
embarked in a spacious vessel with his wife, his children, and several
 
embarked in a spacious vessel with his wife, his children, and several
 
animals, and grain, whose preservation was essential to the subsistence
 
animals, and grain, whose preservation was essential to the subsistence
Line 2,847: Line 2,101:
  
 
"The document, however, that gives the most valuable information," says
 
"The document, however, that gives the most valuable information," says
Lenormant, "as to the cosmogony of the [[Mexican]]s is one known as 'Codex
+
[[Lenormant]], "as to the cosmogony of the [[Mexican]]s is one known as 'Codex
 
Vaticanus,' from the library where it is preserved. It consists of four
 
Vaticanus,' from the library where it is preserved. It consists of four
 
symbolic pictures, representing the four ages of the world preceding the
 
symbolic pictures, representing the four ages of the world preceding the
Line 2,917: Line 2,171:
 
dwelt who were turned into fish, but the very mountains of that land
 
dwelt who were turned into fish, but the very mountains of that land
 
sunk into the water. Does not this describe the fate of [[Atlantis]]? In the
 
sunk into the water. Does not this describe the fate of [[Atlantis]]? In the
Chaldean legend "the great goddess Ishtar wailed like a child," saying,
+
[[Chaldean]] legend "the great goddess [[Ishtar]] wailed like a child," saying,
 
"I am the mother who gave birth to men, and, like to the race of fishes,
 
"I am the mother who gave birth to men, and, like to the race of fishes,
 
they are filling the sea."
 
they are filling the sea."
  
In the account in [[Genesis]], Noah "builded an altar unto the Lord, and
+
In the account in [[Genesis]], [[Noah]] "builded an altar unto the Lord, and
 
took of every clean beast, and of every clean fowl, and offered burnt
 
took of every clean beast, and of every clean fowl, and offered burnt
 
offerings on the altar. And the Lord smelled a sweet savor; and the Lord
 
offerings on the altar. And the Lord smelled a sweet savor; and the Lord
 
said in his heart, 'I will not again curse the ground any more for man's
 
said in his heart, 'I will not again curse the ground any more for man's
sake.'" In the Chaldean legend we are told that Khasisatra also offered
+
sake.'" In the [[Chaldean]] legend we are told that [[Khasisatra]] also offered
 
a sacrifice, a burnt offering, "and the gods assembled like flies above
 
a sacrifice, a burnt offering, "and the gods assembled like flies above
the master of the sacrifice." But Bel came in a high state of
+
the master of the sacrifice." But [[Bel]] came in a high state of
 
indignation, just as the Aztec god did, and was about to finish the work
 
indignation, just as the Aztec god did, and was about to finish the work
of the [[Deluge]], when the great god Ea took pity in his heart and
+
of the [[Deluge]], when the great god [[Ea]] took pity in his heart and
 
interfered to save the remnant of mankind.
 
interfered to save the remnant of mankind.
  
Line 2,935: Line 2,189:
 
interpolations of [[Christian]] missionaries, for it will be observed the
 
interpolations of [[Christian]] missionaries, for it will be observed the
 
Aztec legends differ from the Bible in points where they resemble on the
 
Aztec legends differ from the Bible in points where they resemble on the
one hand [[Plato]]'s record, and on the other the Chaldean legend.
+
one hand [[Plato]]'s record, and on the other the [[Chaldean]] legend.
  
 
The name of the hero of the Aztec story, Nata, pronounced with the broad
 
The name of the hero of the Aztec story, Nata, pronounced with the broad
sound of the a, is not far from the name of Noah or Noe. The [[Deluge]] of
+
sound of the a, is not far from the name of [[Noah]] or Noe. The [[Deluge]] of
 
[[Genesis]] is a [[Phoenician]], [[Semitic]], or Hebraic legend, and yet, strange to
 
[[Genesis]] is a [[Phoenician]], [[Semitic]], or Hebraic legend, and yet, strange to
say, the name of Noah, which occurs in it, bears no appropriate meaning
+
say, the name of [[Noah]], which occurs in it, bears no appropriate meaning
 
in those tongues, but is derived from [[Aryan]] sources; its fundamental
 
in those tongues, but is derived from [[Aryan]] sources; its fundamental
 
root is Na, to which in all the [[Aryan]] language is attached the meaning
 
root is Na, to which in all the [[Aryan]] language is attached the meaning
 
of water--{[[Greek]]} na'ein, to flow; {[[Greek]]} na~ma, water; Nympha,
 
of water--{[[Greek]]} na'ein, to flow; {[[Greek]]} na~ma, water; Nympha,
Neptunus, water deities. (Lenormant and Chevallier, "Anc. Hist. of the
+
Neptunus, water deities. ([[Lenormant]] and [[Chevallier]], "Anc. Hist. of the
 
East," vol. i., p. 15.) We find the root Na repeated in the name of this
 
East," vol. i., p. 15.) We find the root Na repeated in the name of this
Central [[America]]n Noah, Na-ta, and probably in the word "Na-hui-atl"--the
+
Central [[America]]n [[Noah]], Na-ta, and probably in the word "Na-hui-atl"--the
 
age of water.
 
age of water.
  
But still more striking analogies exist between the Chaldean legend and
+
But still more striking analogies exist between the [[Chaldean]] legend and
 
the story of the [[Deluge]] as told in the "Popul Vuh" (the Sacred Book) of
 
the story of the [[Deluge]] as told in the "Popul Vuh" (the Sacred Book) of
 
the Central [[America]]ns:
 
the Central [[America]]ns:
Line 2,967: Line 2,221:
 
the fourth creation."
 
the fourth creation."
  
Observe the similarities here to the Chaldean legend. There is the same
+
Observe the similarities here to the [[Chaldean]] legend. There is the same
 
graphic description of a terrible event. The "black cloud" is referred
 
graphic description of a terrible event. The "black cloud" is referred
 
to in both instances; also the dreadful noises, the rising water, the
 
to in both instances; also the dreadful noises, the rising water, the
Line 2,973: Line 2,227:
 
the mountain caverns; "the men running and pushing each other, filled
 
the mountain caverns; "the men running and pushing each other, filled
 
with despair," says the "Popul Vuh;" "the brother no longer saw his
 
with despair," says the "Popul Vuh;" "the brother no longer saw his
brother," says the [[Assyrian]] legend.
+
brother," says the [[Assyria]]n legend.
  
 
And here I may note that this word hurakan--the spirit of the abyss, the
 
And here I may note that this word hurakan--the spirit of the abyss, the
 
god of storm, the hurricane--is very suggestive, and testifies to an
 
god of storm, the hurricane--is very suggestive, and testifies to an
 
early intercourse between the opposite shores of the [[Atlantic]]. We find
 
early intercourse between the opposite shores of the [[Atlantic]]. We find
in [[Spanish]] the word huracan; in Portuguese, furacan; in French, ouragan;
+
in [[Spanish]] the word huracan; in [[Portuguese]], furacan; in French, ouragan;
 
in [[German]], [[Danish]], and Swedish, orcan--all of them signifying a storm;
 
in [[German]], [[Danish]], and Swedish, orcan--all of them signifying a storm;
 
while in Latin furo, or furio, means to rage. And are not the old
 
while in Latin furo, or furio, means to rage. And are not the old
Line 3,021: Line 2,275:
 
It will of course be said that this account, in those particulars where
 
It will of course be said that this account, in those particulars where
 
it agrees with the Bible, was derived from the teachings of the [[Spanish]]
 
it agrees with the Bible, was derived from the teachings of the [[Spanish]]
priests; but it must be remembered that Ixtlilxochitl was an [[India]]n, a
+
priests; but it must be remembered that Ixtlilxochitl was an [[Indian]], a
 
native of Tezeuco, a son of the queen, and that his "Relaciones" were
 
native of Tezeuco, a son of the queen, and that his "Relaciones" were
 
drawn from the archives of his family and the ancient writings of his
 
drawn from the archives of his family and the ancient writings of his
Line 3,062: Line 2,316:
 
is seated on a rainbow. He opened a breach in the earth at Tequendama,
 
is seated on a rainbow. He opened a breach in the earth at Tequendama,
 
through which the waters of the flood escaped, precisely as we have seen
 
through which the waters of the flood escaped, precisely as we have seen
them disappearing through the crevice in the earth near Bambyce, in
+
them disappearing through the crevice in the earth near [[Bambyce]], in
Greece.
+
[[Greece]].
  
 
The Toltecs traced their migrations back to a starting-point called
 
The Toltecs traced their migrations back to a starting-point called
Line 3,120: Line 2,374:
 
crocodile, the king of the rivers. In the midst of these symbols you
 
crocodile, the king of the rivers. In the midst of these symbols you
 
notice the profile of a man with a fillet, and a smaller one of a woman.
 
notice the profile of a man with a fillet, and a smaller one of a woman.
There can be no doubt these are the [[Mexican]] Noah, Coxcox, and his wife,
+
There can be no doubt these are the [[Mexican]] [[Noah]], Coxcox, and his wife,
 
Xochiquetzal; and at the same time it is evident (the Calendar stone, we
 
Xochiquetzal; and at the same time it is evident (the Calendar stone, we
 
know, was made in A.D., 1478) that the story of them, and the pictures
 
know, was made in A.D., 1478) that the story of them, and the pictures
Line 3,128: Line 2,382:
 
The above figure represents the Flood tablet on the great Calendar stone.
 
The above figure represents the Flood tablet on the great Calendar stone.
  
When we turn to the uncivilized [[India]]ns of [[America]], while we still find
+
When we turn to the uncivilized [[Indian]]s of [[America]], while we still find
 
legends referring to the [[Deluge]], they are, with one exception, in such
 
legends referring to the [[Deluge]], they are, with one exception, in such
 
garbled and uncouth forms that we can only see glimpses of the truth
 
garbled and uncouth forms that we can only see glimpses of the truth
 
shining through a mass of fable.
 
shining through a mass of fable.
  
The following tradition was current among the [[India]]ns of the Great Lakes:
+
The following tradition was current among the [[Indian]]s of the Great Lakes:
  
"In former times the father of the [[India]]n tribes dwelt toward the rising
+
"In former times the father of the [[Indian]] tribes dwelt toward the rising
 
sun. Having been warned in a dream that a [[Deluge]] was coming upon the
 
sun. Having been warned in a dream that a [[Deluge]] was coming upon the
 
earth, he built a raft, on which he saved himself, with his family and
 
earth, he built a raft, on which he saved himself, with his family and
Line 3,154: Line 2,408:
 
founder of existing society.
 
founder of existing society.
  
A clergyman who visited the [[India]]ns north-west of the [[Ohio]] in 1764 met,
+
A clergyman who visited the [[Indian]]s north-west of the [[Ohio]] in 1764 met,
at a treaty, a party of [[India]]ns from the west of the [[Mississippi]].
+
at a treaty, a party of [[Indian]]s from the west of the [[Mississippi]].
  
 
"They informed him that one of their most ancient traditions was that, a
 
"They informed him that one of their most ancient traditions was that, a
Line 3,166: Line 2,420:
 
spirituous liquors among them, made them drunk, stole the special gift
 
spirituous liquors among them, made them drunk, stole the special gift
 
of the Great Spirit from them, and by this means usurped power over
 
of the Great Spirit from them, and by this means usurped power over
them; and ever since the [[India]]ns' heads were under the white people's
+
them; and ever since the [[Indian]]s' heads were under the white people's
 
feet." (Boudinot's "Star in the West," p. 111.)
 
feet." (Boudinot's "Star in the West," p. 111.)
  
Line 3,179: Line 2,433:
 
In 1836 C. S. Rafinesque published in Philadelphia, Pa., a work called
 
In 1836 C. S. Rafinesque published in Philadelphia, Pa., a work called
 
"The [[America]]n Nations," in which he gives the historical songs or chants
 
"The [[America]]n Nations," in which he gives the historical songs or chants
of the Lenni-Lenapi, or Delaware [[India]]ns, the tribe that originally
+
of the Lenni-Lenapi, or Delaware [[Indian]]s, the tribe that originally
 
dwelt along the Delaware River. After describing a time "when there was
 
dwelt along the Delaware River. After describing a time "when there was
 
nothing but sea-water on top of the land," and the creation of sun,
 
nothing but sea-water on top of the land," and the creation of sun,
Line 3,233: Line 2,487:
 
introduced, and was associated, as in [[Genesis]], with the "fall of man;"
 
introduced, and was associated, as in [[Genesis]], with the "fall of man;"
 
Nana-Bush became the ancestor of the new race; his name reminds us of
 
Nana-Bush became the ancestor of the new race; his name reminds us of
the Toltec Nata and the Hebrew Noah. After the flood came a dispersing
+
the Toltec Nata and the Hebrew [[Noah]]. After the flood came a dispersing
 
of the people, and a separation into hunters and tillers of the soil.
 
of the people, and a separation into hunters and tillers of the soil.
  
Among the Mandan [[India]]ns we not only find flood legends, but, more
+
Among the Mandan [[Indian]]s we not only find flood legends, but, more
 
remarkable still, we find an image of the ark preserved from generation
 
remarkable still, we find an image of the ark preserved from generation
 
to generation, and a religious ceremony performed which refers plainly
 
to generation, and a religious ceremony performed which refers plainly
Line 3,242: Line 2,496:
 
escaped from the Flood, bringing the dreadful tidings of the disaster.
 
escaped from the Flood, bringing the dreadful tidings of the disaster.
 
It must be remembered, as we will show hereafter, that many of these
 
It must be remembered, as we will show hereafter, that many of these
Mandan [[India]]ns were white men, with hazel, gray, and blue eyes, and all
+
Mandan [[Indian]]s were white men, with hazel, gray, and blue eyes, and all
 
shades of color of the hair from black to pure white; that they dwelt in
 
shades of color of the hair from black to pure white; that they dwelt in
 
houses in fortified towns, and manufactured earthen-ware pots in which
 
houses in fortified towns, and manufactured earthen-ware pots in which
they could boil water--an art unknown to the ordinary [[India]]ns, who
+
they could boil water--an art unknown to the ordinary [[Indian]]s, who
 
boiled water by putting heated stones into it.
 
boiled water by putting heated stones into it.
  
 
I quote the very interesting account of George Catlin, who visited the
 
I quote the very interesting account of George Catlin, who visited the
 
Mandans nearly fifty years ago, lately republished in [[London]] in the
 
Mandans nearly fifty years ago, lately republished in [[London]] in the
"[[North America]]n [[India]]ns," a very curious and valuable work. He says
+
"[[North America]]n [[Indian]]s," a very curious and valuable work. He says
 
(vol. i., p. 88):
 
(vol. i., p. 88):
  
Line 3,267: Line 2,521:
 
processions a model of the ark of [[Deucalion]]. But it is indeed surprising
 
processions a model of the ark of [[Deucalion]]. But it is indeed surprising
 
to find this practice perpetuated, even to our own times, by a race of
 
to find this practice perpetuated, even to our own times, by a race of
[[India]]ns in the heart of [[America]]. On page 158 of the first volume of the
+
[[Indian]]s in the heart of [[America]]. On page 158 of the first volume of the
 
same work Catlin describes the great annual mysteries and religious
 
same work Catlin describes the great annual mysteries and religious
 
ceremonials of which this image of the ark was the centre. He says:
 
ceremonials of which this image of the ark was the centre. He says:
Line 3,320: Line 2,574:
 
themselves according to the four cardinal points; two are painted
 
themselves according to the four cardinal points; two are painted
 
perfectly black, two are vermilion color, some were painted partially
 
perfectly black, two are vermilion color, some were painted partially
white. They dance a dance called Bel-lohck-na-pie,'" with horns on their
+
white. They dance a dance called [[Bel]]-lohck-na-pie,'" with horns on their
heads, like those used in [[Europe]] as symbolical of Bel, or Baal.
+
heads, like those used in [[Europe]] as symbolical of [[Bel]], or Baal.
  
 
Could anything be more evident than the connection of these ceremonies
 
Could anything be more evident than the connection of these ceremonies
Line 3,329: Line 2,583:
 
himself; here we have the sacrifice to appease the spirit that caused
 
himself; here we have the sacrifice to appease the spirit that caused
 
the Flood, just as we find the Flood terminating, in the Hebrew,
 
the Flood, just as we find the Flood terminating, in the Hebrew,
Chaldean, and Central [[America]]n legends, with a sacrifice. Here, too, we
+
[[Chaldean]], and Central [[America]]n legends, with a sacrifice. Here, too, we
 
have the image of the tortoise, which we find in other flood legends of
 
have the image of the tortoise, which we find in other flood legends of
the [[India]]ns, and which is a very natural symbol for an island. As one of
+
the [[Indian]]s, and which is a very natural symbol for an island. As one of
 
our own poets has expressed it,
 
our own poets has expressed it,
  
Line 3,373: Line 2,627:
 
whereupon some mishap cut them off from the mother country. This
 
whereupon some mishap cut them off from the mother country. This
 
explanation is confirmed by the fact that in the legends of the [[Iowa]]
 
explanation is confirmed by the fact that in the legends of the [[Iowa]]
[[India]]ns, who were a branch of the Dakotas, or Sioux [[India]]ns, and
+
[[Indian]]s, who were a branch of the Dakotas, or Sioux [[Indian]]s, and
 
relatives of the Mandans (according to Major James W. Lynd), "all the
 
relatives of the Mandans (according to Major James W. Lynd), "all the
tribes of [[India]]ns were formerly one, and all dwelt together on an
+
tribes of [[Indian]]s were formerly one, and all dwelt together on an
 
island, or at least across a large water toward the east or sunrise.
 
island, or at least across a large water toward the east or sunrise.
 
They crossed this water in skin canoes, or by swimming; but they know
 
They crossed this water in skin canoes, or by swimming; but they know
Line 3,416: Line 2,670:
 
     | He.                  | E.          | A.        | A.          |
 
     | He.                  | E.          | A.        | A.          |
 
     +----------------------+--------------+------------+-------------+
 
     +----------------------+--------------+------------+-------------+
     | She.                | Ea.          | E.        | A.          |
+
     | She.                | [[Ea]].          | E.        | A.          |
 
     +----------------------+--------------+------------+-------------+
 
     +----------------------+--------------+------------+-------------+
 
     | It.                  | Ount.        | Hwynt.    | Hooynt.    |
 
     | It.                  | Ount.        | Hwynt.    | Hooynt.    |
Line 3,540: Line 2,794:
 
(Bancroft's "Native Races," vol. iii., p. 76.)
 
(Bancroft's "Native Races," vol. iii., p. 76.)
  
The Pimas, an [[India]]n tribe allied to the Papagos, have a peculiar flood
+
The Pimas, an [[Indian]] tribe allied to the Papagos, have a peculiar flood
 
legend. The son of the Creator was called Szeu-kha (Ze-us?). An eagle
 
legend. The son of the Creator was called Szeu-kha (Ze-us?). An eagle
 
prophesied the [[Deluge]] to the prophet of the people three times in
 
prophesied the [[Deluge]] to the prophet of the people three times in
Line 3,578: Line 2,832:
  
 
In the island of Dominica, one of the islands constituting the Leeward
 
In the island of Dominica, one of the islands constituting the Leeward
group of the West Indies, and nearest to the site of [[Atlantis]], on the
+
group of the [[West Indies]], and nearest to the site of [[Atlantis]], on the
 
4th of January, 1880, occurred a series of convulsions which reminds us
 
4th of January, 1880, occurred a series of convulsions which reminds us
 
forcibly of the destruction of [[Plato]]'s island; and the similarity
 
forcibly of the destruction of [[Plato]]'s island; and the similarity
Line 3,663: Line 2,917:
 
"like a water-spout," and then fallen in showers over the face of the
 
"like a water-spout," and then fallen in showers over the face of the
 
country. We are reminded, in this Boiling Lake of Dominica, of the Welsh
 
country. We are reminded, in this Boiling Lake of Dominica, of the Welsh
legend of the eruption of the Llyn-llion, "the Lake of Waves," which
+
legend of the eruption of the [[Llyn-llion]], "the Lake of Waves," which
 
"inundated the whole country." On the top of a mountain in the county of
 
"inundated the whole country." On the top of a mountain in the county of
 
Kerry, [[Ireland]], called Mangerton, there is a deep lake known as
 
Kerry, [[Ireland]], called Mangerton, there is a deep lake known as
Line 3,674: Line 2,928:
 
accompanied by a tremendous outpour of water from one or more of its
 
accompanied by a tremendous outpour of water from one or more of its
 
volcanoes, thrown to a great height, and deluging the land, we can
 
volcanoes, thrown to a great height, and deluging the land, we can
understand the description in the Chaldean legend of "the terrible
+
understand the description in the [[Chaldean]] legend of "the terrible
 
water-spout," which even "the gods grew afraid of," and which "rose to
 
water-spout," which even "the gods grew afraid of," and which "rose to
 
the sky," and which seems to have been one of the chief causes, together
 
the sky," and which seems to have been one of the chief causes, together
 
with the earthquake, of the destruction of the country. And in this view
 
with the earthquake, of the destruction of the country. And in this view
 
we are confirmed by the Aramaean legend of the [[Deluge]], probably derived
 
we are confirmed by the Aramaean legend of the [[Deluge]], probably derived
at an earlier age from the Chaldean tradition. In it we are told, "All
+
at an earlier age from the [[Chaldean]] tradition. In it we are told, "All
 
on a sudden enormous volumes of water issued from the earth, and rains
 
on a sudden enormous volumes of water issued from the earth, and rains
 
of extraordinary abundance began to fall; the rivers left their beds,
 
of extraordinary abundance began to fall; the rivers left their beds,
Line 3,696: Line 2,950:
 
stopped." This is a reminiscence by an inland people, living where such
 
stopped." This is a reminiscence by an inland people, living where such
 
tremendous volcanic disturbances were nearly unknown, of the terrible
 
tremendous volcanic disturbances were nearly unknown, of the terrible
water-spout which "rose to the sky," of the Chaldean legend, and of "the
+
water-spout which "rose to the sky," of the [[Chaldean]] legend, and of "the
 
enormous volumes of water issuing from the earth" of the Aramaean
 
enormous volumes of water issuing from the earth" of the Aramaean
 
tradition. The [[Hindoo]] legend of the Flood speaks of "the marine god
 
tradition. The [[Hindoo]] legend of the Flood speaks of "the marine god
Hayagriva, who dwelt in the abyss," who produced the cataclysm. This is
+
[[Hayagriva]], who dwelt in the abyss," who produced the cataclysm. This is
doubtless "the archangel of the abyss" spoken of in the Chaldean
+
doubtless "the archangel of the abyss" spoken of in the [[Chaldean]]
 
tradition.
 
tradition.
  
Line 3,717: Line 2,971:
  
 
In the [[Hindoo]] legend we find the fish-god, who represents [[Poseidon]],
 
In the [[Hindoo]] legend we find the fish-god, who represents [[Poseidon]],
father of [[Atlantis]], helping Mann over "the Mountain of the North." In
+
father of [[Atlantis]], helping [[Manu]] over "the Mountain of the North." In
the Chaldean legend Khasisatra's vessel is stopped by "the Mountain of
+
the [[Chaldean]] legend [[Khasisatra]]'s vessel is stopped by "the Mountain of
Nizir" until the sea goes down.
+
[[Nizir]]" until the sea goes down.
  
 
The Mud which Stopped Navigation.--We are told by [[Plato]], "[[Atlantis]]
 
The Mud which Stopped Navigation.--We are told by [[Plato]], "[[Atlantis]]
Line 3,726: Line 2,980:
 
the ingulfed island left in its place." This is one of the points of
 
the ingulfed island left in its place." This is one of the points of
 
[[Plato]]'s story which provoked the incredulity and ridicule of the
 
[[Plato]]'s story which provoked the incredulity and ridicule of the
ancient, and even of the modern, world. We find in the Chaldean legend
+
ancient, and even of the modern, world. We find in the [[Chaldean]] legend
something of the same kind: Khasisatra says, "I looked at the sea
+
something of the same kind: [[Khasisatra]] says, "I looked at the sea
 
attentively, observing, and the whole of humanity had returned to mud."
 
attentively, observing, and the whole of humanity had returned to mud."
 
In the "Popol Vuh" we are told that a "resinous thickness descended from
 
In the "Popol Vuh" we are told that a "resinous thickness descended from
Line 3,773: Line 3,027:
 
writing.
 
writing.
  
Now, we find in the [[Egyptian]] legends a passage of Manetho, in which
+
Now, we find in the [[Egyptian]] legends a passage of [[Manetho]], in which
Thoth (or Hermes Trismegistus), before the [[Deluge]], inscribed on stelae,
+
[[Thoth]] (or [[Hermes Trismegistus]]), before the [[Deluge]], inscribed on stelae,
 
or tablets, in hieroglyphics, or sacred characters, the principles of
 
or tablets, in hieroglyphics, or sacred characters, the principles of
all knowledge. After the [[Deluge]] the second Thoth translated the contents
+
all knowledge. After the [[Deluge]] the second [[Thoth]] translated the contents
 
of these stelae into the vulgar tongue.
 
of these stelae into the vulgar tongue.
  
Line 3,785: Line 3,039:
 
which existed in the Siriadic country."
 
which existed in the Siriadic country."
  
In the Chaldean legends the god Ea ordered Khasisatra to inscribe the
+
In the [[Chaldean]] legends the god [[Ea]] ordered [[Khasisatra]] to inscribe the
 
divine learning, and the principles of all sciences, on tables of
 
divine learning, and the principles of all sciences, on tables of
terra-cotta, and bury them, before the [[Deluge]], "in the City of the Sun
+
terra-cotta, and bury them, before the [[Deluge]], "in the [[City of the Sun]]
at Sippara."
+
at [[Sippara]]."
  
[[Berosus]], in his version of the Chaldean flood, says:
+
[[Berosus]], in his version of the [[Chaldean]] flood, says:
  
"The deity, Chronos, appeared to him (Xisuthros) in a vision, and warned
+
"The deity, [[Chronos]], appeared to him ([[Xisuthros]]) in a vision, and warned
 
him that, upon the 15th day of the month Doesius, there would be a flood
 
him that, upon the 15th day of the month Doesius, there would be a flood
 
by which mankind would be destroyed. He therefore enjoined him to write
 
by which mankind would be destroyed. He therefore enjoined him to write
 
a history of the beginning, procedure, and conclusion of all things, and
 
a history of the beginning, procedure, and conclusion of all things, and
to bury it in the City of the Sun at Sippara, and to build a vessel,"
+
to bury it in the [[City of the Sun]] at [[Sippara]], and to build a vessel,"
 
etc.
 
etc.
  
The [[Hindoo]] Bhagavata-Purana tells us that the fish-god, who warned
+
The [[Hindoo]] [[Bhagavata-Purana]] tells us that the fish-god, who warned
Satyravata of the coming of the Flood, directed him to place the sacred
+
[[Satyravata]] of the coming of the Flood, directed him to place the sacred
Scriptures in a safe place, "in order to preserve them from Hayagriva, a
+
Scriptures in a safe place, "in order to preserve them from [[Hayagriva]], a
 
marine [[Horse]] dwelling in the abyss."
 
marine [[Horse]] dwelling in the abyss."
  
Line 3,835: Line 3,089:
 
destroyed; but some escaped in ships, and some fled for safety to the
 
destroyed; but some escaped in ships, and some fled for safety to the
 
summits of high mountains, or to portions of the land which for a time
 
summits of high mountains, or to portions of the land which for a time
escaped immediate destruction." (Baldwin's "Ancient [[America]]," p. 176.)
+
escaped immediate destruction." ([[Baldwin]]'s "Ancient [[America]]," p. 176.)
  
 
This accords precisely with the teachings of geology. We know that the
 
This accords precisely with the teachings of geology. We know that the
Line 3,864: Line 3,118:
  
 
And the same succession of destructions is referred to in the [[Greek]]
 
And the same succession of destructions is referred to in the [[Greek]]
legends, where a [[Deluge]] of Ogyges--"the most ancient of the kings of
+
legends, where a [[Deluge]] of [[Ogyges]]--"the most ancient of the kings of
Boeotia or Attica, a quite mythical person, lost in the night of
+
[[Boeotia]] or [[Attica]], a quite mythical person, lost in the night of
 
ages"--preceded that of [[Deucalion]].
 
ages"--preceded that of [[Deucalion]].
  
Line 3,887: Line 3,141:
 
the new.
 
the new.
  
PART III
+
==PART III==
  
 
THE CIVILIZATION OF THE OLD WORLD AND NEW COMPARED.
 
THE CIVILIZATION OF THE OLD WORLD AND NEW COMPARED.
Line 3,940: Line 3,194:
 
which it received from [[Atlantis]].
 
which it received from [[Atlantis]].
  
Phoenicia, [[Egypt]], [[Chaldea]], [[India]], Greece, and Rome passed the torch of
+
Phoenicia, [[Egypt]], [[Chaldea]], [[India]], [[Greece]], and Rome passed the torch of
 
civilization from one to the other; but in all that lapse of time they
 
civilization from one to the other; but in all that lapse of time they
 
added nothing to the arts which existed at the earliest period of
 
added nothing to the arts which existed at the earliest period of
Line 3,975: Line 3,229:
  
 
"At the epoch of Menes," says [[Winchell]], "the [[Egyptians]] were already a
 
"At the epoch of Menes," says [[Winchell]], "the [[Egyptians]] were already a
civilized and numerous people. Manetho tells us that Athotis, the son of
+
civilized and numerous people. [[Manetho]] tells us that Athotis, the son of
 
this first king, Menes, built the palace at Memphis; that he was a
 
this first king, Menes, built the palace at Memphis; that he was a
 
physician, and left anatomical books. All these statements imply that
 
physician, and left anatomical books. All these statements imply that
Line 3,999: Line 3,253:
 
[[Egyptian]] people were unable to maintain it at the high standard at which
 
[[Egyptian]] people were unable to maintain it at the high standard at which
 
they had received it, as depicted in the pages of [[Plato]]. What king of
 
they had received it, as depicted in the pages of [[Plato]]. What king of
Assyria, or Greece, or Rome, or even of these modern nations, has ever
+
[[Assyria]], or [[Greece]], or Rome, or even of these modern nations, has ever
 
devoted himself to the study of medicine and the writing of medical
 
devoted himself to the study of medicine and the writing of medical
 
books for the benefit of mankind? Their mission has been to kill, not to
 
books for the benefit of mankind? Their mission has been to kill, not to
Line 4,029: Line 3,283:
 
reservoir, wherein other springs have, for a multitude of centuries,
 
reservoir, wherein other springs have, for a multitude of centuries,
 
discharged their several streams." In other words, the capacity of the
 
discharged their several streams." In other words, the capacity of the
[[Egyptian]], [[Aryan]], Chaldean, [[Chinese]], Saxon, and Celt to maintain
+
[[Egyptian]], [[Aryan]], [[Chaldean]], [[Chinese]], Saxon, and Celt to maintain
 
civilization is simply the result of civilized training during "myriads
 
civilization is simply the result of civilized training during "myriads
 
of centuries" in some original home of the race.
 
of centuries" in some original home of the race.
Line 4,070: Line 3,324:
 
swords in the battle of the Grampians--"enormes gladii sine mucrone."
 
swords in the battle of the Grampians--"enormes gladii sine mucrone."
 
The Celts of [[Gaul]] are stated by [[Diodorus Siculus]] to have used
 
The Celts of [[Gaul]] are stated by [[Diodorus Siculus]] to have used
iron-headed spears and coats-of-mail, and the [[Gauls]] who encountered the
+
iron-headed spears and c[[Oats]]-of-mail, and the [[Gauls]] who encountered the
 
[[Roman]] arms in B.C. 222 were armed with soft iron swords, as well as at
 
[[Roman]] arms in B.C. 222 were armed with soft iron swords, as well as at
 
the time when Caesar conquered their country. Among the [[Gauls]] men would
 
the time when Caesar conquered their country. Among the [[Gauls]] men would
Line 4,092: Line 3,346:
 
consider the resemblance of the civilizations of the [[Mediterranean]]
 
consider the resemblance of the civilizations of the [[Mediterranean]]
 
nations to one another, no man is silly enough to pretend that Rome,
 
nations to one another, no man is silly enough to pretend that Rome,
Greece, [[Egypt]], Assyria, Phoenicia, each spontaneously and separately
+
[[Greece]], [[Egypt]], [[Assyria]], Phoenicia, each spontaneously and separately
 
invented the arts, sciences, habits, and opinions in which they agreed;
 
invented the arts, sciences, habits, and opinions in which they agreed;
 
but we proceed to trace out the thread of descent or connection from one
 
but we proceed to trace out the thread of descent or connection from one
Line 4,147: Line 3,401:
 
Hector. Alexander the Great raised a great mound over his friend
 
Hector. Alexander the Great raised a great mound over his friend
 
Hephaestion, at a cost of more than a million dollars; and Semiramis
 
Hephaestion, at a cost of more than a million dollars; and Semiramis
raised a similar mound over her husband. The pyramids of [[Egypt]], Assyria,
+
raised a similar mound over her husband. The pyramids of [[Egypt]], [[Assyria]],
 
and Phoenicia had their duplicates in [[Mexico]] and Central [[America]].
 
and Phoenicia had their duplicates in [[Mexico]] and Central [[America]].
  
Line 4,154: Line 3,408:
 
The grave-cists made of stone of the [[America]]n mounds are exactly like
 
The grave-cists made of stone of the [[America]]n mounds are exactly like
 
the stone chests, or kistvaen for the dead, found in the [[British]] mounds.
 
the stone chests, or kistvaen for the dead, found in the [[British]] mounds.
(Fosters "Prehistoric Races," p. 109.) Tumuli have been found in
+
(Fosters "Prehistoric Races," p. 109.) [[tumuli]] have been found in
 
Yorkshire enclosing wooden coffins, precisely as in the mounds of the
 
Yorkshire enclosing wooden coffins, precisely as in the mounds of the
 
[[Mississippi]] Valley. (Ibid., p. 185.) The articles associated with the
 
[[Mississippi]] Valley. (Ibid., p. 185.) The articles associated with the
 
dead are the same in both continents: arms, trinkets, food, clothes, and
 
dead are the same in both continents: arms, trinkets, food, clothes, and
funeral urns. In both the [[Mississippi]] Valley and among the [[Chaldeans]]
+
funeral urns. In both the [[Mississippi]] Valley and among the [[Chaldean]]s
 
vases were constructed around the bones, the neck of the vase being too
 
vases were constructed around the bones, the neck of the vase being too
 
small to permit the extraction of the skull. (Foster's "Prehistoric
 
small to permit the extraction of the skull. (Foster's "Prehistoric
Line 4,195: Line 3,449:
 
symbolic adornments of [[Egyptian]] and [[Hindoo]] priests, and even those of
 
symbolic adornments of [[Egyptian]] and [[Hindoo]] priests, and even those of
 
the Hebrew hierarchy." Dr. Schott sees in the orbicular wheel-like
 
the Hebrew hierarchy." Dr. Schott sees in the orbicular wheel-like
plates of this statue the wheel symbol of Kronos and Saturn; and, in
+
plates of this statue the wheel symbol of Kronos and [[Saturn]]; and, in
 
turn, it may be supposed that the wheel of Kronos was simply the cross
 
turn, it may be supposed that the wheel of Kronos was simply the cross
 
of [[Atlantis]], surrounded by its encircling ring.
 
of [[Atlantis]], surrounded by its encircling ring.
Line 4,205: Line 3,459:
 
Engraving.--[[Plato]] tells us that the [[Atlantean]]s engraved upon pillars.
 
Engraving.--[[Plato]] tells us that the [[Atlantean]]s engraved upon pillars.
 
The [[America]]n nations also had this art in common with [[Egypt]], Phoenicia,
 
The [[America]]n nations also had this art in common with [[Egypt]], Phoenicia,
and Assyria.
+
and [[Assyria]].
  
 
Agriculture.--The people of [[Atlantis]] were pre-eminently an agricultural
 
Agriculture.--The people of [[Atlantis]] were pre-eminently an agricultural
Line 4,227: Line 3,481:
 
both in [[Peru]] and [[Mexico]], a system of posts, by means of which news was
 
both in [[Peru]] and [[Mexico]], a system of posts, by means of which news was
 
transmitted hundreds of miles in a day, precisely like those known among
 
transmitted hundreds of miles in a day, precisely like those known among
the Persians in the time of [[Herodotus]], and subsequently among the
+
the [[Persians]] in the time of [[Herodotus]], and subsequently among the
 
Romans. Stones similar to mile-stones were placed along the roads in
 
Romans. Stones similar to mile-stones were placed along the roads in
 
[[Peru]]. (See [[Prescott]]'s's "[[Peru]],")
 
[[Peru]]. (See [[Prescott]]'s's "[[Peru]],")
Line 4,238: Line 3,492:
 
                   ANCIENT [IRISH]] VASE OF THE [[BRONZE AGE]]
 
                   ANCIENT [IRISH]] VASE OF THE [[BRONZE AGE]]
  
Mannfactures.--The [[America]]n nations manufactured woollen and cotton
+
[[Manu]]factures.--The [[America]]n nations manufactured woollen and [[Cotton]]
 
goods; they made pottery as beautiful as the wares of [[Egypt]]; they
 
goods; they made pottery as beautiful as the wares of [[Egypt]]; they
 
manufactured glass; they engraved gems and precious stones. The
 
manufactured glass; they engraved gems and precious stones. The
Line 4,284: Line 3,538:
 
[[Egyptians]], mummified their dead by taking out the bowels and replacing
 
[[Egyptians]], mummified their dead by taking out the bowels and replacing
 
them with aromatic substances. (Dorman, "Origin Prim. Superst.," p.
 
them with aromatic substances. (Dorman, "Origin Prim. Superst.," p.
173.) The bodies of the kings of the [[Virginia]] [[India]]ns were preserved by
+
173.) The bodies of the kings of the [[Virginia]] [[Indian]]s were preserved by
 
embalming. (Beverly, p. 47.)
 
embalming. (Beverly, p. 47.)
  
Line 4,299: Line 3,553:
 
death if they violated their vows. In both hemispheres the recreant were
 
death if they violated their vows. In both hemispheres the recreant were
 
destroyed by being buried alive. The [[Peruvian]]s, [[Mexican]]s, Central
 
destroyed by being buried alive. The [[Peruvian]]s, [[Mexican]]s, Central
[[America]]ns, [[Egyptians]], [[Phoenician]]s, and Hebrews each had a powerful
+
[[America]]ns, [[Egyptians]], [[Phoenician]]s, and [[Hebrews]] each had a powerful
 
hereditary priesthood.
 
hereditary priesthood.
  
Line 4,324: Line 3,578:
 
encountered, as in the [[Egyptian]] story, one of "the bodies moving round
 
encountered, as in the [[Egyptian]] story, one of "the bodies moving round
 
the earth and in the heavens;" they had also memories of "the Drift
 
the earth and in the heavens;" they had also memories of "the Drift
Period," and of the outburst of Plutonic rocks. If man has existed on
+
Period," and of the outburst of [[Pluto]]nic rocks. If man has existed on
 
the earth as long as science asserts, he must have passed through many
 
the earth as long as science asserts, he must have passed through many
 
of the great catastrophes which are written upon the face of the planet;
 
of the great catastrophes which are written upon the face of the planet;
Line 4,365: Line 3,619:
 
"Anthropology," p. 262.)
 
"Anthropology," p. 262.)
  
A belief in ghosts is found on both continents. The [[America]]n [[India]]ns
+
A belief in ghosts is found on both continents. The [[America]]n [[Indian]]s
 
think that the spirits of the dead retain the form and features which
 
think that the spirits of the dead retain the form and features which
 
they wore while living; that there is a hell and a heaven; that hell is
 
they wore while living; that there is a hell and a heaven; that hell is
Line 4,386: Line 3,640:
 
and wild beasts. (Dorman, "Prim. Superst.," p. 50.)
 
and wild beasts. (Dorman, "Prim. Superst.," p. 50.)
  
Among both the [[Germans]] and the [[America]]n [[India]]ns lycanthropy, or the
+
Among both the [[Germans]] and the [[America]]n [[Indian]]s lycanthropy, or the
 
metamorphosis of men into wolves, was believed in. In [[British]] Columbia
 
metamorphosis of men into wolves, was believed in. In [[British]] Columbia
 
the men-wolves have often been seen seated around a fire, with their
 
the men-wolves have often been seen seated around a fire, with their
Line 4,412: Line 3,666:
 
The witches of [[Scandinavia]], who produced tempests by their incantations,
 
The witches of [[Scandinavia]], who produced tempests by their incantations,
 
are duplicated in [[America]]. A Cree sorcerer sold three days of fair
 
are duplicated in [[America]]. A Cree sorcerer sold three days of fair
weather for one pound of [[Tobacco]]! The [[India]]n sorcerers around Freshwater
+
weather for one pound of [[Tobacco]]! The [[Indian]] sorcerers around Freshwater
 
Bay kept the winds in leather bags, and disposed of them as they pleased.
 
Bay kept the winds in leather bags, and disposed of them as they pleased.
  
Among the [[America]]n [[India]]ns it is believed that those who are insane or
+
Among the [[America]]n [[Indian]]s it is believed that those who are insane or
 
epileptic are "possessed of devils." (Tylor, "Prim. Cult.," vol. ii.,
 
epileptic are "possessed of devils." (Tylor, "Prim. Cult.," vol. ii.,
 
pp. 123-126.) Sickness is caused by evil spirits entering into the sick
 
pp. 123-126.) Sickness is caused by evil spirits entering into the sick
Line 4,482: Line 3,736:
 
the multitude, and vanished from sight in the midst of sweet music.
 
the multitude, and vanished from sight in the midst of sweet music.
  
The vocal statues and oracles of [[Egypt]] and Greece were duplicated in
+
The vocal statues and oracles of [[Egypt]] and [[Greece]] were duplicated in
 
[[America]]. In [[Peru]], in the valley of Rimac, there was an idol which
 
[[America]]. In [[Peru]], in the valley of Rimac, there was an idol which
 
answered questions and became famous as an oracle. (Dorman, "Prim.
 
answered questions and became famous as an oracle. (Dorman, "Prim.
Line 4,493: Line 3,747:
  
 
Witchcraft is an article of faith among all the [[America]]n races. Among
 
Witchcraft is an article of faith among all the [[America]]n races. Among
the [[Illinois]] [[India]]ns "they made small images to represent those whose
+
the [[Illinois]] [[Indian]]s "they made small images to represent those whose
 
days they have a mind to shorten, and which they stab to the heart,"
 
days they have a mind to shorten, and which they stab to the heart,"
 
whereupon the person represented is expected to die. (Charlevoix, vol.
 
whereupon the person represented is expected to die. (Charlevoix, vol.
Line 4,502: Line 3,756:
 
A writer in the Popular Science Monthly (April, 1881, p. 828) points out
 
A writer in the Popular Science Monthly (April, 1881, p. 828) points out
 
the fact that there is an absolute identity between the folk-lore of the
 
the fact that there is an absolute identity between the folk-lore of the
negroes on the plantations of the South and the myths and stories of
+
[[negroes]] on the plantations of the South and the myths and stories of
certain tribes of [[India]]ns in [[South America]], as revealed by Mr. Herbert
+
certain tribes of [[Indian]]s in [[South America]], as revealed by Mr. Herbert
 
Smith's "[[Brazil]], the [[Amazon]]s, and the Coast." (New York: Scribner,
 
Smith's "[[Brazil]], the [[Amazon]]s, and the Coast." (New York: Scribner,
1879.) Mr. Harris, the author of a work on the folk-lore of the negroes,
+
1879.) Mr. Harris, the author of a work on the folk-lore of the [[negroes]],
asks this question, "When did the negro or the [[North America]]n [[India]]n
+
asks this question, "When did the negro or the [[North America]]n [[Indian]]
 
come in contact with the tribes of [[South America]]?"
 
come in contact with the tribes of [[South America]]?"
  
 
Customs.--Both peoples manufactured a fermented, intoxicating drink, the
 
Customs.--Both peoples manufactured a fermented, intoxicating drink, the
one deriving it from barley, the other from [[Maize]]. Both drank toasts.
+
one deriving it from [[Barley]], the other from [[Maize]]. Both drank toasts.
 
Both had the institution of marriage, an important part of the ceremony
 
Both had the institution of marriage, an important part of the ceremony
 
consisting in the joining of hands; both recognized divorce, and the
 
consisting in the joining of hands; both recognized divorce, and the
Line 4,518: Line 3,772:
 
ground before them with leaves and flowers. Both celebrated important
 
ground before them with leaves and flowers. Both celebrated important
 
events with bonfires and illuminations; both used banners, both invoked
 
events with bonfires and illuminations; both used banners, both invoked
blessings. The [[Phoenician]]s, Hebrews, and [[Egyptians]] practised
+
blessings. The [[Phoenician]]s, [[Hebrews]], and [[Egyptians]] practised
 
circumcision. Palacio relates that at Azori, in Honduras, the natives
 
circumcision. Palacio relates that at Azori, in Honduras, the natives
 
circumcised boys before an idol called Icelca. ("Carta," p. 84.) Lord
 
circumcised boys before an idol called Icelca. ("Carta," p. 84.) Lord
Line 4,535: Line 3,789:
 
[[European]] nations were divided into castes; both practised
 
[[European]] nations were divided into castes; both practised
 
planet-worship; both used scales and weights and mirrors. The [[Peruvian]]s,
 
planet-worship; both used scales and weights and mirrors. The [[Peruvian]]s,
[[Egyptians]], and [[Chaldeans]] divided the year into twelve months, and the
+
[[Egyptians]], and [[Chaldean]]s divided the year into twelve months, and the
 
months into lesser divisions of weeks. Both inserted additional days, so
 
months into lesser divisions of weeks. Both inserted additional days, so
 
as to give the year three hundred and sixty-five days. The [[Mexican]]s
 
as to give the year three hundred and sixty-five days. The [[Mexican]]s
Line 4,544: Line 3,798:
 
discussion ("Vues des Cordilleras," p. 148 et. seq., ed. 1870), has
 
discussion ("Vues des Cordilleras," p. 148 et. seq., ed. 1870), has
 
shown the relative likeness of the Nahua calendar to that of [[Asia]]. He
 
shown the relative likeness of the Nahua calendar to that of [[Asia]]. He
cites the fact that the [[Chinese]], Japanese, Calmucks, Mongols, Mantchou,
+
cites the fact that the [[Chinese]], [[Japanese]], Calmucks, [[Mongol]]s, Mantchou,
 
and other hordes of Tartars have cycles of sixty years' duration,
 
and other hordes of Tartars have cycles of sixty years' duration,
 
divided into five brief periods of twelve years each. The method of
 
divided into five brief periods of twelve years each. The method of
 
citing a date by means of signs and numbers is quite similar with
 
citing a date by means of signs and numbers is quite similar with
Asiatics and [[Mexican]]s. He further shows satisfactorily that the majority
+
[[Asiatic]]s and [[Mexican]]s. He further shows satisfactorily that the majority
 
of the names of the twenty days employed by the [[Aztecs]] are those of a
 
of the names of the twenty days employed by the [[Aztecs]] are those of a
 
zodiac used since the most remote antiquity among the peoples of Eastern
 
zodiac used since the most remote antiquity among the peoples of Eastern
Line 4,574: Line 3,828:
 
The Tartars believe that if they cut with an axe near a fire, or stick a
 
The Tartars believe that if they cut with an axe near a fire, or stick a
 
knife into a burning stick, or touch the fire with a knife, they will
 
knife into a burning stick, or touch the fire with a knife, they will
"cut the top off the fire." The Sioux [[India]]ns will not stick an awl or a
+
"cut the top off the fire." The Sioux [[Indian]]s will not stick an awl or a
 
needle into a stick of wood on the fire, or chop on it with an axe or a
 
needle into a stick of wood on the fire, or chop on it with an axe or a
 
knife.
 
knife.
Line 4,597: Line 3,851:
 
mother has become strong enough to leave her couch, gets into bed
 
mother has become strong enough to leave her couch, gets into bed
 
himself, and there receives the congratulations of his acquaintances."
 
himself, and there receives the congratulations of his acquaintances."
(Max Mueller's "Chips from a [[German]] Workshop," vol. ii., p. 272.) Strabo
+
([[Max Mueller]]'s "Chips from a [[German]] Workshop," vol. ii., p. 272.) Strabo
 
(vol. iii., pp. 4, 17) mentions that, among the Iberians of the North of
 
(vol. iii., pp. 4, 17) mentions that, among the Iberians of the North of
 
[[Spain]], the women, after the birth of a child, tend their husbands,
 
[[Spain]], the women, after the birth of a child, tend their husbands,
Line 4,612: Line 3,866:
 
tied up, while the mother tended him with food and prepared his baths."
 
tied up, while the mother tended him with food and prepared his baths."
 
The same absurd custom extends throughout the tribes of North and South
 
The same absurd custom extends throughout the tribes of North and South
[[America]]. Among the Caribs in the West Indies (and the Caribs, Brasseur
+
[[America]]. Among the Caribs in the [[West Indies]] (and the Caribs, Brasseur
 
de Bourbourg says, were the same as the ancient Carians of the
 
de Bourbourg says, were the same as the ancient Carians of the
 
[[Mediterranean Sea]]) the man takes to his bed as soon as a child is born,
 
[[Mediterranean Sea]]) the man takes to his bed as soon as a child is born,
 
and kills no animals. And herein we find an explanation of a custom
 
and kills no animals. And herein we find an explanation of a custom
otherwise inexplicable. Among the [[America]]n [[India]]ns it is believed that,
+
otherwise inexplicable. Among the [[America]]n [[Indian]]s it is believed that,
 
if the father kills an animal during the infancy of the child, the
 
if the father kills an animal during the infancy of the child, the
 
spirit of the animal will revenge itself by inflicting some disease upon
 
spirit of the animal will revenge itself by inflicting some disease upon
Line 4,639: Line 3,893:
 
imply that the [[America]]n population was the older of the two.
 
imply that the [[America]]n population was the older of the two.
  
The [[India]]n practice of depositing weapons and food with the dead was
+
The [[Indian]] practice of depositing weapons and food with the dead was
 
universal in ancient [[Europe]], and in [[German]] villages nowadays a needle
 
universal in ancient [[Europe]], and in [[German]] villages nowadays a needle
 
and thread is placed in the coffin for the dead to mend their torn
 
and thread is placed in the coffin for the dead to mend their torn
Line 4,645: Line 3,899:
 
put in his hand to pay his way with." ("Anthropology," p. 347.)
 
put in his hand to pay his way with." ("Anthropology," p. 347.)
  
The [[America]]n [[India]]n leaves food with the dead; the Russian peasant puts
+
The [[America]]n [[Indian]] leaves food with the dead; the Russian peasant puts
 
crumbs of bread behind the saints' pictures on the little iron shelf,
 
crumbs of bread behind the saints' pictures on the little iron shelf,
 
and believes that the souls of his forefathers creep in and out and eat
 
and believes that the souls of his forefathers creep in and out and eat
Line 4,654: Line 3,908:
 
p. 351.)
 
p. 351.)
  
The [[India]]n prays to the spirits of his forefathers; the [[Chinese]] religion
+
The [[Indian]] prays to the spirits of his forefathers; the [[Chinese]] religion
 
is largely "ancestor-worship;" and the rites paid to the dead ancestors,
 
is largely "ancestor-worship;" and the rites paid to the dead ancestors,
 
or lares, held the [[Roman]] family together." ("Anthropology," p. 351.)
 
or lares, held the [[Roman]] family together." ("Anthropology," p. 351.)
  
We find the [[India]]n practice of burying the dead in a sitting posture in
+
We find the [[Indian]] practice of burying the dead in a sitting posture in
 
use among the Nasamonians, tribe of [[Libya]]ns. [[Herodotus]], speaking of the
 
use among the Nasamonians, tribe of [[Libya]]ns. [[Herodotus]], speaking of the
 
wandering tribes of Northern [[Africa]], says, "They bury their dead
 
wandering tribes of Northern [[Africa]], says, "They bury their dead
Line 4,696: Line 3,950:
  
 
"The bark canoe of [[America]] was not unknown in [[Asia]] and [[Africa]]" (Ibid.,
 
"The bark canoe of [[America]] was not unknown in [[Asia]] and [[Africa]]" (Ibid.,
p. 254), while the skin canoes of our [[India]]ns and the Esquimaux were
+
p. 254), while the skin canoes of our [[Indian]]s and the Esquimaux were
found on the shores of the Thames and the Euphrates. In [[Peru]] and on the
+
found on the shores of the Thames and the [[Euphrates]]. In [[Peru]] and on the
Euphrates commerce was carried on upon rafts supported by inflated
+
[[Euphrates]] commerce was carried on upon rafts supported by inflated
skins. They are still used on the Tigris.
+
skins. They are still used on the [[Tigris]].
  
The [[India]]n boils his meat by dropping red-hot stones into a water-vessel
+
The [[Indian]] boils his meat by dropping red-hot stones into a water-vessel
 
made of hide; and Linnaeus found the Both land people brewing beer in
 
made of hide; and Linnaeus found the Both land people brewing beer in
 
this way--"and to this day the rude Carinthian boor drinks such
 
this way--"and to this day the rude Carinthian boor drinks such
 
stone-beer, as it is called." (Ibid., p. 266.)
 
stone-beer, as it is called." (Ibid., p. 266.)
  
In the buffalo dance of the Mandan [[India]]ns the dancers covered their
+
In the buffalo dance of the Mandan [[Indian]]s the dancers covered their
 
heads with a mask made of the head and horns of the buffalo. To-day in
 
heads with a mask made of the head and horns of the buffalo. To-day in
 
the temples of [[India]], or among the lamas of Thibet, the priests dance
 
the temples of [[India]], or among the lamas of Thibet, the priests dance
Line 4,715: Line 3,969:
 
in the [[Greek]] dances at the festivals of Dionysia. (Ibid., p. 298.)
 
in the [[Greek]] dances at the festivals of Dionysia. (Ibid., p. 298.)
  
Tattooing was practised in both continents. Among the [[India]]ns it was
+
Tattooing was practised in both continents. Among the [[Indian]]s it was
fetichistic in its origin; "every [[India]]n had the image of an animal
+
fetichistic in its origin; "every [[Indian]] had the image of an animal
 
tattooed on his breast or arm, to charm away evil spirits." (Dorman,
 
tattooed on his breast or arm, to charm away evil spirits." (Dorman,
 
"Prim. Superst.," p. 156.) The sailors of [[Europe]] and [[America]] preserve to
 
"Prim. Superst.," p. 156.) The sailors of [[Europe]] and [[America]] preserve to
Line 4,732: Line 3,986:
  
 
The Etruscan belief that evil spirits strove for the possession of the
 
The Etruscan belief that evil spirits strove for the possession of the
dead was found among the Mosquito [[India]]ns. (Bancroft, "Native Races,"
+
dead was found among the Mosquito [[Indian]]s. (Bancroft, "Native Races,"
 
vol. i., p. 744.)
 
vol. i., p. 744.)
  
Line 4,747: Line 4,001:
 
Superstitions," p. 23.) "The Shoshone legends people the mountains of
 
Superstitions," p. 23.) "The Shoshone legends people the mountains of
 
Montana with little imps, called Nirumbees, two feet long, naked, and
 
Montana with little imps, called Nirumbees, two feet long, naked, and
with a tail." They stole the children of the [[India]]ns, and left in their
+
with a tail." They stole the children of the [[Indian]]s, and left in their
 
stead the young of their own baneful race, who resembled the stolen
 
stead the young of their own baneful race, who resembled the stolen
 
children so much that the mothers were deceived and suckled them,
 
children so much that the mothers were deceived and suckled them,
Line 4,757: Line 4,011:
 
of threes; they were tended with great care, and received offerings of
 
of threes; they were tended with great care, and received offerings of
 
incense and gifts. The same custom prevailed among the Romans--the
 
incense and gifts. The same custom prevailed among the Romans--the
cypress was dedicated to Pluto, and the palm to Victory.
+
cypress was dedicated to [[Pluto]], and the palm to Victory.
  
Not only infant baptism by water was found both in the old Babylonian
+
Not only infant baptism by water was found both in the old [[Babylonian]]
 
religion and among the [[Mexican]]s, but an offering of cakes, which is
 
religion and among the [[Mexican]]s, but an offering of cakes, which is
 
recorded by the prophet Jeremiah as part of the worship of the
 
recorded by the prophet Jeremiah as part of the worship of the
Babylonian goddess-mother, "the Queen of Heaven," was also found in the
+
[[Babylonian]] goddess-mother, "the Queen of Heaven," was also found in the
 
ritual of the [[Aztecs]]. ("Builders of Babel," p. 78.)
 
ritual of the [[Aztecs]]. ("Builders of Babel," p. 78.)
  
Line 4,772: Line 4,026:
 
festival.
 
festival.
  
Among the Romans, the [[Chinese]], the Abyssinians, and the [[India]]ns of
+
Among the Romans, the [[Chinese]], the Abyssinians, and the [[Indian]]s of
 
[[Canada]] the singular custom prevails of lifting the bride over the
 
[[Canada]] the singular custom prevails of lifting the bride over the
 
door-step of her husband's home. (Sir John Lubbock, "Smith. Rep.," 1869,
 
door-step of her husband's home. (Sir John Lubbock, "Smith. Rep.," 1869,
Line 4,842: Line 4,096:
 
explanation of his profession only among the red men of [[America]].
 
explanation of his profession only among the red men of [[America]].
  
Folk-lore.--Says Max Mueller: "Not only do we find the same words and the
+
Folk-lore.--Says [[Max Mueller]]: "Not only do we find the same words and the
 
same terminations in Sanscrit and Gothic; not only do we find the same
 
same terminations in Sanscrit and Gothic; not only do we find the same
name for Zeus in Sanscrit, Latin, and [[German]]; not only is the abstract
+
name for [[Zeus]] in Sanscrit, Latin, and [[German]]; not only is the abstract
name for God the same in [[India]], Greece, and [[Italy]]; but these very
+
name for God the same in [[India]], [[Greece]], and [[Italy]]; but these very
 
stories, these 'Maehrchen' which nurses still tell, with almost the same
 
stories, these 'Maehrchen' which nurses still tell, with almost the same
 
words, in the Thuringian forest and in the Norwegian villages, and to
 
words, in the Thuringian forest and in the Norwegian villages, and to
Line 4,868: Line 4,122:
 
lilies; from these you can see how we fare. If they are fresh, we are
 
lilies; from these you can see how we fare. If they are fresh, we are
 
well; if they fade, we are ill; if they fall, we are dead." Grimm traces
 
well; if they fade, we are ill; if they fall, we are dead." Grimm traces
the same idea in [[Hindoo]] stories. "Now this," says Max Mueller, "is
+
the same idea in [[Hindoo]] stories. "Now this," says [[Max Mueller]], "is
 
strange enough, and its occurrence in [[India]], Germany, and Central
 
strange enough, and its occurrence in [[India]], Germany, and Central
 
[[America]] is stranger still."
 
[[America]] is stranger still."
  
 
Compare the following stories, which we print in parallel columns, one
 
Compare the following stories, which we print in parallel columns, one
from the Ojibbeway [[India]]ns, the other from [[Ireland]]:
+
from the Ojibbeway [[Indian]]s, the other from [[Ireland]]:
  
 
+----------------------------------+------------------------------------+
 
+----------------------------------+------------------------------------+
Line 4,910: Line 4,164:
  
 
+------------------------------------+----------------------------------+
 
+------------------------------------+----------------------------------+
| THE ASIATIC STORY.                | THE [[AMERICA]]N STORY.              |
+
| THE [[Asiatic]] STORY.                | THE [[AMERICA]]N STORY.              |
 
|                                    |                                  |
 
|                                    |                                  |
 
| In [[Hindoo]] mythology Urvasi came    | Wampee, a great hunter, once    |
 
| In [[Hindoo]] mythology Urvasi came    | Wampee, a great hunter, once    |
Line 4,963: Line 4,217:
 
moves; when the Spaniards entered [[Mexico]] they found the [[Aztecs]] playing a
 
moves; when the Spaniards entered [[Mexico]] they found the [[Aztecs]] playing a
 
game called patolli, identical with the [[Hindoo]] pachisi, on a similar
 
game called patolli, identical with the [[Hindoo]] pachisi, on a similar
cross-shaped board. The game of ball, which the [[India]]ns of [[America]] were
+
cross-shaped board. The game of ball, which the [[Indian]]s of [[America]] were
 
in the habit of playing at the time of the discovery of the country,
 
in the habit of playing at the time of the discovery of the country,
 
from [[California]] to the [[Atlantic]], was identical with the [[European]] chueca,
 
from [[California]] to the [[Atlantic]], was identical with the [[European]] chueca,
Line 5,008: Line 4,262:
  
 
1. ON the monuments of Central [[America]] there are representations of
 
1. ON the monuments of Central [[America]] there are representations of
bearded men. How could the beardless [[America]]n [[India]]ns have imagined a
+
bearded men. How could the beardless [[America]]n [[Indian]]s have imagined a
 
bearded race?
 
bearded race?
  
Line 5,044: Line 4,298:
 
entrance of the castle in Chichen Itza, may be seen the carved figures
 
entrance of the castle in Chichen Itza, may be seen the carved figures
 
of long-bearded men, with upraised hands, in the act of worshipping
 
of long-bearded men, with upraised hands, in the act of worshipping
sacred trees. They forcibly recall to mind the same worship in Assyria."
+
sacred trees. They forcibly recall to mind the same worship in [[Assyria]]."
  
 
In the accompanying cut of an ancient vase from Tula, we see a bearded
 
In the accompanying cut of an ancient vase from Tula, we see a bearded
Line 5,121: Line 4,375:
 
the forests would recede to make room for him (cutting down the trees);
 
the forests would recede to make room for him (cutting down the trees);
 
the animals used to crouch before him (domesticated animals); lakes and
 
the animals used to crouch before him (domesticated animals); lakes and
rivers became solid for him (boats and bridges); and he taught the use
+
rivers became solid for him (b[[Oats]] and bridges); and he taught the use
 
of agriculture and magic. Like him, Bochica, the great law-giver of the
 
of agriculture and magic. Like him, Bochica, the great law-giver of the
 
Muyscas, and son of the sun--he who invented for them the calendar and
 
Muyscas, and son of the sun--he who invented for them the calendar and
Line 5,176: Line 4,430:
 
CORROBORATING CIRCUMSTANCES.
 
CORROBORATING CIRCUMSTANCES.
  
1. Lenormant insists that the human race issued from Ups Merou, and adds
+
1. [[Lenormant]] insists that the human race issued from Ups Merou, and adds
 
that some [[Greek]] traditions point to "this locality--particularly the
 
that some [[Greek]] traditions point to "this locality--particularly the
 
expression me'ropes a?'nethwpoi, which can only mean 'the men sprung from
 
expression me'ropes a?'nethwpoi, which can only mean 'the men sprung from
Merou.'" ("Mannal," p. 21.)
+
Merou.'" ("[[Manu]]al," p. 21.)
  
 
[[Theopompus]] tells us that the people who inhabited [[Atlantis]] were the
 
[[Theopompus]] tells us that the people who inhabited [[Atlantis]] were the
Line 5,199: Line 4,453:
 
existed when the continent was discovered by [[Columbus]], at the entrance
 
existed when the continent was discovered by [[Columbus]], at the entrance
 
of the Gulf of Uraba, in Darien. With a good harbor, it is now reduced
 
of the Gulf of Uraba, in Darien. With a good harbor, it is now reduced
to an unimportant pueblo named Acla." (Baldwin's "Ancient [[America]]," p.
+
to an unimportant pueblo named Acla." ([[Baldwin]]'s "Ancient [[America]]," p.
 
179.)
 
179.)
  
Line 5,211: Line 4,465:
 
comes it that we find it in the most north-western corner of [[Africa]]? And
 
comes it that we find it in the most north-western corner of [[Africa]]? And
 
how does it happen that in the time of [[Herodotus]] there dwelt near this
 
how does it happen that in the time of [[Herodotus]] there dwelt near this
mountain-chain a people called the Atlantes, probably a remnant of a
+
mountain-chain a people called the [[Atlantes]], probably a remnant of a
 
colony from Solon's island? How comes it that the people of the Barbary
 
colony from Solon's island? How comes it that the people of the Barbary
 
States were known to the [[Greek]]s, Romans, and Carthaginians as the
 
States were known to the [[Greek]]s, Romans, and Carthaginians as the
"Atlantes," this name being especially applied to the inhabitants of
+
"[[Atlantes]]," this name being especially applied to the inhabitants of
 
Fezzan and Bilma? Where did they get the name from? There is no
 
Fezzan and Bilma? Where did they get the name from? There is no
etymology for it east of the [[Atlantic Ocean]]. (Lenormants "Anc. Hist. of
+
etymology for it east of the [[Atlantic Ocean]]. ([[Lenormant]]s "Anc. Hist. of
 
the East," p. 253.)
 
the East," p. 253.)
  
 
Look at it! An "[[Atlas]]" mountain on the shore of [[Africa]]; an "Atlan" town
 
Look at it! An "[[Atlas]]" mountain on the shore of [[Africa]]; an "Atlan" town
on the shore of [[America]]; the "Atlantes" living along the north and west
+
on the shore of [[America]]; the "[[Atlantes]]" living along the north and west
 
coast of [[Africa]]; an Aztec people from Aztlan, in Central [[America]]; an
 
coast of [[Africa]]; an Aztec people from Aztlan, in Central [[America]]; an
 
ocean rolling between the two worlds called the "[[Atlantic]];" a
 
ocean rolling between the two worlds called the "[[Atlantic]];" a
Line 5,282: Line 4,536:
 
[[Egyptians]] were depicted by themselves as red men on their own monuments?
 
[[Egyptians]] were depicted by themselves as red men on their own monuments?
 
And, on the other hand, how can we account for the representations of
 
And, on the other hand, how can we account for the representations of
negroes on the monuments of Central [[America]]?
+
[[negroes]] on the monuments of Central [[America]]?
  
 
Desire Charnay, now engaged in exploring those monuments, has published
 
Desire Charnay, now engaged in exploring those monuments, has published
Line 5,295: Line 4,549:
 
"Besides the sculptures of long-bearded men seen by the explorer at
 
"Besides the sculptures of long-bearded men seen by the explorer at
 
Chichen Itza, there were tall figures of people with small heads, thick
 
Chichen Itza, there were tall figures of people with small heads, thick
lips, and curly short hair or wool, regarded as negroes. 'We always see
+
lips, and curly short hair or wool, regarded as [[negroes]]. 'We always see
 
them as standard or parasol bearers, but never engaged in actual
 
them as standard or parasol bearers, but never engaged in actual
 
warfare.'" ("Maya Archaeology," p. 62.)
 
warfare.'" ("Maya Archaeology," p. 62.)
Line 5,306: Line 4,560:
 
features are unmistakably negroid.
 
features are unmistakably negroid.
  
As the negroes have never been a sea-going race, the presence of these
+
As the [[negroes]] have never been a sea-going race, the presence of these
 
faces among the antiquities of Central [[America]] proves one of two things,
 
faces among the antiquities of Central [[America]] proves one of two things,
 
either the existence of a land connection between [[America]] and [[Africa]] via
 
either the existence of a land connection between [[America]] and [[Africa]] via
 
[[Atlantis]], as revealed by the deep-sea soundings of the [[Challenger]], or
 
[[Atlantis]], as revealed by the deep-sea soundings of the [[Challenger]], or
 
commercial relations between [[America]] and [[Africa]] through the ships of the
 
commercial relations between [[America]] and [[Africa]] through the ships of the
[[Atlantean]]s or some other civilized race, whereby the negroes were
+
[[Atlantean]]s or some other civilized race, whereby the [[negroes]] were
 
brought to [[America]] as slaves at a very remote epoch.
 
brought to [[America]] as slaves at a very remote epoch.
  
Line 5,341: Line 4,595:
 
[[California]]ns.... Such, again, is the tribe that Balboa saw some
 
[[California]]ns.... Such, again, is the tribe that Balboa saw some
 
representatives of in his passage of the Isthmus of Darien in 1513; ...
 
representatives of in his passage of the Isthmus of Darien in 1513; ...
they were true negroes."
+
they were true [[negroes]]."
  
 
7. How comes it that all the civilizations of the Old World radiate from
 
7. How comes it that all the civilizations of the Old World radiate from
Line 5,368: Line 4,622:
 
themselves in all the lands now inhabited by the Caucasian race. Their
 
themselves in all the lands now inhabited by the Caucasian race. Their
 
territories extend from the [[Atlantic]] to the Ganges, and from [[Iceland]] to
 
territories extend from the [[Atlantic]] to the Ganges, and from [[Iceland]] to
Ceylon, and are bordered on the north and east by the Asiatic Mongols,
+
Ceylon, and are bordered on the north and east by the [[Asiatic]] [[Mongol]]s,
 
and on the south by the negro tribes of Central [[Africa]]. They present all
 
and on the south by the negro tribes of Central [[Africa]]. They present all
 
the appearances of a later race, expanding itself between and into the
 
the appearances of a later race, expanding itself between and into the
Line 5,385: Line 4,639:
 
sea-coasts. Where are its Old World affinities?
 
sea-coasts. Where are its Old World affinities?
  
9. Why is it that the origin of wheat, barley, oats, [[Maize]], and rye--the
+
9. Why is it that the origin of [[Wheat]], [[Barley]], [[Oats]], [[Maize]], and [[Rye]]--the
 
essential plants of civilization--is totally lost in the mists of a vast
 
essential plants of civilization--is totally lost in the mists of a vast
 
antiquity? We have in the [[Greek]] mythology legends of the introduction of
 
antiquity? We have in the [[Greek]] mythology legends of the introduction of
Line 5,400: Line 4,654:
  
 
10. Why is it that we find in Ptolemy's "Geography of [[Asia Minor]]," in a
 
10. Why is it that we find in Ptolemy's "Geography of [[Asia Minor]]," in a
list of cities in Armenia Major in A.D. 140, the names of five cities
+
list of cities in [[Armenia]] Major in A.D. 140, the names of five cities
 
which have their counterparts in the names of localities in Central
 
which have their counterparts in the names of localities in Central
 
[[America]]?
 
[[America]]?
  
 
           +------------------+------------------------------+
 
           +------------------+------------------------------+
           | Armenian Cities. | Central [[America]]n Localities. |
+
           | [[Armenia]]n Cities. | Central [[America]]n Localities. |
 
           +------------------+------------------------------+
 
           +------------------+------------------------------+
 
           | Chol.            | Chol-ula                    |
 
           | Chol.            | Chol-ula                    |
Line 5,452: Line 4,706:
 
13. The Barbarians who are alluded to by [[Homer]] and Thucydides were a
 
13. The Barbarians who are alluded to by [[Homer]] and Thucydides were a
 
race of ancient navigators and pirates called Cares, or Carians, who
 
race of ancient navigators and pirates called Cares, or Carians, who
occupied the isles of Greece before the Pelasgi, and antedated the
+
occupied the isles of [[Greece]] before the Pelasgi, and antedated the
 
[[Phoenician]]s in the control of the sea. The Abbe Brasseur de Bourbourg
 
[[Phoenician]]s in the control of the sea. The Abbe Brasseur de Bourbourg
 
claims that these Carians were identical with the Caribs of the West
 
claims that these Carians were identical with the Caribs of the West
Line 5,507: Line 4,761:
 
to [[England]], and ground up into manures to grow English turnips.
 
to [[England]], and ground up into manures to grow English turnips.
  
Third. That the [[Assyrians]], the [[Ethiopians]], the Persians, the [[Greek]]s, and
+
Third. That the [[Assyrians]], the [[Ethiopians]], the [[Persians]], the [[Greek]]s, and
 
even the Romans embalmed their dead.
 
even the Romans embalmed their dead.
  
 
Fourth. On the [[America]]n continents we find that the [[Peruvian]]s, the
 
Fourth. On the [[America]]n continents we find that the [[Peruvian]]s, the
Central [[America]]ns, the [[Mexican]]s, and some of the [[India]]n tribes, followed
+
Central [[America]]ns, the [[Mexican]]s, and some of the [[Indian]] tribes, followed
 
the same practice.
 
the same practice.
  
Line 5,539: Line 4,793:
  
 
16. In the [[Deluge]] legends of the [[Hindoo]]s (as given on page 87 ante), we
 
16. In the [[Deluge]] legends of the [[Hindoo]]s (as given on page 87 ante), we
have seen Mann saving a small fish, which subsequently grew to a great
+
have seen [[Manu]] saving a small fish, which subsequently grew to a great
 
size, and warned him of the coming of the Flood. In this legend all the
 
size, and warned him of the coming of the Flood. In this legend all the
 
indications point to an ocean as the scene of the catastrophe. It says:
 
indications point to an ocean as the scene of the catastrophe. It says:
Line 5,551: Line 4,805:
 
in it secure from the Flood on one immense ocean.'... The sea
 
in it secure from the Flood on one immense ocean.'... The sea
 
overwhelmed its shores, deluged the whole earth, augmented by showers
 
overwhelmed its shores, deluged the whole earth, augmented by showers
from immense clouds." ("Asiatic Researches," vol. i., p. 230.)
+
from immense clouds." ("[[Asiatic]] Researches," vol. i., p. 230.)
  
 
All this reminds us of "the fountains of the great deep and the
 
All this reminds us of "the fountains of the great deep and the
Line 5,561: Line 4,815:
 
very remarkable. We have seen the Pan and Maia of the [[Greek]]s reappearing
 
very remarkable. We have seen the Pan and Maia of the [[Greek]]s reappearing
 
in the Pan and Maya of the Mayas of Central [[America]]. The god of the
 
in the Pan and Maya of the Mayas of Central [[America]]. The god of the
Welsh triads, "Hu the mighty," is found in the Hu-nap-bu, the hero-god
+
Welsh triads, "[[Hu]] the mighty," is found in the [[Hu]]-nap-bu, the hero-god
of the Quiches; in Hu-napu, a hero-god; and in Hu-hu-nap-hu, in Hu-ncam,
+
of the Quiches; in [[Hu]]-napu, a hero-god; and in [[Hu]]-hu-nap-hu, in [[Hu]]-ncam,
in Hu-nbatz, semi-divine heroes of the Quiches. The [[Phoenician]] deity El
+
in [[Hu]]-nbatz, semi-divine heroes of the Quiches. The [[Phoenician]] deity El
 
"was subdivided into a number of hypostases called the Baalim, secondary
 
"was subdivided into a number of hypostases called the Baalim, secondary
 
divinities, emanating from the substance of the deity" ("Anc. Hist.
 
divinities, emanating from the substance of the deity" ("Anc. Hist.
Line 5,593: Line 4,847:
 
Tacitus spoke of the "Black Celts," and the term, so far as complexion
 
Tacitus spoke of the "Black Celts," and the term, so far as complexion
 
goes, might not inappropriately be applied to some of the Italians,
 
goes, might not inappropriately be applied to some of the Italians,
Spaniards, and Portuguese, while the Basques are represented as of a
+
Spaniards, and [[Portuguese]], while the Basques are represented as of a
 
still darker hue. Tylor says ("Anthropology," p. 67), "On the whole, it
 
still darker hue. Tylor says ("Anthropology," p. 67), "On the whole, it
 
seems that the distinction of color, from the fairest Englishman to the
 
seems that the distinction of color, from the fairest Englishman to the
Line 5,600: Line 4,854:
  
 
And when we turn to [[America]] we find that the popular opinion that all
 
And when we turn to [[America]] we find that the popular opinion that all
[[India]]ns are "red men," and of the same hue from Patagonia to Hudson's
+
[[Indian]]s are "red men," and of the same hue from Patagonia to Hudson's
 
Bay, is a gross error.
 
Bay, is a gross error.
  
Line 5,614: Line 4,868:
 
John T. Short says ("[[North America]]ns of Antiquity," p. 189):
 
John T. Short says ("[[North America]]ns of Antiquity," p. 189):
  
"The Menominees, sometimes called the 'White [[India]]ns,' formerly occupied
+
"The Menominees, sometimes called the 'White [[Indian]]s,' formerly occupied
 
the region bordering on Lake Michigan, around Green Bay. The whiteness
 
the region bordering on Lake Michigan, around Green Bay. The whiteness
of these [[India]]ns, which is compared to that of white mulattoes, early
+
of these [[Indian]]s, which is compared to that of white mulattoes, early
 
attracted the attention of the Jesuit missionaries, and has often been
 
attracted the attention of the Jesuit missionaries, and has often been
 
commented on by travellers. While it is true that hybridy has done much
 
commented on by travellers. While it is true that hybridy has done much
Line 5,631: Line 4,885:
 
Railroad Route to the Pacific Ocean," we are told,
 
Railroad Route to the Pacific Ocean," we are told,
  
"Many of the [[India]]ns of Zuni (New [[Mexico]]) are white. They have a fair
+
"Many of the [[Indian]]s of Zuni (New [[Mexico]]) are white. They have a fair
 
skin, blue eyes, chestnut or auburn hair, and are quite good-looking.
 
skin, blue eyes, chestnut or auburn hair, and are quite good-looking.
 
They claim to be full-blooded Zunians, and have no tradition of
 
They claim to be full-blooded Zunians, and have no tradition of
Line 5,640: Line 4,894:
 
[[Winchell]] says:
 
[[Winchell]] says:
  
"The ancient [[India]]ns of [[California]], in the latitude of forty-two
+
"The ancient [[Indian]]s of [[California]], in the latitude of forty-two
degrees, were as black as the negroes of Guinea, while in [[Mexico]] were
+
degrees, were as black as the [[negroes]] of Guinea, while in [[Mexico]] were
 
tribes of an olive or reddish complexion, relatively light. Among the
 
tribes of an olive or reddish complexion, relatively light. Among the
 
black races of tropical regions we find, generally, some light-colored
 
black races of tropical regions we find, generally, some light-colored
Line 5,649: Line 4,903:
 
"[[Preadamites]]," p. 185.)
 
"[[Preadamites]]," p. 185.)
  
William Penn said of the [[India]]ns of [[Pennsylvania]], in his letter of
+
William Penn said of the [[Indian]]s of [[Pennsylvania]], in his letter of
 
August, 1683:
 
August, 1683:
  
Line 5,669: Line 4,923:
 
women, with many other things that do not now occur."
 
women, with many other things that do not now occur."
  
Upon this question of complexion Catlin, in his "[[India]]ns of North
+
Upon this question of complexion Catlin, in his "[[Indian]]s of North
 
[[America]]," vol. i., p. 95, etc., gives us some curious information. We
 
[[America]]," vol. i., p. 95, etc., gives us some curious information. We
 
have already seen that the Mandans preserved an image of the ark, and
 
have already seen that the Mandans preserved an image of the ark, and
Line 5,676: Line 4,930:
 
"A stranger in the Mandan village is first struck with the different
 
"A stranger in the Mandan village is first struck with the different
 
shades of complexion and various colors of hair which he sees in a crowd
 
shades of complexion and various colors of hair which he sees in a crowd
about him, and is at once disposed to exclaim, 'These are not [[India]]ns.'
+
about him, and is at once disposed to exclaim, 'These are not [[Indian]]s.'
 
There are a great many of these people whose complexions appear as light
 
There are a great many of these people whose complexions appear as light
 
as half-breeds; and among the women particularly there are many whose
 
as half-breeds; and among the women particularly there are many whose
Line 5,715: Line 4,969:
 
   GOVERNOR AND OTHER INDIANS OF THE PUEBLO OF SAN DOMINGO, NEW [[Mexico]].
 
   GOVERNOR AND OTHER INDIANS OF THE PUEBLO OF SAN DOMINGO, NEW [[Mexico]].
  
Major James W. Lynd, who lived among the Dakota [[India]]ns for nine years,
+
Major James W. Lynd, who lived among the Dakota [[Indian]]s for nine years,
 
and was killed by them in the great outbreak of 1862, says (MS. "Hist.
 
and was killed by them in the great outbreak of 1862, says (MS. "Hist.
 
of Dakotas," Library, Historical Society, Minnesota, p. 47), after
 
of Dakotas," Library, Historical Society, Minnesota, p. 47), after
Line 5,739: Line 4,993:
  
 
The Aymaras, the ancient inhabitants of the mountains of [[Peru]] and
 
The Aymaras, the ancient inhabitants of the mountains of [[Peru]] and
Bolivia, are described as having an olive-brown complexion, with regular
+
[[Bolivia]], are described as having an olive-brown complexion, with regular
 
features, large heads, and a thoughtful and melancholy cast of
 
features, large heads, and a thoughtful and melancholy cast of
 
countenance. They practised in early times the deformation of the skull.
 
countenance. They practised in early times the deformation of the skull.
Line 5,760: Line 5,014:
  
 
Neither is the common opinion correct which asserts all the [[America]]n
 
Neither is the common opinion correct which asserts all the [[America]]n
[[India]]ns to be of the same type of features. The portraits on this page
+
[[Indian]]s to be of the same type of features. The portraits on this page
 
and on pages 187 and 191, taken from the "Report of the U. S. Survey for
 
and on pages 187 and 191, taken from the "Report of the U. S. Survey for
 
a Route for a Pacific Railroad," present features very much like those
 
a Route for a Pacific Railroad," present features very much like those
Line 5,770: Line 5,024:
 
On the other hand, look at the portrait of the great Italian orator and
 
On the other hand, look at the portrait of the great Italian orator and
 
reformer, [[Savonarola]], on page 193. It looks more like the hunting
 
reformer, [[Savonarola]], on page 193. It looks more like the hunting
[[India]]ns of North-western [[America]] than any of the preceding faces. In
+
[[Indian]]s of North-western [[America]] than any of the preceding faces. In
 
fact, if it was dressed with a scalp-lock it would pass muster anywhere
 
fact, if it was dressed with a scalp-lock it would pass muster anywhere
 
as a portrait of the "Man-afraid-of-his-[[Horse]]s," or "Sitting Bull."
 
as a portrait of the "Man-afraid-of-his-[[Horse]]s," or "Sitting Bull."
Line 5,794: Line 5,048:
 
it red, and covering every spot therein."
 
it red, and covering every spot therein."
  
The idols of the [[India]]ns were also painted red, and red was the
+
The idols of the [[Indian]]s were also painted red, and red was the
 
religious color. (Lynd's MS. "Hist. of Dakotas," Library, Hist. Society,
 
religious color. (Lynd's MS. "Hist. of Dakotas," Library, Hist. Society,
 
Minn.)
 
Minn.)
  
The Cushites and [[Ethiopians]], early branches of the [[Atlantean]] stock, took
+
The [[Cushites]] and [[Ethiopians]], early branches of the [[Atlantean]] stock, took
 
their name from their "sunburnt" complexion; they were red men.
 
their name from their "sunburnt" complexion; they were red men.
  
 
The name of the [[Phoenician]]s signified red. Himyar, the prefix of the
 
The name of the [[Phoenician]]s signified red. Himyar, the prefix of the
Himyaritic Arabians, also means red, and the [[Arabs]] were painted red on
+
Himyaritic [[Arabians]], also means red, and the [[Arabs]] were painted red on
 
the [[Egyptian]] monuments.
 
the [[Egyptian]] monuments.
  
Line 5,808: Line 5,062:
 
men--the red, yellow, black, and white men. They themselves belonged to
 
men--the red, yellow, black, and white men. They themselves belonged to
 
the "Rot," or red men; the yellow men they called "Namu"--it included
 
the "Rot," or red men; the yellow men they called "Namu"--it included
the Asiatic races; the black men were called "Nahsu," and the white men
+
the [[Asiatic]] races; the black men were called "Nahsu," and the white men
 
"Tamhu." The following figures are copied from Nott and Gliddon's "Types
 
"Tamhu." The following figures are copied from Nott and Gliddon's "Types
 
of Mankind," p. 85, and were taken by them from the great works of
 
of Mankind," p. 85, and were taken by them from the great works of
Line 5,822: Line 5,076:
 
[[India]] were founded upon these distinctions in color; in fact, the word
 
[[India]] were founded upon these distinctions in color; in fact, the word
 
for color in Sanscrit (varna) means caste. The red men, according to the
 
for color in Sanscrit (varna) means caste. The red men, according to the
Mahabharata, were the Kshatriyas--the warrior caste-who were afterward
+
[[Mahabharata]], were the Kshatriyas--the warrior caste-who were afterward
 
engaged in a fierce contest with the whites--the Brahmans--and were
 
engaged in a fierce contest with the whites--the Brahmans--and were
 
nearly exterminated, although some of them survived, and from their
 
nearly exterminated, although some of them survived, and from their
 
stock Buddha was born. So that not only the Mohammedan and [[Christian]] but
 
stock Buddha was born. So that not only the Mohammedan and [[Christian]] but
 
the [[Buddhist]]ic religion seem to be derived from branches of the Hamitic
 
the [[Buddhist]]ic religion seem to be derived from branches of the Hamitic
or red stock. The great Mann was also of the red race.
+
or red stock. The great [[Manu]] was also of the red race.
  
 
               THE RACES OF MEN ACCORDING TO THE [[EGYPT]]IANS.
 
               THE RACES OF MEN ACCORDING TO THE [[EGYPT]]IANS.
Line 5,837: Line 5,091:
 
the ancient [[Egyptians]] belonged to a brown race, which embraced the
 
the ancient [[Egyptians]] belonged to a brown race, which embraced the
 
Nubian tribes and, to some extent, the Berbers of [[Algiers]] and Tunis. He
 
Nubian tribes and, to some extent, the Berbers of [[Algiers]] and Tunis. He
groups the [[Assyrians]], [[Phoenician]]s, Persians, [[Greek]]s, Romans, Andalusians,
+
groups the [[Assyrians]], [[Phoenician]]s, [[Persians]], [[Greek]]s, Romans, Andalusians,
 
Bretons, dark Welshmen, and people of the Caucasus into one body, and
 
Bretons, dark Welshmen, and people of the Caucasus into one body, and
 
designates them as "dark whites." The Himyarite [[Arabs]], as I have shown,
 
designates them as "dark whites." The Himyarite [[Arabs]], as I have shown,
Line 5,858: Line 5,112:
 
These last were called by the ancients the [[Atlantean]]s.
 
These last were called by the ancients the [[Atlantean]]s.
  
"If a congregation of twelve representatives from Malacca, [[China]], Japan,
+
"If a congregation of twelve representatives from Malacca, [[China]], [[Japan]],
Mongolia, Sandwich Islands, Chili, [[Peru]], [[Brazil]], Chickasaws, Comanches,
+
[[Mongol]]ia, Sandwich Islands, [[Chili]], [[Peru]], [[Brazil]], Chickasaws, Comanches,
 
etc., were dressed alike, or undressed and unshaven, the most skilful
 
etc., were dressed alike, or undressed and unshaven, the most skilful
 
anatomist could not, from their appearance, separate them." (Fontaine's
 
anatomist could not, from their appearance, separate them." (Fontaine's
Line 5,869: Line 5,123:
 
fair. In [[Peru]] the Charanzanis, studied by M. Angraud, also resemble the
 
fair. In [[Peru]] the Charanzanis, studied by M. Angraud, also resemble the
 
Canary Islanders. L'Abbe Brasseur de Bourbourg imagined himself
 
Canary Islanders. L'Abbe Brasseur de Bourbourg imagined himself
surrounded by [[Arabs]] when all his [[India]]ns of Rabinal were around him; for
+
surrounded by [[Arabs]] when all his [[Indian]]s of Rabinal were around him; for
 
they had, he said, their complexion, features, and beard. Pierre Martyr
 
they had, he said, their complexion, features, and beard. Pierre Martyr
speaks of the [[India]]ns of the Parian Gulf as having fair hair. ("The
+
speaks of the [[Indian]]s of the Parian Gulf as having fair hair. ("The
 
Human Species," p. 201.) The same author believes that tribes belonging
 
Human Species," p. 201.) The same author believes that tribes belonging
 
to the [[Semitic]] type are also found in [[America]]. He refers to "certain
 
to the [[Semitic]] type are also found in [[America]]. He refers to "certain
Line 5,902: Line 5,156:
 
GENESIS CONTAINS A HISTORY OF [[ATLANTIS]]
 
GENESIS CONTAINS A HISTORY OF [[ATLANTIS]]
  
The Hebrews are a branch of the great family of which that powerful
+
The [[Hebrews]] are a branch of the great family of which that powerful
 
commercial race, the [[Phoenician]]s, who were the merchants of the world
 
commercial race, the [[Phoenician]]s, who were the merchants of the world
 
fifteen hundred years before the time of [[Christ]], were a part. The
 
fifteen hundred years before the time of [[Christ]], were a part. The
Hebrews carried out from the common storehouse of their race a mass of
+
[[Hebrews]] carried out from the common storehouse of their race a mass of
 
traditions, many of which have come down to us in that oldest and most
 
traditions, many of which have come down to us in that oldest and most
 
venerable of human compositions, the Book of [[Genesis]]. I have shown that
 
venerable of human compositions, the Book of [[Genesis]]. I have shown that
Line 5,960: Line 5,214:
 
serpent, whose head appearing above the foliage displays the face of a
 
serpent, whose head appearing above the foliage displays the face of a
 
woman. Torquemada admits the existence of this tradition among them, and
 
woman. Torquemada admits the existence of this tradition among them, and
agrees with the [[India]]n historians, who affirm that this was the first
+
agrees with the [[Indian]] historians, who affirm that this was the first
 
woman in the world, who bore children, and from whom all mankind are
 
woman in the world, who bore children, and from whom all mankind are
 
descended." ("[[Mexican]] Antiquities," vol. viii., p. 19.) There is also a
 
descended." ("[[Mexican]] Antiquities," vol. viii., p. 19.) There is also a
Line 6,028: Line 5,282:
 
It must not be forgotten that this legend was taken down by a Catholic
 
It must not be forgotten that this legend was taken down by a Catholic
 
priest, shortly after the conquest of [[Mexico]], from the lips of an old
 
priest, shortly after the conquest of [[Mexico]], from the lips of an old
[[India]]n who was born before [[Columbus]] sailed from [[Spain]].
+
[[Indian]] who was born before [[Columbus]] sailed from [[Spain]].
  
 
Observe the resemblances between this legend and the Bible account of
 
Observe the resemblances between this legend and the Bible account of
 
the building of the Tower of Babel:
 
the building of the Tower of Babel:
  
"All was a plain without hill or elevation," says the [[India]]n legend.
+
"All was a plain without hill or elevation," says the [[Indian]] legend.
 
"They found a plain in the land of Shinar, and they dwelt there," says
 
"They found a plain in the land of Shinar, and they dwelt there," says
 
the Bible. They built of brick in both cases. "Let us build us a tower
 
the Bible. They built of brick in both cases. "Let us build us a tower
 
whose top may reach unto heaven," says the Bible. "They determined to
 
whose top may reach unto heaven," says the Bible. "They determined to
 
build a tower so high that its summit should reach the sky," says the
 
build a tower so high that its summit should reach the sky," says the
[[India]]n legend. "And the Lord came down to see the city and the tower
+
[[Indian]] legend. "And the Lord came down to see the city and the tower
 
which the children of men had builded. And the Lord said, Behold ...
 
which the children of men had builded. And the Lord said, Behold ...
 
nothing will be restrained from them which they have imagined to do. Go
 
nothing will be restrained from them which they have imagined to do. Go
 
to, let us go down and confound them," says the Bible record. "The Lord
 
to, let us go down and confound them," says the Bible record. "The Lord
 
of the Heavens, enraged, said to the inhabitants of the sky, 'Have you
 
of the Heavens, enraged, said to the inhabitants of the sky, 'Have you
observed,' etc. Come and confound them," says the [[India]]n record. "And
+
observed,' etc. Come and confound them," says the [[Indian]] record. "And
 
the Lord scattered them abroad from thence on all the face of the
 
the Lord scattered them abroad from thence on all the face of the
 
earth," says the Bible. "They scattered its builders to all parts of the
 
earth," says the Bible. "They scattered its builders to all parts of the
Line 6,056: Line 5,310:
 
account, were foreigners. They built it to reach the sun--that is to
 
account, were foreigners. They built it to reach the sun--that is to
 
say, as a sun-temple; while in the Bible record Babel was built to
 
say, as a sun-temple; while in the Bible record Babel was built to
perpetuate the glory of its architects. In the [[India]]n legend the gods
+
perpetuate the glory of its architects. In the [[Indian]] legend the gods
 
stop the work by a great storm, in the Bible account by confounding the
 
stop the work by a great storm, in the Bible account by confounding the
 
speech of the people.
 
speech of the people.
Line 6,063: Line 5,317:
 
gigantic structure of great height built by that people; and when the
 
gigantic structure of great height built by that people; and when the
 
story emigrated to the east and west, it was in the one case affixed to
 
story emigrated to the east and west, it was in the one case affixed to
the tower of the [[Chaldeans]], and in the other to the pyramid of [[Cholula]],
+
the tower of the [[Chaldean]]s, and in the other to the pyramid of [[Cholula]],
 
precisely as we find the ark of the [[Deluge]] resting upon separate
 
precisely as we find the ark of the [[Deluge]] resting upon separate
mountain-chains all the way from Greece to Armenia. In one form of the
+
mountain-chains all the way from [[Greece]] to [[Armenia]]. In one form of the
 
Tower of Babel legend, that of the Toltecs, we are told that the pyramid
 
Tower of Babel legend, that of the Toltecs, we are told that the pyramid
 
of [[Cholula]] was erected "as a means of escape from a second flood, should
 
of [[Cholula]] was erected "as a means of escape from a second flood, should
Line 6,186: Line 5,440:
 
among the [[Jews]] the ark was a sort of portable temple, in which the Deity
 
among the [[Jews]] the ark was a sort of portable temple, in which the Deity
 
was supposed to be continually present, so among the [[Mexican]]s, the
 
was supposed to be continually present, so among the [[Mexican]]s, the
Cherokees, and the [[India]]ns of Michoacan and Honduras, an ark was held in
+
Cherokees, and the [[Indian]]s of Michoacan and Honduras, an ark was held in
 
the highest veneration, and was considered an object too sacred to be
 
the highest veneration, and was considered an object too sacred to be
 
touched by any but the priests." (Kingsborough, "Mex. Antiq., "vol.
 
touched by any but the priests." (Kingsborough, "Mex. Antiq., "vol.
Line 6,234: Line 5,488:
 
of the original sin. The [[Christian]] rite, we know, was not a [[Christian]]
 
of the original sin. The [[Christian]] rite, we know, was not a [[Christian]]
 
invention, but was borrowed from ancient times, from the great
 
invention, but was borrowed from ancient times, from the great
storehouse of Asiatic traditions and beliefs.
+
storehouse of [[Asiatic]] traditions and beliefs.
  
 
The [[Mexican]]s hung up the heads of their sacrificed enemies; this was
 
The [[Mexican]]s hung up the heads of their sacrificed enemies; this was
 
also a Jewish custom:
 
also a Jewish custom:
  
"And the Lord said unto Moses, Take all the heads of the people, and
+
"And the Lord said unto [[Moses]], Take all the heads of the people, and
 
hang them up before the Lord against the sun, that the fierce anger of
 
hang them up before the Lord against the sun, that the fierce anger of
the Lord may be turned away from Israel. And Moses said unto the judges
+
the Lord may be turned away from Israel. And [[Moses]] said unto the judges
 
of Israel, Slay ye every one his men that were joined unto Baal-peor."
 
of Israel, Slay ye every one his men that were joined unto Baal-peor."
 
(Numb., xxv., 4, 5.)
 
(Numb., xxv., 4, 5.)
Line 6,259: Line 5,513:
 
[[Herodotus]] describes the Scythian mode of taking the scalp: "He makes a
 
[[Herodotus]] describes the Scythian mode of taking the scalp: "He makes a
 
cut round the head near the ears, and shakes the skull out." This is
 
cut round the head near the ears, and shakes the skull out." This is
precisely the [[India]]n custom. "The more scalps a man has," says
+
precisely the [[Indian]] custom. "The more scalps a man has," says
 
[[Herodotus]], "the more highly he is esteemed among them."
 
[[Herodotus]], "the more highly he is esteemed among them."
  
The [[India]]n scalp-lock is found on the [[Egyptian]] monuments as one of the
+
The [[Indian]] scalp-lock is found on the [[Egyptian]] monuments as one of the
characteristics of the Japhetic [[Libya]]ns, who shaved all the head except
+
characteristics of the [[Japhet]]ic [[Libya]]ns, who shaved all the head except
 
one lock in the middle.
 
one lock in the middle.
  
Line 6,287: Line 5,541:
 
If we seek the origin of these extraordinary coincidences in opinions
 
If we seek the origin of these extraordinary coincidences in opinions
 
and habits, we must go far back to the time of the lost tribes. We must
 
and habits, we must go far back to the time of the lost tribes. We must
seek it in the relationship of the [[Jews]] to the family of Noah, and in
+
seek it in the relationship of the [[Jews]] to the family of [[Noah]], and in
 
the identity of the Noachic race destroyed in the [[Deluge]] with the people
 
the identity of the Noachic race destroyed in the [[Deluge]] with the people
 
of the drowned [[Atlantis]].
 
of the drowned [[Atlantis]].
Line 6,310: Line 5,564:
  
 
The rite of circumcision dates back to the first days of Phoenicia,
 
The rite of circumcision dates back to the first days of Phoenicia,
[[Egypt]], and the Cushites. It, too, was probably an [[Atlantean]] custom,
+
[[Egypt]], and the [[Cushites]]. It, too, was probably an [[Atlantean]] custom,
 
invented in the [[Stone Age]]. Tens of thousands of years have passed since
 
invented in the [[Stone Age]]. Tens of thousands of years have passed since
 
the [[Stone Age]]; the ages of copper, bronze, and iron have intervened; and
 
the [[Stone Age]]; the ages of copper, bronze, and iron have intervened; and
Line 6,337: Line 5,591:
 
This perpetuation of forms and beliefs is illustrated in the fact that
 
This perpetuation of forms and beliefs is illustrated in the fact that
 
the formulas used in the Middle Ages in [[Europe]] to exorcise evil spirits
 
the formulas used in the Middle Ages in [[Europe]] to exorcise evil spirits
were [[Assyrian]] words, imported probably thousands of years before from
+
were [[Assyria]]n words, imported probably thousands of years before from
 
the magicians of [[Chaldea]]. When the [[European]] conjurer cried out to the
 
the magicians of [[Chaldea]]. When the [[European]] conjurer cried out to the
 
demon, "Hilka, hilka, besha, besha," he had no idea that he was
 
demon, "Hilka, hilka, besha, besha," he had no idea that he was
 
repeating the very words of a people who had perished ages before, and
 
repeating the very words of a people who had perished ages before, and
that they signified Go away, go away, evil one, evil one. (Lenormant,
+
that they signified Go away, go away, evil one, evil one. ([[Lenormant]],
 
"Anc. Hist. East," vol. i., p. 448.)
 
"Anc. Hist. East," vol. i., p. 448.)
  
Line 6,382: Line 5,636:
 
few." ("Amer. Encycl.," vol. vi., p. 463.) The [[Jews]] took up this great
 
few." ("Amer. Encycl.," vol. vi., p. 463.) The [[Jews]] took up this great
 
truth where the [[Egyptians]] dropped it, and over the heads and over the
 
truth where the [[Egyptians]] dropped it, and over the heads and over the
ruins of [[Egypt]], [[Chaldea]], Phoenicia, Greece, Rome, and [[India]] this handful
+
ruins of [[Egypt]], [[Chaldea]], Phoenicia, [[Greece]], Rome, and [[India]] this handful
 
of poor shepherds--ignorant, debased, and despised--have carried down to
 
of poor shepherds--ignorant, debased, and despised--have carried down to
 
our own times a conception which could only have originated in the
 
our own times a conception which could only have originated in the
Line 6,393: Line 5,647:
 
may be heard to-day in the synagogues of Chicago and Melbourne resounded
 
may be heard to-day in the synagogues of Chicago and Melbourne resounded
 
two thousand years ago in the streets of Rome; and, at a still earlier
 
two thousand years ago in the streets of Rome; and, at a still earlier
period, it could be heard in the palaces of Babylon and the shops of
+
period, it could be heard in the palaces of [[Babylon]] and the shops of
Thebes--in Tyre, in [[Sidon]], in [[Gades]], in Palmyra, in Nineveh. How many
+
Thebes--in Tyre, in [[Sidon]], in [[Gades]], in Palmyra, in [[Nineveh]]. How many
 
nations have perished, how many languages have ceased to exist, how many
 
nations have perished, how many languages have ceased to exist, how many
 
splendid civilizations have crumbled into ruin, how many temples and
 
splendid civilizations have crumbled into ruin, how many temples and
Line 6,424: Line 5,678:
 
obtained: we can trace it back from nation to nation, and form to form,
 
obtained: we can trace it back from nation to nation, and form to form,
 
until we reach the [[Egyptians]], and the archaic forms of the [[Phoenician]]s,
 
until we reach the [[Egyptians]], and the archaic forms of the [[Phoenician]]s,
Hebrews, and Cushites, but beyond this the light fails us.
+
[[Hebrews]], and [[Cushites]], but beyond this the light fails us.
  
 
The [[Egyptians]] spoke of their hieroglyphic system of writing not as their
 
The [[Egyptians]] spoke of their hieroglyphic system of writing not as their
own invention, but as "the language of the gods." (Lenormant and Cheval,
+
own invention, but as "the language of the gods." ([[Lenormant]] and Cheval,
 
"Anc. Hist. of the East," vol. ii., p. 208.) "The gods" were, doubtless,
 
"Anc. Hist. of the East," vol. ii., p. 208.) "The gods" were, doubtless,
 
their highly civilized ancestors--the people of [[Atlantis]]--who, as we
 
their highly civilized ancestors--the people of [[Atlantis]]--who, as we
Line 6,434: Line 5,688:
 
"According to the [[Phoenician]]s, the art of writing was invented by
 
"According to the [[Phoenician]]s, the art of writing was invented by
 
Taautus, or Taut, 'whom the [[Egyptians]] call Thouth,' and the [[Egyptians]]
 
Taautus, or Taut, 'whom the [[Egyptians]] call Thouth,' and the [[Egyptians]]
said it was invented by Thouth, or Thoth, otherwise called 'the first
+
said it was invented by Thouth, or [[Thoth]], otherwise called 'the first
Hermes,' in which we clearly see that both the [[Phoenician]]s and [[Egyptians]]
+
[[Hermes]],' in which we clearly see that both the [[Phoenician]]s and [[Egyptians]]
 
referred the invention to a period older than their own separate
 
referred the invention to a period older than their own separate
 
political existence, and to an older nation, from which both peoples
 
political existence, and to an older nation, from which both peoples
received it." (Baldwin's "Prehistoric Nations," p. 91.)
+
received it." ([[Baldwin]]'s "[[Prehistoric Nations]]," p. 91.)
  
The "first Hermes," here referred to (afterward called Mercury by the
+
The "first [[Hermes]]," here referred to (afterward called Mercury by the
Romans), was a son of Zeus and Maia, a daughter of [[Atlas]]. This is the
+
Romans), was a son of [[Zeus]] and Maia, a daughter of [[Atlas]]. This is the
 
same Maia whom the Abbe Brasseur de Bourbourg identifies with the Maya
 
same Maia whom the Abbe Brasseur de Bourbourg identifies with the Maya
 
of Central [[America]].
 
of Central [[America]].
Line 6,455: Line 5,709:
 
country that was yet inhabited."
 
country that was yet inhabited."
  
Sir Henry Rawlinson says:
+
Sir Henry [[Rawlinson]] says:
  
 
"So great is the analogy between the first principles of the Science of
 
"So great is the analogy between the first principles of the Science of
Line 6,484: Line 5,738:
 
are regarded as mere signs for sounds." ("[[Cosmos]]," vol. ii., p. 129.)
 
are regarded as mere signs for sounds." ("[[Cosmos]]," vol. ii., p. 129.)
  
Baldwin says ("Prehistoric Nations," p. 93):
+
[[Baldwin]] says ("[[Prehistoric Nations]]," p. 93):
  
 
"The nation that became mistress of the seas, established communication
 
"The nation that became mistress of the seas, established communication
Line 6,517: Line 5,771:
 
phonetic alphabet in any respect kindred to this [[Phoenician]] alphabet? It
 
phonetic alphabet in any respect kindred to this [[Phoenician]] alphabet? It
 
cannot be the [[Chinese]] alphabet, which has more signs than words; it
 
cannot be the [[Chinese]] alphabet, which has more signs than words; it
cannot be the cuneiform alphabet of Assyria, with its seven hundred
+
cannot be the cuneiform alphabet of [[Assyria]], with its seven hundred
 
arrow-shaped characters, none of which bear the slightest affinity to
 
arrow-shaped characters, none of which bear the slightest affinity to
 
the [[Phoenician]] letters.
 
the [[Phoenician]] letters.
Line 6,545: Line 5,799:
 
priest Brasseur de Bourbourg, who, by means of it, has deciphered some
 
priest Brasseur de Bourbourg, who, by means of it, has deciphered some
 
of the old [[America]]n writings. He says, 'the alphabet and signs explained
 
of the old [[America]]n writings. He says, 'the alphabet and signs explained
by Landa have been to me a Rosetta stone.' (Baldwin's "Ancient
+
by Landa have been to me a Rosetta stone.' ([[Baldwin]]'s "Ancient
 
[[America]]," p. 191.)
 
[[America]]," p. 191.)
  
Line 6,557: Line 5,811:
 
San Salvador; and it is believed that that language is the same as the
 
San Salvador; and it is believed that that language is the same as the
 
one inscribed on the most ancient monuments of their country. Senor
 
one inscribed on the most ancient monuments of their country. Senor
Pimental says of them, "The [[India]]ns have preserved this idiom with such
+
Pimental says of them, "The [[Indian]]s have preserved this idiom with such
 
tenacity that they will speak no other; it is necessary for the whites
 
tenacity that they will speak no other; it is necessary for the whites
 
to address them in their own language to communicate with them." It is
 
to address them in their own language to communicate with them." It is
Line 6,898: Line 6,152:
 
[[Mexican]] alphabet possessed a d. The sounds d and t were probably
 
[[Mexican]] alphabet possessed a d. The sounds d and t were probably
 
indicated in the Maya tongue by the same sign, called t in the Landa
 
indicated in the Maya tongue by the same sign, called t in the Landa
alphabet. The Finns and Lapps do not distinguish between these two
+
alphabet. The [[Finns]] and [[Lapps]] do not distinguish between these two
 
sounds. In the oldest known form of the [[Phoenician]] alphabet, that found
 
sounds. In the oldest known form of the [[Phoenician]] alphabet, that found
 
on the Moab stone, we find in the same way but one sign to express the d
 
on the Moab stone, we find in the same way but one sign to express the d
Line 7,101: Line 6,355:
 
writing was known to the antediluvians. The Druids believed in books
 
writing was known to the antediluvians. The Druids believed in books
 
more ancient than the Flood. They styled them "the books of Pheryllt,"
 
more ancient than the Flood. They styled them "the books of Pheryllt,"
and "the writings of Pridian or Hu." "Ceridwen consults them before she
+
and "the writings of Pridian or [[Hu]]." "Ceridwen consults them before she
 
prepares the mysterious caldron which shadows out the awful catastrophe
 
prepares the mysterious caldron which shadows out the awful catastrophe
 
of the [[Deluge]]." (Faber's "Pagan Idolatry," vol. ii., pp. 150, 151.) In
 
of the [[Deluge]]." (Faber's "Pagan Idolatry," vol. ii., pp. 150, 151.) In
the first Avatar of Vishnu we are told that "the divine ordinances were
+
the first Avatar of [[Vishnu]] we are told that "the divine ordinances were
stolen by the demon Haya-Griva. Vishnu became a fish; and after the
+
stolen by the demon Haya-Griva. [[Vishnu]] became a fish; and after the
 
[[Deluge]], when the waters had subsided, he recovered the holy books from
 
[[Deluge]], when the waters had subsided, he recovered the holy books from
 
the bottom of the ocean." [[Berosus]], speaking of the time before the
 
the bottom of the ocean." [[Berosus]], speaking of the time before the
Line 7,112: Line 6,366:
 
rabbins assert that Adam, our father of blessed memory, composed a book
 
rabbins assert that Adam, our father of blessed memory, composed a book
 
of precepts, which were delivered to him by God in Paradise." (Smith's
 
of precepts, which were delivered to him by God in Paradise." (Smith's
"Sacred Annals," p. 49.) That is to say, the Hebrews preserved a
+
"Sacred Annals," p. 49.) That is to say, the [[Hebrews]] preserved a
 
tradition that the Ad-ami, the people of Ad, or Adlantis, possessed,
 
tradition that the Ad-ami, the people of Ad, or Adlantis, possessed,
 
while yet dwelling in Paradise, the art of writing. It has been
 
while yet dwelling in Paradise, the art of writing. It has been
Line 7,119: Line 6,373:
 
the ark, handed down to us in [[Genesis]]. Josephus, quoting Jewish
 
the ark, handed down to us in [[Genesis]]. Josephus, quoting Jewish
 
traditions, says, "The births and deaths of illustrious men, between
 
traditions, says, "The births and deaths of illustrious men, between
Adam and Noah, were noted down at the time with great accuracy." (Ant.,
+
Adam and [[Noah]], were noted down at the time with great accuracy." (Ant.,
 
lib. 1, cap. iii., see. 3.) Suidas, a [[Greek]] lexicographer of the
 
lib. 1, cap. iii., see. 3.) Suidas, a [[Greek]] lexicographer of the
 
eleventh century, expresses tradition when he says, "Adam was the author
 
eleventh century, expresses tradition when he says, "Adam was the author
Line 7,132: Line 6,386:
 
inhabitants of [[Spain]] possessed records written before the [[Deluge]]."
 
inhabitants of [[Spain]] possessed records written before the [[Deluge]]."
 
(Jackson's "Chronicles of Antiquity," vol. iii., p. 85.) Mitford
 
(Jackson's "Chronicles of Antiquity," vol. iii., p. 85.) Mitford
("History of Greece," vol. i, p. 121) says, "Nothing appears to us so
+
("History of [[Greece]]," vol. i, p. 121) says, "Nothing appears to us so
 
probable as that it (the alphabet) was derived from the [[Antediluvian]]
 
probable as that it (the alphabet) was derived from the [[Antediluvian]]
 
world."
 
world."
Line 7,182: Line 6,436:
 
barbaric depths of that [[Asia]] out of whose uncivilized tribes all
 
barbaric depths of that [[Asia]] out of whose uncivilized tribes all
 
civilization is said to have issued? By no means. Again we are compelled
 
civilization is said to have issued? By no means. Again we are compelled
to turn to the West. In [[America]], from Bolivia to [[Lake Superior]], we find
+
to turn to the West. In [[America]], from [[Bolivia]] to [[Lake Superior]], we find
 
everywhere the traces of a long-enduring Copper Age; bronze existed, it
 
everywhere the traces of a long-enduring Copper Age; bronze existed, it
 
is true, in [[Mexico]], but it held the same relation to the copper as the
 
is true, in [[Mexico]], but it held the same relation to the copper as the
Line 7,306: Line 6,560:
  
 
They were troublesome to the nations of the East for many centuries; for
 
They were troublesome to the nations of the East for many centuries; for
in 700 B.C. we find them depicted on the [[Assyrian]] monuments. This figure
+
in 700 B.C. we find them depicted on the [[Assyria]]n monuments. This figure
 
represents one of the Tokhari of the time of Sennacherib. It will be
 
represents one of the Tokhari of the time of Sennacherib. It will be
 
observed that the headdress (apparently of feathers) is the same in both
 
observed that the headdress (apparently of feathers) is the same in both
Line 7,496: Line 6,750:
 
We shall find, as we proceed, that the [[Phoenician]]s were unquestionably
 
We shall find, as we proceed, that the [[Phoenician]]s were unquestionably
 
identified with [[Atlantis]], and that it was probably from [[Atlantis]] they
 
identified with [[Atlantis]], and that it was probably from [[Atlantis]] they
derived their god Baal, or Bel, or El, whose name crops out in the Bel
+
derived their god Baal, or [[Bel]], or El, whose name crops out in the [[Bel]]
of the Babylonians, the Elohim, and the Beelzebub of the [[Jews]], and the
+
of the [[Babylonian]]s, the Elohim, and the Beelzebub of the [[Jews]], and the
Allah of the Arabians. And we find that this great deity, whose worship
+
Allah of the [[Arabians]]. And we find that this great deity, whose worship
 
extended so widely among the [[Mediterranean]] races, was known and adored
 
extended so widely among the [[Mediterranean]] races, was known and adored
 
also upon the northern and western coasts of [[Europe]]. Professor Nilsson
 
also upon the northern and western coasts of [[Europe]]. Professor Nilsson
Line 7,506: Line 6,760:
 
within the last fifty years. The feast of Baal, or Beltinne, was
 
within the last fifty years. The feast of Baal, or Beltinne, was
 
celebrated in [[Ireland]] to a late period. I argue from these facts, not
 
celebrated in [[Ireland]] to a late period. I argue from these facts, not
that the worship of Baal came to [[Ireland]] and [[Norway]] from Assyria or
+
that the worship of Baal came to [[Ireland]] and [[Norway]] from [[Assyria]] or
Arabia, but that the same great parent-race which carried the knowledge
+
[[Arabia]], but that the same great parent-race which carried the knowledge
 
of Baal to the [[Mediterranean]] brought it also to the western coasts of
 
of Baal to the [[Mediterranean]] brought it also to the western coasts of
 
[[Europe]], and with the adoration of Baal they imported also the implements
 
[[Europe]], and with the adoration of Baal they imported also the implements
Line 7,537: Line 6,791:
 
us some idea of the houses of the [[Atlantean]]s: it is evidently made to
 
us some idea of the houses of the [[Atlantean]]s: it is evidently made to
 
represent a house, and shows us even the rude fashion in which they
 
represent a house, and shows us even the rude fashion in which they
fastened their doors. The Mandan [[India]]ns built round houses very much of
+
fastened their doors. The Mandan [[Indian]]s built round houses very much of
 
this appearance.
 
this appearance.
  
Line 7,626: Line 6,880:
 
from one and the same source--from some great mercantile people who
 
from one and the same source--from some great mercantile people who
 
carried on their commerce at the same time with [[Denmark]], [[Norway]],
 
carried on their commerce at the same time with [[Denmark]], [[Norway]],
[[Ireland]], [[Spain]], Greece, [[Italy]], [[Egypt]], [[Switzerland]], and Hungary. Mr.
+
[[Ireland]], [[Spain]], [[Greece]], [[Italy]], [[Egypt]], [[Switzerland]], and Hungary. Mr.
 
Wright ("Essays on Archaeology," p. 120) says, "Whenever we find the
 
Wright ("Essays on Archaeology," p. 120) says, "Whenever we find the
 
bronze swords or celts,
 
bronze swords or celts,
Line 7,695: Line 6,949:
  
 
It is found upon many of the monuments of Central [[America]]. In the
 
It is found upon many of the monuments of Central [[America]]. In the
Treasure House of Atreus, at Mycenae, Greece, a fragment of a pillar was
+
Treasure House of Atreus, at Mycenae, [[Greece]], a fragment of a pillar was
 
found which is literally covered with this double spiral design. (See
 
found which is literally covered with this double spiral design. (See
 
"Rosengarten's Architectural Styles," p. 59.)
 
"Rosengarten's Architectural Styles," p. 59.)
  
This Treasure House of Atreus is one of the oldest buildings in Greece.
+
This Treasure House of Atreus is one of the oldest buildings in [[Greece]].
  
 
We find the double-spiral figure upon a shell ornament found on the
 
We find the double-spiral figure upon a shell ornament found on the
Line 7,705: Line 6,959:
 
mound near Nashville, [[Tennessee]].
 
mound near Nashville, [[Tennessee]].
  
Lenormant remarks ("Anc. Civil.," vol. ii., p. 158) that the bronze
+
[[Lenormant]] remarks ("Anc. Civil.," vol. ii., p. 158) that the bronze
 
implements found in [[Egypt]], near Memphis, had been buried for six
 
implements found in [[Egypt]], near Memphis, had been buried for six
 
thousand years; and that at that time, as the [[Egyptians]] had a horror of
 
thousand years; and that at that time, as the [[Egyptians]] had a horror of
Line 7,713: Line 6,967:
  
 
Heer has shown that the civilized plants of the lake dwellings are not
 
Heer has shown that the civilized plants of the lake dwellings are not
of Asiatic, but of [[Africa]]n, and, to a great extent, of [[Egyptian]] origin.
+
of [[Asiatic]], but of [[Africa]]n, and, to a great extent, of [[Egyptian]] origin.
 
Their stone axes are made largely of jade or nephrite, "a mineral which,
 
Their stone axes are made largely of jade or nephrite, "a mineral which,
 
strange to say, geologists have not found in place on the continent of
 
strange to say, geologists have not found in place on the continent of
 
[[Europe]]." (Foster's "Prehistoric Races," p. 44.)
 
[[Europe]]." (Foster's "Prehistoric Races," p. 44.)
  
Compare this picture of a copper axe from a mound near Laporte, [[India]]na,
+
Compare this picture of a copper axe from a mound near Laporte, [[Indian]]a,
 
with this representation of a copper axe of the [[Bronze Age]], found near
 
with this representation of a copper axe of the [[Bronze Age]], found near
 
Waterford, [[Ireland]]. Professor Foster pronounces them almost identical.
 
Waterford, [[Ireland]]. Professor Foster pronounces them almost identical.
Line 7,740: Line 6,994:
  
 
2. The fact that it is anterior in time to the Iron Age is conclusive
 
2. The fact that it is anterior in time to the Iron Age is conclusive
that it is not due to any of the known [[European]] or Asiatic nations, all
+
that it is not due to any of the known [[European]] or [[Asiatic]] nations, all
 
of which belong to the Iron Age.
 
of which belong to the Iron Age.
  
Line 7,760: Line 7,014:
 
possessed bronze, and were great workers in the other metals.
 
possessed bronze, and were great workers in the other metals.
  
7. We shall see hereafter that the mythological traditions of Greece
+
7. We shall see hereafter that the mythological traditions of [[Greece]]
 
referred to a [[Bronze Age]] which preceded an Iron Age, and placed this in
 
referred to a [[Bronze Age]] which preceded an Iron Age, and placed this in
 
the land of the gods, which was an island in the [[Atlantic Ocean]], beyond
 
the land of the gods, which was an island in the [[Atlantic Ocean]], beyond
Line 7,781: Line 7,035:
 
practice, but it was long totally forgotten by the civilized world,
 
practice, but it was long totally forgotten by the civilized world,
 
until it was discovered, as an unheard-of wonder, to be the usage among
 
until it was discovered, as an unheard-of wonder, to be the usage among
the Carib Islanders, and several [[India]]n tribes in [[North America]]. It was
+
the Carib Islanders, and several [[Indian]] tribes in [[North America]]. It was
 
afterward found that the ancient [[Peruvian]]s and [[Mexican]]s practised this
 
afterward found that the ancient [[Peruvian]]s and [[Mexican]]s practised this
 
art: several flattened [[Peruvian]] skulls are depicted in Morton's "Crania
 
art: several flattened [[Peruvian]] skulls are depicted in Morton's "Crania
[[America]]na." It is still in use among the Flat-head [[India]]ns of the
+
[[America]]na." It is still in use among the Flat-head [[Indian]]s of the
 
north-western part of the [[United States]].
 
north-western part of the [[United States]].
  
Line 7,814: Line 7,068:
 
brought under our notice, by the disclosures of ancient barrows and
 
brought under our notice, by the disclosures of ancient barrows and
 
cysts, that the same practice of nursing the child and carrying it
 
cysts, that the same practice of nursing the child and carrying it
about, bound to a flat cradle-board, prevailed in Britain and the north
+
about, bound to a flat cradle-board, prevailed in [[Britain]] and the north
 
of [[Europe]] long before the first notices of written history reveal the
 
of [[Europe]] long before the first notices of written history reveal the
 
presence of man beyond the [[Baltic]] or the English Channel, and that in
 
presence of man beyond the [[Baltic]] or the English Channel, and that in
 
all probability the same custom prevailed continuously from the shores
 
all probability the same custom prevailed continuously from the shores
of the [[German]] Ocean to Behring's Strait." ("Smithsonian Report," 1862,
+
of the [[German]] Ocean to [[Behring's Strait]]." ("Smithsonian Report," 1862,
 
p. 286.)
 
p. 286.)
  
Line 7,833: Line 7,087:
 
from the highest antiquity, over vast regions of country, on both sides
 
from the highest antiquity, over vast regions of country, on both sides
 
of the [[Atlantic]], and which is perpetuated unto this day in races as
 
of the [[Atlantic]], and which is perpetuated unto this day in races as
widely separated as the Turks, the French, and the Flat-head [[India]]ns. Is
+
widely separated as the Turks, the French, and the Flat-head [[Indian]]s. Is
 
it possible to explain this except by supposing that it originated from
 
it possible to explain this except by supposing that it originated from
 
some common centre?
 
some common centre?
Line 7,861: Line 7,115:
  
 
Amedee Thierry, in his "History of Attila," says the Huns used it for
 
Amedee Thierry, in his "History of Attila," says the Huns used it for
the same reason; and the same purpose influences the [[India]]ns of Oregon.
+
the same reason; and the same purpose influences the [[Indian]]s of Oregon.
  
 
Dr. Lund, a Swedish naturalist, found in the bone caves of Minas-Geraes,
 
Dr. Lund, a Swedish naturalist, found in the bone caves of Minas-Geraes,
Line 7,868: Line 7,122:
 
the [[America]]n race but in an excessive degree, even to the entire
 
the [[America]]n race but in an excessive degree, even to the entire
 
disappearance of the forehead." Sir Robert Schomburgh found on some of
 
disappearance of the forehead." Sir Robert Schomburgh found on some of
the affluents of the Orinoco a tribe known as Frog [[India]]ns, whose heads
+
the affluents of the Orinoco a tribe known as Frog [[Indian]]s, whose heads
 
were flattened by Nature, as shown in newly-born children.
 
were flattened by Nature, as shown in newly-born children.
  
Line 7,878: Line 7,132:
 
that of a skull from the Inca cemetery of [[Peru]]. We have but to compare
 
that of a skull from the Inca cemetery of [[Peru]]. We have but to compare
 
these lines with the skulls of the [[Egyptians]], Kurds, and the heroic type
 
these lines with the skulls of the [[Egyptians]], Kurds, and the heroic type
of heads in the statues of the gods of Greece, to see that there was
+
of heads in the statues of the gods of [[Greece]], to see that there was
 
formerly an ancient race marked by a receding forehead; and that the
 
formerly an ancient race marked by a receding forehead; and that the
 
practice of flattening the skull was probably an attempt to approximate
 
practice of flattening the skull was probably an attempt to approximate
Line 7,940: Line 7,194:
 
Shed-Ad, the son of Ad, or [[Atlantis]].
 
Shed-Ad, the son of Ad, or [[Atlantis]].
  
Among the Arabians the first inhabitants of that country are known as
+
Among the [[Arabians]] the first inhabitants of that country are known as
 
the [[Adites]], from their progenitor, who is called Ad, the grandson of
 
the [[Adites]], from their progenitor, who is called Ad, the grandson of
Ham. These [[Adites]] were probably the people of [[Atlantis]] or Ad-lantis.
+
[[Ham]]. These [[Adites]] were probably the people of [[Atlantis]] or Ad-lantis.
 
"They are personified by a monarch to whom everything is ascribed, and
 
"They are personified by a monarch to whom everything is ascribed, and
 
to whom is assigned several centuries of life." ("Ancient History of the
 
to whom is assigned several centuries of life." ("Ancient History of the
East," Lenormant and Chevallier, vol. ii., p. 295.), Ad came from the
+
East," [[Lenormant]] and [[Chevallier]], vol. ii., p. 295.), Ad came from the
 
northeast. "He married a thousand wives, had four thousand sons, and
 
northeast. "He married a thousand wives, had four thousand sons, and
 
lived twelve hundred years. His descendants multiplied considerably.
 
lived twelve hundred years. His descendants multiplied considerably.
Line 7,951: Line 7,205:
 
the [[Adites]]. In the time of the latter the people of Ad were a thousand
 
the [[Adites]]. In the time of the latter the people of Ad were a thousand
 
tribes, each composed of several thousands of men. Great conquests are
 
tribes, each composed of several thousands of men. Great conquests are
attributed to Shedad; he subdued, it is said, all Arabia and Irak. The
+
attributed to Shedad; he subdued, it is said, all [[Arabia]] and Irak. The
 
migration of the Canaanites, their establishment in [[Syria]], and the
 
migration of the Canaanites, their establishment in [[Syria]], and the
 
Shepherd invasion of [[Egypt]] are, by many Arab writers, attributed to an
 
Shepherd invasion of [[Egypt]] are, by many Arab writers, attributed to an
Line 7,960: Line 7,214:
 
had built in imitation of the celestial Paradise, of whose delights he
 
had built in imitation of the celestial Paradise, of whose delights he
 
had heard." ("Ancient History of the East," p. 296.) In other words, an
 
had heard." ("Ancient History of the East," p. 296.) In other words, an
ancient, sun-worshipping, powerful, and conquering race overran Arabia
+
ancient, sun-worshipping, powerful, and conquering race overran [[Arabia]]
 
at the very dawn of history; they were the sons of Adlantis: their king
 
at the very dawn of history; they were the sons of Adlantis: their king
 
tried to create a palace and garden of Eden like that of [[Atlantis]].
 
tried to create a palace and garden of Eden like that of [[Atlantis]].
  
The [[Adites]] are remembered by the Arabians as a great and civilized race.
+
The [[Adites]] are remembered by the [[Arabians]] as a great and civilized race.
 
"They are depicted as men of gigantic stature; their strength was equal
 
"They are depicted as men of gigantic stature; their strength was equal
 
to their size, and they easily moved enormous blocks of stone." (Ibid.)
 
to their size, and they easily moved enormous blocks of stone." (Ibid.)
Line 7,970: Line 7,224:
 
power; and hence, among the [[Arabs]], arose the custom of calling great
 
power; and hence, among the [[Arabs]], arose the custom of calling great
 
ruins "buildings of the [[Adites]]." To this day the [[Arabs]] say "as old as
 
ruins "buildings of the [[Adites]]." To this day the [[Arabs]] say "as old as
Ad." In the Koran allusion is made to the edifices they built on "high
+
Ad." In the [[Koran]] allusion is made to the edifices they built on "high
 
places for vain uses;" expressions proving that their "idolatry was
 
places for vain uses;" expressions proving that their "idolatry was
 
considered to have been tainted with Sabaeism or star-worship." (Ibid.)
 
considered to have been tainted with Sabaeism or star-worship." (Ibid.)
"In these legends," says Lenormant, "we find traces of a wealthy nation,
+
"In these legends," says [[Lenormant]], "we find traces of a wealthy nation,
 
constructors of great buildings, with an advanced civilization,
 
constructors of great buildings, with an advanced civilization,
 
analogous to that of [[Chaldea]], professing a religion similar to the
 
analogous to that of [[Chaldea]], professing a religion similar to the
Babylonian; a nation, in short, with whom material progress was allied
+
[[Babylonian]]; a nation, in short, with whom material progress was allied
 
to great moral depravity and obscene rites. These facts must be true and
 
to great moral depravity and obscene rites. These facts must be true and
 
strictly historical, for they are everywhere met with among the
 
strictly historical, for they are everywhere met with among the
Cushites, as among the Canaanites, their brothers by origin."
+
[[Cushites]], as among the Canaanites, their brothers by origin."
  
 
Nor is there wanting a great catastrophe which destroys the whole Adite
 
Nor is there wanting a great catastrophe which destroys the whole Adite
Line 8,012: Line 7,266:
  
 
The great Ethiopian or Cushite Empire, which in the earliest ages
 
The great Ethiopian or Cushite Empire, which in the earliest ages
prevailed, as Mr. Rawlinson says, "from the Caucasus to the [[India]]n
+
prevailed, as Mr. [[Rawlinson]] says, "from the Caucasus to the [[Indian]]
 
Ocean, from the shores of the [[Mediterranean]] to the mouth of the Ganges,"
 
Ocean, from the shores of the [[Mediterranean]] to the mouth of the Ganges,"
 
was the empire of Dionysos, the empire of "Ad," the empire of [[Atlantis]].
 
was the empire of Dionysos, the empire of "Ad," the empire of [[Atlantis]].
 
El Eldrisi called the language spoken to this day by the [[Arabs]] of
 
El Eldrisi called the language spoken to this day by the [[Arabs]] of
Mahrah, in Eastern Arabia, "the language of the people of Ad," and Dr.
+
Mahrah, in Eastern [[Arabia]], "the language of the people of Ad," and Dr.
 
J. H. Carter, in the Bombay Journal of July, 1847, says, "It is the
 
J. H. Carter, in the Bombay Journal of July, 1847, says, "It is the
 
softest and sweetest language I have ever heard." It would be
 
softest and sweetest language I have ever heard." It would be
Line 8,022: Line 7,276:
 
Central [[America]].
 
Central [[America]].
  
The god Thoth of the [[Egyptians]], who was the god of a foreign country,
+
The god [[Thoth]] of the [[Egyptians]], who was the god of a foreign country,
 
and who invented letters, was called At-hothes.
 
and who invented letters, was called At-hothes.
  
Line 8,036: Line 7,290:
 
Here we seem to have a recollection of the destruction of [[Atlantis]].
 
Here we seem to have a recollection of the destruction of [[Atlantis]].
  
Mr. Bryant says, "Ad and Ada signify the first." The Persians called the
+
Mr. Bryant says, "Ad and Ada signify the first." The [[Persians]] called the
 
first man "Ad-amah." "Adon" was one of the names of the Supreme God of
 
first man "Ad-amah." "Adon" was one of the names of the Supreme God of
 
the [[Phoenician]]s; from it was derived the name of the [[Greek]] god "Ad-onis."
 
the [[Phoenician]]s; from it was derived the name of the [[Greek]] god "Ad-onis."
The Arv-ad of [[Genesis]] was the Ar-Ad of the Cushites; it is now known as
+
The Arv-ad of [[Genesis]] was the Ar-Ad of the [[Cushites]]; it is now known as
 
Ru-Ad. It is a series of connected cities twelve miles in length, along
 
Ru-Ad. It is a series of connected cities twelve miles in length, along
 
the coast, full of the most massive and gigantic ruins.
 
the coast, full of the most massive and gigantic ruins.
  
Sir William Jones gives the tradition of the Persians as to the earliest
+
Sir William Jones gives the tradition of the [[Persians]] as to the earliest
 
ages. He says: "Moshan assures us that in the opinion of the best
 
ages. He says: "Moshan assures us that in the opinion of the best
informed Persians the first monarch of Iran, and of the whole earth, was
+
informed [[Persians]] the first monarch of Iran, and of the whole earth, was
 
Mashab-Ad; that he received from the Creator, and promulgated among men
 
Mashab-Ad; that he received from the Creator, and promulgated among men
 
a sacred book, in a heavenly language, to which the Mussulman author
 
a sacred book, in a heavenly language, to which the Mussulman author
 
gives the Arabic title of 'Desatir,' or 'Regulations.' Mashab-Ad was, in
 
gives the Arabic title of 'Desatir,' or 'Regulations.' Mashab-Ad was, in
the opinion of the ancient Persians, the person left at the end of the
+
the opinion of the ancient [[Persians]], the person left at the end of the
 
last great cycle, and consequently the father of the present world. He
 
last great cycle, and consequently the father of the present world. He
 
and his wife having survived the former cycle, were blessed with a
 
and his wife having survived the former cycle, were blessed with a
Line 8,075: Line 7,329:
  
 
5. They are a dim recollection of a very remote past. Says Whitney, "It
 
5. They are a dim recollection of a very remote past. Says Whitney, "It
seems as if here was an attempt on the part of the [[India]]n religion to
+
seems as if here was an attempt on the part of the [[Indian]] religion to
 
take a new development in a moral direction, which a change in the
 
take a new development in a moral direction, which a change in the
 
character and circumstances of the people has caused to fail in the
 
character and circumstances of the people has caused to fail in the
Line 8,106: Line 7,360:
 
11. The Aditya, like the [[Adites]], are identified with the doctrine of the
 
11. The Aditya, like the [[Adites]], are identified with the doctrine of the
 
immortality of the soul. Yama is the god of the abode beyond the grave.
 
immortality of the soul. Yama is the god of the abode beyond the grave.
In the Persian story he appears as Yima, and "is made ruler of the
+
In the Persian story he appears as [[Yima]], and "is made ruler of the
 
golden age and founder of the Paradise." (Ibid., p. 45.) (See "Zamna,"
 
golden age and founder of the Paradise." (Ibid., p. 45.) (See "Zamna,"
 
p. 167 ante.)
 
p. 167 ante.)
Line 8,113: Line 7,367:
 
"sons of Ad," "the [[Adites]]," and "the Aditya," all refer to [[Atlantis]].
 
"sons of Ad," "the [[Adites]]," and "the Aditya," all refer to [[Atlantis]].
  
Mr. George Smith, in the Chaldean account of the Creation (p. 78),
+
Mr. [[George Smith]], in the [[Chaldean]] account of the Creation (p. 78),
deciphered from the Babylonian tablets, shows that there was an original
+
deciphered from the [[Babylonian]] tablets, shows that there was an original
race of men at the beginning of Chaldean history, a dark race, the
+
race of men at the beginning of [[Chaldean]] history, a dark race, the
 
Zalmat-qaqadi, who were called Ad-mi, or Ad-ami; they were the race "who
 
Zalmat-qaqadi, who were called Ad-mi, or Ad-ami; they were the race "who
 
had fallen," and were contradistinguished from "the Sarku, or light
 
had fallen," and were contradistinguished from "the Sarku, or light
Line 8,126: Line 7,380:
 
female, and "called their name Adam." That is to say, the people were
 
female, and "called their name Adam." That is to say, the people were
 
the Ad-ami, the people of "Ad," or [[Atlantis]]. "The author of the Book of
 
the Ad-ami, the people of "Ad," or [[Atlantis]]. "The author of the Book of
[[Genesis]]," says M. Schoebel, "in speaking of the men who were swallowed up
+
[[Genesis]]," says [[M. Schoebel]], "in speaking of the men who were swallowed up
 
by the [[Deluge]], always describes them as 'Haadam,' 'Adamite humanity.'"
 
by the [[Deluge]], always describes them as 'Haadam,' 'Adamite humanity.'"
 
The race of Cain lived and multiplied far away from the land of Seth; in
 
The race of Cain lived and multiplied far away from the land of Seth; in
Line 8,148: Line 7,402:
  
 
We thus find the sons of Ad at the base of all the most ancient races of
 
We thus find the sons of Ad at the base of all the most ancient races of
men, to wit, the Hebrews, the Arabians, the [[Chaldeans]], the [[Hindoo]]s, the
+
men, to wit, the [[Hebrews]], the [[Arabians]], the [[Chaldean]]s, the [[Hindoo]]s, the
Persians, the [[Egyptians]], the [[Ethiopians]], the [[Mexican]]s, and the Central
+
[[Persians]], the [[Egyptians]], the [[Ethiopians]], the [[Mexican]]s, and the Central
 
[[America]]ns; testimony that all these races traced their beginning back to
 
[[America]]ns; testimony that all these races traced their beginning back to
 
a dimly remembered Ad-lantis.
 
a dimly remembered Ad-lantis.
Line 8,181: Line 7,435:
 
created all that exists below the heavens.
 
created all that exists below the heavens.
  
The Babylonian trinity was composed of Idea, Anu, and Bel. Bel
+
The [[Babylonian]] trinity was composed of Idea, [[Anu]], and [[Bel]]. [[Bel]]
 
represented the sun, and was the favorite god. Sin was the goddess of
 
represented the sun, and was the favorite god. Sin was the goddess of
 
the moon.
 
the moon.
Line 8,214: Line 7,468:
 
worshipped the sun at Emesa, under the name of Elagabalus, "typified in
 
worshipped the sun at Emesa, under the name of Elagabalus, "typified in
 
the form of a black conical stone, which it was believed had fallen from
 
the form of a black conical stone, which it was believed had fallen from
heaven." The conical stone was the emblem of Bel. Did it have relation
+
heaven." The conical stone was the emblem of [[Bel]]. Did it have relation
 
to the mounds and pyramids?
 
to the mounds and pyramids?
  
Line 8,223: Line 7,477:
  
 
But, compared with such ancient nations as the [[Egyptians]] and
 
But, compared with such ancient nations as the [[Egyptians]] and
Babylonians, the [[Greek]]s were children. A priest of [[Sais]] said to [[Solon]],
+
[[Babylonian]]s, the [[Greek]]s were children. A priest of [[Sais]] said to [[Solon]],
  
 
"You [[Greek]]s are novices in knowledge of antiquity. You are ignorant of
 
"You [[Greek]]s are novices in knowledge of antiquity. You are ignorant of
Line 8,236: Line 7,490:
 
to convert its kings into gods, and to depict [[Atlantis]] itself as the
 
to convert its kings into gods, and to depict [[Atlantis]] itself as the
 
heaven of the human race. Thus we find a great solar or nature worship
 
heaven of the human race. Thus we find a great solar or nature worship
in the elder nations, while Greece has nothing but an incongruous jumble
+
in the elder nations, while [[Greece]] has nothing but an incongruous jumble
 
of gods and goddesses, who are born and eat and drink and make love and
 
of gods and goddesses, who are born and eat and drink and make love and
 
ravish and steal and die; and who are worshipped as immortal in presence
 
ravish and steal and die; and who are worshipped as immortal in presence
Line 8,243: Line 7,497:
 
"These deities, to whom the affairs of the world were intrusted, were,
 
"These deities, to whom the affairs of the world were intrusted, were,
 
it is believed, immortal, though not eternal in their existence. In
 
it is believed, immortal, though not eternal in their existence. In
Crete there was even a story of the death of Zeus, his tomb being
+
Crete there was even a story of the death of [[Zeus]], his tomb being
 
pointed out." (Murray's "Mythology," p. 2.)
 
pointed out." (Murray's "Mythology," p. 2.)
  
 
The history of [[Atlantis]] is the key of the [[Greek]] mythology. There can be
 
The history of [[Atlantis]] is the key of the [[Greek]] mythology. There can be
no question that these gods of Greece were human beings. The tendency to
+
no question that these gods of [[Greece]] were human beings. The tendency to
 
attach divine attributes to great earthly rulers is one deeply implanted
 
attach divine attributes to great earthly rulers is one deeply implanted
 
in human nature. The savages who killed Captain Cook firmly believed
 
in human nature. The savages who killed Captain Cook firmly believed
Line 8,294: Line 7,548:
 
of the gods, the sources of the nectar and ambrosia on which the gods
 
of the gods, the sources of the nectar and ambrosia on which the gods
 
lived." (Murray's "Mythology," p. 23.) Nectar was probably a fermented
 
lived." (Murray's "Mythology," p. 23.) Nectar was probably a fermented
intoxicating liquor, and ambrosia bread made from wheat. Soma was a kind
+
intoxicating liquor, and ambrosia bread made from [[Wheat]]. Soma was a kind
 
of whiskey, and the [[Hindoo]]s deified it. "The gods lived on nectar and
 
of whiskey, and the [[Hindoo]]s deified it. "The gods lived on nectar and
 
ambrosia" simply meant that the inhabitants of these blessed islands
 
ambrosia" simply meant that the inhabitants of these blessed islands
Line 8,304: Line 7,558:
 
island full of wonders. It lay spread out in the ocean "like a disk,
 
island full of wonders. It lay spread out in the ocean "like a disk,
 
with the mountains rising from it." (Ibid.) On the highest point of this
 
with the mountains rising from it." (Ibid.) On the highest point of this
mountain dwelt Zeus (the king), "while the mansions of the other deities
+
mountain dwelt [[Zeus]] (the king), "while the mansions of the other deities
 
were arranged upon plateaus, or in ravines lower down the mountain.
 
were arranged upon plateaus, or in ravines lower down the mountain.
These deities, including Zeus, were twelve in number: Zeus (or Jupiter),
+
These deities, including [[Zeus]], were twelve in number: [[Zeus]] (or Jupiter),
Hera (or Juno), [[Poseidon]] (or [[Neptune]]), Demeter (or Ceres), Apollo,
+
[[Hera]] (or Juno), [[Poseidon]] (or [[Neptune]]), Demeter (or Ceres), Apollo,
Artemis (or Diana), Hephaestos (or Vulcan), Pallas Athena (or Minerva),
+
Artemis (or Diana), Hephaestos (or Vulcan), Pallas [[Athena]] (or Minerva),
Ares (or Mars), Aphrodite (or Venus), Hermes (or Mercury), and Hestia
+
Ares (or Mars), Aphrodite (or Venus), [[Hermes]] (or Mercury), and Hestia
 
(or Vesta)." These were doubtless the twelve gods from whom the
 
(or Vesta)." These were doubtless the twelve gods from whom the
 
[[Egyptians]] derived their kings. Where two names are given to a deity in
 
[[Egyptians]] derived their kings. Where two names are given to a deity in
Line 8,317: Line 7,571:
 
It is not impossible that our division of the year into twelve parts is
 
It is not impossible that our division of the year into twelve parts is
 
a reminiscence of the twelve gods of [[Atlantis]]. [[Diodorus Siculus]] tells us
 
a reminiscence of the twelve gods of [[Atlantis]]. [[Diodorus Siculus]] tells us
that among the Babylonians there were twelve gods of the heavens, each
+
that among the [[Babylonian]]s there were twelve gods of the heavens, each
 
personified by one of the signs of the zodiac, and worshipped in a
 
personified by one of the signs of the zodiac, and worshipped in a
 
certain month of the year. The [[Hindoo]]s had twelve primal gods, "the
 
certain month of the year. The [[Hindoo]]s had twelve primal gods, "the
Aditya." Moses erected twelve pillars at Sinai. The Mandan [[India]]ns
+
Aditya." [[Moses]] erected twelve pillars at Sinai. The Mandan [[Indian]]s
 
celebrated the Flood with twelve typical characters, who danced around
 
celebrated the Flood with twelve typical characters, who danced around
 
the ark. The [[[[Scandinavia]]n]]s believed in the twelve gods, the Aesir, who
 
the ark. The [[[[Scandinavia]]n]]s believed in the twelve gods, the Aesir, who
Line 8,328: Line 7,582:
  
 
"According to the traditions of the [[Phoenician]]s, the Gardens of the
 
"According to the traditions of the [[Phoenician]]s, the Gardens of the
Hesperides were in the remote west." (Murray's "Mannal of Mythology," p.
+
Hesperides were in the remote west." (Murray's "[[Manu]]al of Mythology," p.
 
258.) [[Atlas]] lived in these gardens. (Ibid., p. 259.) [[Atlas]], we have
 
258.) [[Atlas]] lived in these gardens. (Ibid., p. 259.) [[Atlas]], we have
 
seen, was king of [[Atlantis]]. "The [[Elysian Fields]] (the happy islands) were
 
seen, was king of [[Atlantis]]. "The [[Elysian Fields]] (the happy islands) were
commonly placed in the remote west. They were ruled over by Chronos."
+
commonly placed in the remote west. They were ruled over by [[Chronos]]."
 
(Ibid., p. 60.) Tartarus, the region of Hades, the gloomy home of the
 
(Ibid., p. 60.) Tartarus, the region of Hades, the gloomy home of the
 
dead, was also located "under the mountains of an island in the midst of
 
dead, was also located "under the mountains of an island in the midst of
Line 8,338: Line 7,592:
 
confines of the earth, and supported the heavens on his shoulders, in a
 
confines of the earth, and supported the heavens on his shoulders, in a
 
region of the west where the sun continued to shine after he had set
 
region of the west where the sun continued to shine after he had set
upon Greece." (Ibid., p. 156.)
+
upon [[Greece]]." (Ibid., p. 156.)
  
 
[[Greek]] tradition located the island in which Olympus was situated "in the
 
[[Greek]] tradition located the island in which Olympus was situated "in the
 
far west," "in the ocean beyond [[Africa]]," "on the western boundary of the
 
far west," "in the ocean beyond [[Africa]]," "on the western boundary of the
 
known world," "where the sun shone when it had ceased to shine on
 
known world," "where the sun shone when it had ceased to shine on
Greece," and where the mighty [[Atlas]] "held up the heavens." And [[Plato]]
+
[[Greece]]," and where the mighty [[Atlas]] "held up the heavens." And [[Plato]]
 
tells us that the land where [[Poseidon]] and [[Atlas]] ruled was [[Atlantis]].
 
tells us that the land where [[Poseidon]] and [[Atlas]] ruled was [[Atlantis]].
  
Line 8,362: Line 7,616:
 
revealed by the deep-sea soundings of modern times.
 
revealed by the deep-sea soundings of modern times.
  
Chronos, or Saturn, Dionysos, Hyperion, [[Atlas]], [[Hercules]], were all
+
[[Chronos]], or [[Saturn]], Dionysos, Hyperion, [[Atlas]], [[Hercules]], were all
 
connected with "a great Saturnian continent;" they were kings that ruled
 
connected with "a great Saturnian continent;" they were kings that ruled
 
over countries on the western shores of the [[Mediterranean]], [[Africa]] and
 
over countries on the western shores of the [[Mediterranean]], [[Africa]] and
 
[[Spain]]. One account says:
 
[[Spain]]. One account says:
  
"Hyperion, [[Atlas]], and Saturn, or Chronos, were sons of Uranos, who
+
"Hyperion, [[Atlas]], and [[Saturn]], or [[Chronos]], were sons of Uranos, who
 
reigned over a great kingdom composed of countries around the western
 
reigned over a great kingdom composed of countries around the western
 
part of the [[Mediterranean]], with certain islands in the [[Atlantic]].
 
part of the [[Mediterranean]], with certain islands in the [[Atlantic]].
 
Hyperion succeeded his father, and was then killed by the Titans. The
 
Hyperion succeeded his father, and was then killed by the Titans. The
kingdom was then divided between [[Atlas]] and Saturn--[[Atlas]] taking Northern
+
kingdom was then divided between [[Atlas]] and [[Saturn]]--[[Atlas]] taking Northern
[[Africa]], with the [[Atlantic]] islands, and Saturn the countries on the
+
[[Africa]], with the [[Atlantic]] islands, and [[Saturn]] the countries on the
opposite shore of the [[Mediterranean]] to [[Italy]] and [[Sicily]]." (Baldwin's
+
opposite shore of the [[Mediterranean]] to [[Italy]] and [[Sicily]]." ([[Baldwin]]'s
"Prehistoric Nations," p. 357.)
+
"[[Prehistoric Nations]]," p. 357.)
  
 
[[Plato]] says, speaking of the traditions of the [[Greek]]s ("Dialogues, Laws,"
 
[[Plato]] says, speaking of the traditions of the [[Greek]]s ("Dialogues, Laws,"
Line 8,383: Line 7,637:
 
no less to us, taking care of us and giving us place and reverence and
 
no less to us, taking care of us and giving us place and reverence and
 
order and justice never failing, made the tribes of men happy and
 
order and justice never failing, made the tribes of men happy and
peaceful ... for Cronos knew that no human nature, invested with
+
peaceful ... for [[Cronos]] knew that no human nature, invested with
 
supreme power, is able to order human affairs and not overflow with
 
supreme power, is able to order human affairs and not overflow with
 
insolence and wrong."
 
insolence and wrong."
  
 
In other words, this tradition refers to an ancient time when the
 
In other words, this tradition refers to an ancient time when the
forefathers of the [[Greek]]s were governed by Chronos, of the Cronian Sea
+
forefathers of the [[Greek]]s were governed by [[Chronos]], of the Cronian Sea
 
(the [[Atlantic]]), king of [[Atlantis]], through civilized [[Atlantean]] governors,
 
(the [[Atlantic]]), king of [[Atlantis]], through civilized [[Atlantean]] governors,
 
who by their wisdom preserved peace and created a golden age for all the
 
who by their wisdom preserved peace and created a golden age for all the
Line 8,411: Line 7,665:
  
 
This is made the more evident when we read that this region of the gods,
 
This is made the more evident when we read that this region of the gods,
of Chronos and Uranos and Zeus, passed through, first, a Golden Age,
+
of [[Chronos]] and Uranos and [[Zeus]], passed through, first, a Golden Age,
 
then a Silver Age--these constituting a great period of peace and
 
then a Silver Age--these constituting a great period of peace and
 
happiness; then it reached a [[Bronze Age]]; then an Iron Age, and finally
 
happiness; then it reached a [[Bronze Age]]; then an Iron Age, and finally
perished by a great flood, sent upon these people by Zeus as a
+
perished by a great flood, sent upon these people by [[Zeus]] as a
 
punishment for their sins. We read:
 
punishment for their sins. We read:
  
 
"Men were rich then (in the Silver Age), as in the Golden Age of
 
"Men were rich then (in the Silver Age), as in the Golden Age of
Chronos, and lived in plenty; but still they wanted the innocence and
+
[[Chronos]], and lived in plenty; but still they wanted the innocence and
 
contentment which were the true sources of human happiness in the
 
contentment which were the true sources of human happiness in the
 
former age; and accordingly, while living in luxury and delicacy, they
 
former age; and accordingly, while living in luxury and delicacy, they
Line 8,432: Line 7,686:
 
best to overreach each other. Dike, or Astraea, the goddess of justice
 
best to overreach each other. Dike, or Astraea, the goddess of justice
 
and good faith, modesty and truth, turned her back on such scenes, and
 
and good faith, modesty and truth, turned her back on such scenes, and
retired to Olympus, while Zeus determined to destroy the human race by a
+
retired to Olympus, while [[Zeus]] determined to destroy the human race by a
great flood. The whole of Greece lay under water, and none but [[Deucalion]]
+
great flood. The whole of [[Greece]] lay under water, and none but [[Deucalion]]
 
and his wife [[Pyrrha]] were saved." (Murray's "Mythology" p. 44.)
 
and his wife [[Pyrrha]] were saved." (Murray's "Mythology" p. 44.)
  
Line 8,440: Line 7,694:
 
patient examination of the relics of antiquity in [[Europe]]. And this
 
patient examination of the relics of antiquity in [[Europe]]. And this
 
identification of the land that was destroyed by a flood--the land of
 
identification of the land that was destroyed by a flood--the land of
Chronos and [[Poseidon]] and Zeus--with the [[Bronze Age]], confirms the view
+
[[Chronos]] and [[Poseidon]] and [[Zeus]]--with the [[Bronze Age]], confirms the view
 
expressed in Chapter VIII. (page 237, ante), that the bronze implements
 
expressed in Chapter VIII. (page 237, ante), that the bronze implements
 
and weapons of [[Europe]] were mainly imported from [[Atlantis]].
 
and weapons of [[Europe]] were mainly imported from [[Atlantis]].
Line 8,449: Line 7,703:
 
according to the [[Egyptians]], which destroyed [[Atlantis]].
 
according to the [[Egyptians]], which destroyed [[Atlantis]].
  
The foregoing description of the Golden Age of Chronos, when "men were
+
The foregoing description of the Golden Age of [[Chronos]], when "men were
 
rich and lived in plenty," reminds us of [[Plato]]'s description of the
 
rich and lived in plenty," reminds us of [[Plato]]'s description of the
 
happy age of [[Atlantis]], when "men despised everything but virtue, not
 
happy age of [[Atlantis]], when "men despised everything but virtue, not
 
caring for their present state of life, and thinking lightly of the
 
caring for their present state of life, and thinking lightly of the
 
possession of gold and other property;" a time when, as the chants of
 
possession of gold and other property;" a time when, as the chants of
the Delaware [[India]]ns stated it (page 109, ante), "all were willingly
+
the Delaware [[Indian]]s stated it (page 109, ante), "all were willingly